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EXTERKD, accurling to Act of Congresa, la thio year 1870, by

D. APPLETOX & COMPANY, In tho OMco of thio Librarian or Cungrcas, at W'arbington.

PREFAOE.

These papors are now collected at the request af friends and correspondents, who think that they may bo uscful; and two now cssays aro added. Most of tho articles woro written as occasion called for them within the past sixteen years, and contributed to. various periodicals, with little thought of their forming a scrics, and none of ever bringing them together into a volumc, although one of thein (tho third) was onco reprinted in a pamphlet form. It is, therefore, inevitablo tlint there should bo considerable iteration in the argument, if not in the langungo. This could not bo oliminnted except lvy roonsting thio wholo, which wina neither prncticablo nor ronlly desirablo. It is bettor tlmt thoy should record, as tlicy do, tho writer's freely-cxpressed thoughts upon tho subject at tho timo; and to many readers thoro may bo somo ailvantnyo il going moro than onco, in different directions, over tho anmo ground. If thoso chanya woro to be written now, bomo things miglit bo differcntly expressed or qualificd, but probably not so as

to affuct matorially any important point. According ly, thoy aro hero roprintod unchanged, excopt by a fow inorcly verbal alterations made in proof-roading, and tho striking out of ono or two superfluous or immaterial pagbangos. A very few additional nutes or references aro appendud.

To the Inst articlo but ono a Agcond part is now added, and tho more claborato Articlo XIII. is wholly new.

If it bo objected that somo of these pages aro written in a lightness of vein not quito congruouis · with the gravity of tho subject and the scriousnces of its issues, the excuso must be that they wero written with perfect freedom, most of tiiein as anonymous contributions to popular journals, and that an argil. ment may not bc tlıc less sound or an exposition loss effective for being playful. Somo of tho esanya, however, dealing with points of speculativo scientitio interest, may redross the balance, and to thought sufliciently heavy if not solid.

To the objection likely to be mado, that they covor only a part of the ground, it can only be replied that they do not pretend to bo systematic or completo. They are all cssays relating in somo wny or other to the subject which has been, during theso yours, of. paramount intcrost to naturalista, nnd not much less Bo to most thinking peoplo. The first apponrod bo

ewoon alxtoon and soventoon years ago, Immodiatoly altor tlo publication of Darwin's "Origin of Spocies by Mlcans of Natural Solection," as a roview of that volumo, which, it was then forcscon, was to initiato a rovolution in general scientific opinion. Long beforo our lunt articlo was written, it could bo affirmed that thio gencral doctrino of tho derivation of spccics (to put it comprehensively) lias prevailed over that of specific crcation, at least to the extent of being the received and presumably in some sense truc conception. l'ar from undertaking any general discussion of crolution, scvcral cvcn of Mr. Darwin's writings have not been noticed, and topics which havo been much discussed ulscwlcro aro not hero adverted to. This applics especially to what may bo called deductivo evolution-a sulijcct which lay beyond the writer's immediato scope, and to which neither the bent of his mind nor tho lino of his studies ling titted hiin to du justico. Il thoso papers nro useful at all, it will lo as showing how theso now vicws of our day are regarded by a practical naturalist, verscd in ono dopartment only (viz., Botany), most interested in their bearings upon its special problems, ono accustomed to direct and closc dealing with the facts in hand, and disposed to riso from them only to the consideration of thoro general questions upon which they throw or from which they roccivo illustration,

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