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POTENTIAL MODE

Present: Prefix may, can, or must to the simple form.

Past: Prefix might, could, would, or should to the simple

form. Present Perfect: Prefix may, can, or must have to the perfect participle. Past Perfect: Prefix might, could, would, or should have to the

perfect participle.

Present:

IMPERATIVE MODE
Let, or a command.

INFINITIVE

Present: Prefix to to the simple form.

Present Perfect: Prefix to have to the perfect participle.

PARTICIPLES

Present: Add ingto the simple form.

Perfect: When regular, add ed or d to the simple form.

Compound: Prefix having to the perfect participle.

CXXX. FORMS OF THE VERB

Verbs have four forms: the common, the emphatic, the progressive, and the ancient, or solemn style.

The common form represents an act as a custom, or as completed without reference to its progress; as, " I write"; "I shall write."

The emphatic form represents an act with emphasis; as, "I do write "; "He did go "; "He declared that he did not do it."

PERSON AND NUMBER OF VERBS 123

This form is made by prefixing the present and past tenses of to do to the simple form of the verb.

The progressive form is used to denote action or state in progress; as, "I am writing"; "He had been singing."

The progressive form is made by prefixing the various modes and tenses of the verb to be to the present participle of the principal verb.

The ancient form, or solemn style, is used in the Bible, in religious worship, and sometimes in poetry and burlesque; as, "Thou art the man"; "So shalt thou rest"; "Thou art a pretty fellow."

CXXXI. PERSON AND NUMBER OF VERBS

The person and number of verbs are their modifications to mark their agreement with their subjects.

A subject in the second person singular generally requires the verb, or its auxiliary, to end in t, st, or est; as, "Thou shalt not steal "; "Thou canst read "; "Thou runnest."

A subject in the third person singular generally requires the verb, or its auxiliary, to end in s, es, or eth; as, "Julia reads "; "The horse goes "; "God loveth us."

The personal terminations in the plural are the same as the first person singular, except in the verb to be.

A verb must agree with its subject in person and number.

When two or more nominatives, differing in person, are taken collectively, the verb prefers the first to the second, and the second to the third. When they are connected by or or nor, or are taken separately, it prefers the person of the nominative next to it. Courtesy requires the first place to be given to the second person, and last place to the first.

Ex. —" You, he, and / have to remain "; " You and he have to learn that long lesson "; " You or / am mistaken "; "Thou and thy friends are to make reparation."

A verb must be in the singular number when its subject conveys the idea of unity.

Ex. — " Rainfalls "; "The army is marching"; "Dombey and Son [the title of a book] was written by Dickens"; "The ten dollars [a single sum] was duly paid "; "Descent and fall [words alike in meaning] to us is adverse."

A verb must be in the plural number when its subject conveys the idea of plurality.

Ex. — "The rains descend"; "The multitude pursue pleasure"; "Either the magistrate or the laws are at fault"; "You, he, and / are here."

CXXXII. UNIPERSONAL VERBS

A unipersonal verb is one by which an act or a state is asserted independently of any particular subject; as, "It snows"; "It cleared off"; "It behooves us to be careful."

Meseems, meseemed, methinks, methought, may be regarded as unipersonal verbs, equivalent to it seems, it seemed to me, I think, I thought.

CXXXIII. CONJUGATION

The conjugation of a verb is the correct expression, in regular order, of its modes, tenses, voices, persons, and numbers.

The principal parts of a verb are : the present indicative, the past indicative, and the perfect participle.

The regular conjugation of a verb includes the common and solemn forms.

[merged small][table]

PAST PERFECT TENSE

1. I had been 1. We had been

2. Thou hadst been 2. You had been 3- He had been 3. They had been

FUTURE TENSE

1. I shall be

2. Thou wilt be

3. He will be

1. We shall be

2. You will be

3. They will be

FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

1. I shall have been 1. We shall have been

2. Thou wilt have been 2. You will have been

3. He will have been 3. They will have been

[merged small][table]

1. I may have been 1. We may have been

2. Thou mayst have been 2. You may have been

3. He may have been 3. They may have been

PAST TENSE

1. I might be 1. We might be

2. Thou mightst be 2. You might be

3. He might be 3. They might be

PAST PERFECT TENSE

1. I might have been 1. We might have been

2. Thou mightst have been 2. You might have been

3. He might have been 3. They might have been

In reviews, use the auxiliary can or must.

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