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Ex. — "John, bring me a book "; "Your fathers, where are they?" "Honor being lost, all is lost."

A noun or pronoun in this case has the same form that it would have were it in the nominative case. Hence, the case may, with propriety, be called nominative absolute — this term indicating both the form and the use of the word.

A noun may be in the nominative absolute case: —
By direct address; as, "Charles, come to me."
By mere exclamation, as, "O, Popular Applause /"
By pleonasm, or by placing the noun before the sentence

in which an affirmation is made concerning it; as, "Gad,

a troop shall overcome him."

With a participle; as, "The sun being risen, we pursued

our journey."

By position; i.e. by using it as the heading of a chapter,

as the superscription to a letter, etc.; as, "A Flood ";

"Louis Agassiz."

Nouns and pronouns in the nominative absolute case by

pleonasm or direct address, should be separated from the

rest of the sentence by commas.

Ex. — "Our souls, how heavily they go, to reach immortal joys." "Take, O boatman, thrice thy fee."

LXIII. NOUNS IN APPOSITION

A noun used as an adjective element to modify the meaning of another noun, by denoting the same person, place, or thing, is, by apposition, in the same case.

Ex. — " Washington the general became Washington the statesman." "We visited New York, the metropolis of the United States." "In her brother Abraham's house."

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Nouns in apposition, unmodified, or modified by the only, are not separated by commas; as, "The Emperor NerS was a cruel tyrant"; "Thomson the poet was indolent."

An appositive word or expression introduced by as or or, should be set off by a comma; as, " So that he, as God, sitteth in the temple of God"; "Maize, or Indian corn, is raised here."

LXIV. DECLENSION OF NOUNS

The declension of a noun is its variation to denote number and case.

Plural

Boys
Boys'
Boys

Ex.—

Singular

Nom. Boy

Poss. Boy's

Obj. Boy

Nom. Charles

Poss. Charles's

Obj. Charles

The absolute case is not given, as it is always like the nominative; the case of a noun in apposition is not given, because it always agrees with the case of the noun it modifies; the objective case is given, though it is like the nominative, because pronouns have a distinct form for the objective case.

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LXV. RULES FOR CASES OF NOUNS

Rule I. — The subject of a proposition is in the nominative case.

Rule II. — A noun or a pronoun, used as the predicate of a proposition, is in the nominative case..

Rule III. — A noun or a pronoun, used to limit the meaning of a noun denoting a different person or thing, is in the possessive case.

Rule IV. — A noun or a pronoun, used to limit the meaning of a noun or a pronoun denoting the same person or thing, is in the same case.

Rule V. — A noun or a pronoun, used independently, is in the nominative absolute case.

Rule VI. —The object of a transitive verb, in the active voice, or of its participles, is in the objective case.

Rule VII. — The object of a preposition is in the objective case.

Rule VIII. — Nouns denoting time, distance, measure, direction, or value, after verbs and adjectives, are in the objective case without a governing word.

LXVI. ORDER OF PARSING NOUNS

Parsing consists (i) in naming the part of speech; (2) in telling its properties; (3) in pointing out its relation to other words; (4) in giving the rule for its construction.

1. A noun, and why?

2. Common or proper, and why?

3. Gender, and why?

4. Person, and why?

5. Number, and why?

6. Case, and why?

7. Rule for construction.

MODELS FOR PARSING

Mary sings.

"Mary" is a noun ; it is a name; proper, it is the name of a particular person; feminine gender, it denotes a female; third person, it denotes the person spoken of; singular number, it denotes but one; nomMODELS FOR PARSING 75

inative case, it is used as the subject of the proposition, "Mary sings." Rule I. — "The subject of a proposition is in the nominative case."

Horses are animals. "Animals" is a noun; common, it can be applied to any one of a class or kind; common gender, it denotes either males or females; third person; plural number, it denotes more than one; nominative case, it is used as the predicate of the proposition, "Horses are animals." Rule II.—"A noun or a pronoun used as the predicate of a proposition, is in the nominative case."

The poet Milton was blind.

"Milton " is a noun; proper; masculine gender, it denotes a male; third person; singular number; nominative case, in apposition with "poet." Rule IV. — "A noun or a pronoun used to limit the meaning of a noun or a pronoun, by denoting the same person, place, or thing, is in the same case."

Henry's lesson is learned.

"Henry's" is z noun; proper; masculine gender; third person; singular number; possessive case, it denotes possession, and modifies "lesson." Rule III. — "A noun or a pronoun used to limit the meaning of a noun denoting a different thing, is in the possessive case."

John studies grammar. "Grammar" is a noun; common; neuter gender; third person; singular number; objective case, it is used as the object of the transitive verb "studies." Rule VI. — "The object of a transitive verb, in the active voice, or of its participles, is in the objective case."

The book lies on the table.

"Table " is a noun; common; neuter gender; third person; singular number; objective case, it is used as the object of the preposition "on." Rule VII. —" The object of a preposition is in the objective case."

William, open the door. "William" is a noun; proper; masculine gender; second person; singular number; absolute case, it is the name of the person addressed. Rule V.— "A noun or a pronoun used independently, is in the nominative absolute case."

LXVII. EXERCISES

Parse all the nouns in the following sentences:

1. The wind blows. 2. The sun shines. 3. Horses run. 4. The" vessel sails. 5. Scholars study. 6. Grass grows. 7. Fire burns. 8. Liberty is sweet. 9. St. Helena is an island. 10. Lead is a metal. 11. Cicero was an orator. 12. Grammar is a science. 13. The storm's fury is past. 14. Henry's health is good. 15. The king's palace is on fire. 16. Jane borrowed Sarah's book. 17. Mr. Johnson sells boys' hats. 18. The defeat of Xerxes' army was the downfall of Persia. 19. John struck James. 20. Joseph bought the book. 21. Peter studies algebra. 22. The horse kicked the boy. 23. The man wrote a letter. 24. Samuel lives over the river. 25. Martha went with Susan. 26. James is going to Cincinnati. 27. The boy ran by the mill. 28. "Friends, Romans, Countrymen! lend me your ears!" 29. "To arms! they come! the Greek! the Greek!" 30. "My daughter! oh, my daughter!" 31. "Your fathers, where are they?" 32. "My son, have you seen him?"

Parse all the nouns in the following sentences:

1. Johnson the doctor is a brother of Johnson the lawyer. 2. Shakespeare lived in Queen Elizabeth's reign. 3. "Ah, Warwick ! Warwick! wert thou as we are!" 4. Temperance is a virtue. 5. "King Agrippa, belie vest thou the prophets?" 6. The inferior animals are divided into five classes: quadrupeds, fowls, fishes, reptiles, and insects. 7. The little army fought bravely on that day. 8. Where are the Platos and Aristotles of modern times? 9. I have seen Mr. Squires, the bookseller and stationer.

Write correctly the following sentences:

1. I have (plural of brother-in-law). 2. There were three (plural of knight-templar) in the procession. 3. (Plural of nebula) are some

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