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CAUTIONS 87

Write, inserting a or the correctly:

1.. — dime is — tenth part of — dollar. 2. — eagle is — bird of prey. 3. — telephone is —- modern invention. 4. — subject of his lecture was — steam engine. 5. — lion is — king of beasts. 6. — horse which you saw belongs to me.

Caution IV. — Do not use "them" for "those," "this here" for "this," or "that 'ere" for "that."

Write, inserting a definite adjective correctly:

1. He bought ten of horses. 2. I do not like weather.

3. What have you done with umbrella? 4. Did you put

books on table? 5. I wish you would write rules on the

blackboard.

Caution V. — In most constructions, place ordinal adjectives before cardinals.

Write correctly:

1. Sing the two first or first two and the three last or last three verses. 2. I built the first five or five first houses on that street.

3. Repeat the three first or first three rules. 4. You may have cherries on the first two or two first trees in the three firstor first three rows.

Caution VI. — Do not use adverbs as adjectives.

Write correctly:

1. We have arrived safely or safe. 2. I feel bad or badly this morning. 3. The country looks beautifully or beautiful in June.

4. Things now look more favorably or favorable. 5. This rose smells sweet or sweetly. 6. The relative should be placed as nearly or near as possible to its antecedent. 7. How are you? Nicely or well, thank you. 8. The wind blew cold or coldly over our home. 9. My father looked gravely or grave when he heard the news. 10. My eyelids felt heavy or heavily for sleep.

THE PRONOUN DEFINED

LXXXI. ORAL LESSON

/ write, you read, but he whispers.

What are the words " I," "you," and " he "? Why? What person is "I"? What person is "you"? Why? What person is "he"? Why? Those words which show by their form the person of the nouns they represent are called personal pronouns.

The man who was with me is a lawyer.

What is "me"? What other pronoun is there in the sentence? What word does "who" stand for? But " who " can be used to represent the first, second, or third person; as, " I who speak to you "; "You who listen"; "He who whispers." It does not change its form to denote person, but relates to some noun, and must be of the same person and number as the noun to which it relates. It is therefore called a relative pronoun.

Who has lost a pencil?

The word "who" is here used in asking a question. We will call it an interrogative pronoun.

That book is mine.

What two words can I use instead of "mine"? "Mine," then, stands for both the possessor and the thing possessed. We call it a possessive pronoun.

LXXXII. DEFINITION OF PRONOUN

A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun; as, his book, my house; " Whom did you see?"

The antecedent of a pronoun is the noun, or equivalent expression, instead of which the pronoun is used. It usually precedes, but sometimes follows, the pronoun.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS 89

Ex. — "The poor widow lost her only son." Here "widow" is the antecedent of " her." "True to his flag, the soldier braved even death." "Soldier" is the antecedent of "his."

The antecedent may be a noun, a different pronoun, a phrase, or a clause.

Ex. — "Apupilthat is studious will learn." "Pupil" is the ante

- cedent of " that." "He who runs may read." "He " is the antecedent

'of "who." "He desired to pray, but it was denied him." "To pray"

is the antecedent of " it." "He has squandered his money, and he now

regrets it" "He has squandered his money" is the antecedent of " it."

The antecedent may be omitted; in which case it is said to be understood.

Ex.—" Who steals my purse steals trash." "The person," or " he," understood, is the antecedent of " who."

LXXXIII. PROPERTIES OF PRONOUNS

The properties of a pronoun are gender, person, number, and case.

The gender, person, and number of a pronoun are always the same as those of its antecedent, but its case depends upon the construction of the clause in which it is found.

LXXXIV. CLASSES OF PRONOUNS

Pronouns are divided into four classes: personal, possessive, relative, and interrogative.

LXXXV. PERSONAL PRONOUNS

Personal pronouns both represent nouns and show by their form whether they are of the first, second, or third person. They are either simple or compound.

The simple personal pronouns are /, thou, he, she, and it, with their declined forms, my, mine, me, we, our, us, thy, thine, thee, ye, your, you, his, him, her, its, they, their, them.

The compound personal pronouns are formed by adding self or selves to some form of the simple personals; as, myself, yourselves, himself, herself, themselves.

LXXXVI. DECLENSION OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS

The simple personal pronouns are declined as follows: —

FIRST PERSON

Singular
Nom. I

Poss. My or mine
Obj. Me

SECOND PERSON

Singular Plural
Nom. Thou Ye

Poss. Thy or thine Your
Obj. Thee You

THIRD PERSON

Singular

MAS. FEM. NEUT.

Nom. He She It
Poss. His Her Its
Obj. Him Her It

Plural
Nom. We
Poss. Our
Obj. Us

Singular Plural

Nom. You You

Poss. Your Your

Obj. You You

Plural

NEUT. OR COM.

Nom. They
Poss. Their
Obj. Them

The compound personal pronouns are declined as follows : —

FIRST PERSON

Singular
Nom. and Obj. Myself

Plural Nom. and Obj. Ourselves

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LXXXVII. GENERAL REMARKS

1. Mine and thine were formerly used before words commencing with a vowel sound, in preference to my and thy. They are still used thus in poetry; as, " Thine eyes I see thee raise."

2. Thou, thy, thine, thee, thyself, and ye, though used in the Bible and other sacred writings, are now seldom used except in poetry and in solemn style. They may be regarded as antiquated forms. You, your, yours, and yourself are now preferred.

3. You, originally plural, and still requiring a verb in the plural number, is used to represent singular as well as plural nouns.

4. We is often used in place of /, in royal proclamations, editorials, and when the speaker or writer wishes to avoid the appearance of egotism; as, " We, George III., King of Great Britain and Ireland, do proclaim," etc. "We formerly thought differently, but have changed cur mind."

5. It is sometimes used in the nominative without referring to any particular antecedent; and in the objective for euphony alone; as, "// thunders; "It seems to me "; "It is a true saying "; "Come and trip it on the green."

6. The compound personal pronouns are used in the nominative and objective cases only. To express emphatic distinction in the possessive case, the word own is used instead of self or selves; as, "Let every pupil use his own book "; "Successful merchants mind their own business, not that of their neighbors."

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