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DECLENSION 97

sent both persons and things; and as, to take the place of who, which, or that, after suck, much, many, and same.

What is sometimes used as a definitive adjective as well as a relative, in the same sentence: in which case it is placed before the noun it limits; as, "I send you what money I have," i.e. "I send you the money which I have." When the noun it limits is understood, what takes its place, and should be parsed as a relative.'

That is a relative when who, whom, or which can be substituted for it; as, " He that {who} is slow to wrath, is of great understanding." It is a pronominal adjective when it limits a following noun or a noun understood; as, " That book is yours"; "I did not say that." It is a conjunction when it joins a dependent clause to its principal without representing a noun; as, "I know that my Redeemer liveth."

What, when a relative, can be changed into that which, or the thing which, and is called a double relative; as, "Tell me what [that which] you know "; "I got what [the thing which] I desired." That, or the thing, should be parsed as the antecedent part of what, and which as the relative. The antecedent part, that, is usually a pronominal adjective, either limiting a noun expressed, or representing it understood.

Besides being a relative, what may be an interrogative pronoun; as, "What did you say ?" — a pronominal adjective; as, "What book have you?" — an interjection; as, "What! is thy servant a dog, that he should do this?" — an adverb; as, " What [partly] by force, and what by fraud, he secures his ends."

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The compound relatives are formed by adding ever, so, and soever to the simple relatives. They are: whoever,

ADV. GRAM. — 7

whoso, whosoever, whichever, whichsoever, whatever, and whatsoever.

Whoever, whoso, and whosoever, are equivalent to he who, or any one who; as, " Whoever studies will learn," i.e. "Any one who studies will learn." Whichever and whichsoever are equivalent to any which; as, "Whichever way you may take will lead to the city," i.e. "Any way which you may take," etc. Whatever and whatsoever are equivalent to any thing which; as, "I am pleased with whatever you may do," i.e. "I am pleased with any thing which you may do." Compound relatives are indeclinable, and should be parsed like the simple relative what.

XCVL ORDER OF PARSING RELATIVE PRONOUNS

1. A pronoun, and why?

2. Relative, and why?

3. Name its antecedent.

4. Simple or compound?

5. Gender, person, and number, and why? Rule.

6. Decline it.

7. Case, and rule.

MODELS FOR PARSING

A man who is industrious will prosper.

"Who" is a pronoun; relative; it represents a preceding word or phrase, to which it joins a limiting clause; its antecedent is "man ": simple: masculine gender, third person, singular number, to agree with its antecedent: (Rule IX.) nominative case; it is used as the subject of the subordinate proposition, "who is industrious." (Rule I.)

I am he whom ye seek.

"Whom" is a pronoun; relative; its antecedent is " he ": simple: masculine gender, third person, singular number: (Rule IX.) objective case; it is the object of the transitive verb "seek." (Rule VI.)

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ORDER OF PARSING RELATIVE PRONOUNS 99

Happy is the man that findeth wisdom.

"That" is a pronoun; relative; its antecedent is " man ": simple: masculine gender, third person, singular number: (Rule IX.) nominative case; it is the subject of the subordinate proposition, "That findeth wisdom." (Rule I.)

The horse which you sold me is lame.

"Which " is a pronoun; relative; its antecedent is "horse ": simple: masculine gender, third person, singular number: (Rule IX.) objective case; it is the object of the transitive verb "sold." (Rule.VI.)

I remember what you said.

"What" is a pronoun; relative; it is a double relative, equivalent to that which — " that" being the antecedent part, and "which" the relative. Parse "that" as a "pronominal adjective used as a noun," in the objective case after "remember."

"Which" is a pronoun; relative; its antecedent is " that": neuter gender, third person, singular number; objective case; object of the transitive verb " said." (Rule VI.)

The boy closed the shutters, which darkened the room.

"Which " is a pronoun; relative; its antecedent is the clause, "the boy closed the shutters."

Whoever studies will learn.

"Whoever" is a pronoun; relative; compound; it is equivalent to he who, or any one who — " he" being the antecedent part, and "who" the relative. Parse "he" as a personal pronoun, subject of "will learn," or "one " as a "pronominal adjective used as a noun," subject of "will learn," and "who" as a relative, by preceding models.

WJtatever purifies, sanctifies.

"Whatever" is a pronoun; relative; compound; it is equivalent to that which. Parse "that" and "which" according to the model on

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page 98—"that" being the subject of "sanctifies"; "which" of "purifies."

Whoso keepeth the law is a wise son.

"Whoso" is a. pronoun; relative; compound; it is equivalent to he who, or any one who. Parse according to the model above.

As many as came were baptized.

a As" is a pronoun; relative; its antecedent is "many ": simple: common gender, third person, plural number: (Rule IX.) nominative case; it is used as the subject of the subordinate proposition, "as came," i.e. "who came." (Rule I.)

XCVII. EXERCISES

Parse the relaiive pronouns in the following sentences:

1. Those who sow will reap. 2. He that hateth, dissembleth with his lips. 3. They that forsake the law, praise the wicked; but such as keep the law, contend with them. 4. There is no class of persons that I dislike so much as those who slander their neighbors. 5. The house which you admire so much, belongs to the man whom we see yonder.

6. Whatever is, is right. 7. Whatsoever ye shall ask in my name, that will I do. 8. He will do what is right. 9. This is the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built. 10. A kind boy avoids doing whatever injures others.

XCVIII. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS

The interrogative pronouns are who, which, and what, arhen used in asking questions; as, "Who goes there?" "Which is yours?" "What did you say?"

The subsequent of an interrogative pronoun is that part of the answer which is represented by it. An interrogative must agree with its subsequent in gender, person, and number.

ORDER OF PARSING INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS IOI

When a definite object is referred to, which and what are pronominal adjectives, limiting the name of the object inquired for; as, " Which lesson shall we learn?" "What book shall we study?" When an indefinite object is referred to, the interrogative takes its place; as, "Which is mine?" "What say you?"

The interrogatives who and which are declined like relative pronouns.

Apply Rule IX. in parsing interrogatives, changing "antecedents " to "subsequents."

XCIX. ORDER OF PARSING INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS

1. A pronoun, and why?

2. Interrogative, and why?

3. Name its subsequent, if expressed.

4. Gender, person, and number. Rule.

5. Decline it.

6. Case, and why? Rule.

MODELS FOR PARSING

Who goes there?

"Who " is a pronoun; interrogative; it is used in asking a question: its subsequent is indefinite: gender and person indeterminate: singular number, to agree with its subsequent: (Rule IX.) nominative case; it is used as the subject of the sentence "Who goes there?" (Rule I.)

Which is yours ? — The large one.

"Which" is a pronoun; interrogative; its subsequent is "one ": neuter gender, thirdperson, singular number; (Rule IX.) nominative case; it is used as the subject of the sentence "Which is yours?" (Rule I.)

What is that man ? — A blacksmith.

"What" is a pronoun; interrogative; its subsequent is "blacksmith": masculine gender, third person, singular number; (Rule IX.) nominative case; it is used as the predicate of the sentence "What is that man?" (Rule II.)

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