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7. The English language being destitute of a pronoun of the third person, singular and common gender, usage has sanctioned the employment of the masculine forms he. his, him, for that purpose; as. in speaking of scholars generally, we say, - A thorough scholar studies his lesson carefully."*

8. When reference is made to an assemblage containing males only, or females only, the masculine or feminine forms should be used, as the case may require.

9. When pronouns of different persons are used, the second should precede the third, and the third ihejirst; as, " You, and he, and /were boys together.""

T.XXXVm. RULES FOR PRONOUNS

Rule IX. — Pronouns must agree with their antecedents in person, gender, and number.

Rule X. — A pronoun, with two or more antecedents in the singular, connected by and, must be plural.

Rule XI. — A pronoun, with two or more antecedents in the singular, connected by or or nor, must be singular.

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ORDER OF PARSING PERSONAL PRONOUNS 93
MODELS FOR PARSING

/ have seen him.

u I" is a pronoun; personal; it shows by its form whether it is of the first, second, or third person: simple; its antecedent is the name,

understood, of the person speaking: gender, first person, singular

number, to agree with its antecedent: Rule IX. — "Pronouns must agree with their antecedents in gender, person, and number:" declined, singular, nom. I, poss. my, obj. me; plural, nom. we, poss. our, obj. us: nominative case. (Rule I.)

"Him" is a pronoun; personal; simple; its antecedent is the name, understood, of the person spoken of: masculine gender, third person, singular number, to agree with its antecedent: (Rule IX.) declined, singular, nom. he, poss. his, obj. him; plural, nom. they, poss. their, obj. them: objective case. (Rule VI.)

James, lend me your book.

"Me" is a pronoun; personal; simple; its antecedent is the name, understood, of the speaker: —gender, first person, singular number, to agree with its antecedent: (Rule IX.) decline it: objective case, it is the indirect object of the transitive verb " lend." (Rule VI.)

The soldiers helped themselves.

"Themselves" is a pronoun; compound personal; it is formed by adding selves to one of the declined forms of a simple personal: its antecedent is "soldiers ": masculine gender, third person, plural number, to agree with its antecedent: (Rule IX.) decline it: objective case, it is the object of the transitive verb " helped." (Rule VI.)

I, myself, heard him say so.

"Myself" is a pronoun; compound personal; its antecedent is the

name, understood, of the speaker: gender, first person, singular

number, to agree with its antecedent: (Rule IX.) decline it: nominative case, in apposition with "I." (Rule IV.)

XC. EXERCISES

Parse the nouns, personal pronouns, and adjectives in the following sentences:

1. He and I attend the same school. 2. She gave her sister a new book. 3. Have you seen him to-day? 4. I saw it with my own eyes. 5. You, yourself, told me so. 6. The wicked is snared in the work of his own hands. 7. I bought the book, and read it., 8. They live in our house. 9. I see them on their winding way. 10. For we dare not make ourselves of the number, or compare ourselves with some that commend themselves; but they, measuring themselves by themselves, and comparing themselves among themselves, are not wise.

11. Thou great Instructor, lest I stray,
Teach thou my erring feet thy way.

XCI. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

Possessive pronouns are words used to represent both the possessor and the thing possessed. They are: mine, thine, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs.

To denote emphatic distinction, my own is used for mine, thy own for thine, his own for his, her own for hers, our own for ours, your own for yours, their own for theirs.

Ex.—"This book is my own"; "Stand, the ground's your own, my braves!" "Do not borrow or lend pencils: each scholar should have one of his own."

The possessive pronoun is not the possessive case of the personal pronoun, but a distinct form, found only in the nominative and objective cases, never in the possessive.

Two sets of models are given for parsing possessive pronouns. The first method is to be preferred when the pronoun cannot be separated into two words, one being a personal pronoun, the other the name of the thing possessed.

ORDER OF PARSING POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS 95

XCII. ORDER OF PARSING POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

1. A pronoun, and why?

2. Possessive, and why?

3. What is its antecedent?

4. Gender, person, and number, and why? Rule.

5. Case, and why? Rule.

MODELS FOR PARSING

That house of mine is rented.

FiRST METHOD

"Mine " is a pronoun; possessive; it represents both the possessor and the thing possessed; its antecedent is the name of the speaker; common gender, first person, singular number, to agree with its antecedent; (Rule IX.) objective case; it is the object of the preposition "of": according to what rule?

That book is hers, not yours.

SECOND METHOD

"Hers" is a pronoun; possessive; it is equivalent to "her book." Parse "her" as a personal pronoun in the possessive case, according to Rule III., and "book" as predicate nominative, according to Rule II. "Yours " is a pronoun; possessive; it is equivalent to "your book." Parse "your" as a personal pronoun in the possessive case, according to Rule III., and "book" as predicate nominative, according to Rule II.

The ground's your own.

SECOND METHOD

"Your own" is a pronoun; possessive; it is equivalent to "your ground." Parse "your " as a personal pronoun in the possessive case, according to Rule III., and "ground" as the predicate nominative, according to Rule II.

XCIII. EXERCISES

Parse the possessive pronouns in the following sentences:

1. The farm is neither his nor theirs. 2. Is that horse of yours lame yet? 3. I did not hear that lecture of yours last evening. 4. He is an old friend of ours. 5. This book is not mine; it must be his or hers. 6. That carriage of theirs is a very fine one. 7. Friend of mine, why so sad?

XCIV. RELATIVE PRONOUNS

A relative pronoun is used to represent a preceding word, phrase, or clause, called its antecedent, to which it joins a subordinate proposition; as, "The man whom you saw is my father."

The antecedent is a word or a phrase on which the relative clause depends. It may be either a definite or an indefinite antecedent. When indefinite, the relative clause stands alone; as, "Who steals my purse steals trash."

The difference between personal and relative pronouns is shown by the following distinctions: 1. Personal pronouns have a distinct form for each grammatical person; as, first person, /; second person, thou or you; third person, he, she, or it: the relatives do not change their form for person. 2. A personal pronoun may be the subject of an independent sentence; as, "He is well": a relative can never be thus used; it is always found in a dependent clause; as, "Laws which are unjust should be repealed."

Relatives serve two purposes in a sentence: one, to represent nouns in any relation; the other, to join a limiting clause to the antecedent. The first is a pronominal, the second, a conjunctive use.

Relative pronouns are either simple or compound. The simple relatives are who, used to represent persons; which and what, to represent things; that, to repre

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