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Don E. Tello.
Don M. S. Ortiz.
The estimated population of the city of Bue- Jujny.
La Rioja.. nos Ayres was, in September, 1882, 295,000;
Don J. M. Segura. and those of other important cities as follows: Córdoba, 39,651; Rosario, 32,204 ; Tucuman, 24,237.
Immigration. By the terms of the "homestead Santiago del Estero, law,” enacted Oct. 6, 1876, inducements were Gran Chaco Territory. offered with a view to attract Europeans to the Patagonia...
Col. L. Winter. shores of the republic.*
... Col. R. Roca. In pursuance of a new decree of May 16, The Argentine Envoy Extraordinary and 1883, passage-money wis advanced to 135 inn- Minister Plenipotentiary to the United States migrants in that year. A new and prosperous is Dr. Don Luis L. Dominguez (accredited in colony in the fertile region surrounding Bahía 1882); and the Argentine Consul-General (at Blanca, in southern Buenos Ayres, bids fair to New York) for the American Union, is Don make of that seaport at no distant day “one Cárlos Carranza. of the great centers of Argentine commerce." The United States Minister Resident in the The already rapid growth of the settlement Argentine Republic is Gen. Thomas (). Osborn; will be materially enhanced on the completion and the United States Consul at Buenos Ayres of the railway between Buenos Ayres city and is Mr. E. L. Baker. Bahía Blanca, the northern half of which line Army.—The Argentine army in June, 1883, is now in operation to Olavarria. Of the older comprised, exclusive of the National Guard, colonies may be mentioned those of Santa Fé, 6,787 men, as follows: 3,500 foot, 2,474 horse, sixty-eight in all, with an aggregate population and 815 artillery. There were 4 lieutenantof 55,143 (in 1883); and Entre Rios, number- generals, 14 generals of division, 50 colonels, ing seventeen, with 9,905 inhabitants. The 127 lieutenant-colonels, 142 majors, and 742 Santa Fé colonists, besides other products, har- officers of other grades. The National Guard vested upward of 1,000,000 bushels of wheat was 315,850 strong. The military academy in 1882.
had, in 1882, 14 teachers and 123 students; and The following table exhibits the nationality the military school (for non-commissioned offiand number of the immigrants who landed at cers) 6 teachers and 68 pupils. Buenos Ayres in 1879, 1880, 1881, and 1882: Navy.—The navy, in June, 1883, was com
posed of 39 vessels, namely: 3 steam-ironclads, 1879. 1880.
6 gunboats, 7 torpedoes, 2 steam-transports, 22,774 18,416 20,506
3 cruisers, 6 other steam-vessels, and 12 sailSpaniards.
of-the-line, with an aggregate tonnage of 12,2,175 8,612 8,352
630, and an armament of 55 guns, and manned with 1 rear-admiral, 2 chiefs of squadron, 3
colonels, 9 lieutenant-colonels, 9 majors, 20 1,76 )
captains, 32 lieutenants, 45 second-lieutenants, 63 students, 23 midshipmen, 20 paymasters, 48 engineers, 23 physicians, 2 almoners, 20 pilots, 1,505 seamen, 1,737 marines (including
officers), and a torpedo division 137 strong: Various....
In the foregoing enumeration is not included
the flotilla of the Rio Negro, comprising 3 Total.... 32,702 26,613 81,469 41,041
steamers and 3 steam-launches. The number of arrivals for 1883 was 63,325.
The naval school had, in 1882, 17 teachers Government, Public officers, etc.—The President and 69 students; and another school, for seaof the Republic is Lieut.-Gen. Don Julio A. men, had 9 teachers and 43 pupils. Roca (inaugurated Oct. 12, 1880), and the Vice
like the army, is recruited by vol. President, Don Francisco Madero.
untary enlistment for a fixed period. The Cabinet was composed of the following
Education.—The cause of popular education Ministers: Interior, Don Bernardo de Irigoyen; continues to be zealously fostered by the ArForeign Affairs, Don Francisco Ortiz; Finance, gentine Government, than which none has disDon Victorino de la Plaza ; Justice, Public played more untiring energy in its efforts to Worship, and Public Instruction, Dr. Eduardo insure the benefits of rudimentary instruction Wilde; War and the Navy, Gen. Don Benja- to the youth of all classes of society. In the min Victorica.
budget for 1883 the cost of this department to The governors of the several provinces, etc., the state was estimated at $2,190,430.88. were :
There were in the republic, in 1882, 2,023 Buenos Ayres
educational establishments of all grades, with Don J. Acuna.
an aggregate of 4,097 teachers, and a total of Córdoba..
136,928 pupils. Primary instruction was given,
in 1881, at 1,985 schools, national, provincial, ..An abstract of this homestead law,” or “ colonization municipal, and private, by 3,544' teachers to bill," was given in our voluine for 1977, p. 29.
128,919 children. But as, from a bare statement
583 591 445 879
23 78 47
7 15 17 51 861
626 913 1,123 072 103 1-3 11
5 26 14 226 410
8 11 21 232
of the number of primary schools, no precise
EXPENDITURE. idea of the status of rudimentary education can Ministry of the Interior....
$6,950,714 09 Foreign Affairs......
871,700 00 be derived, the following comparative statistics
18,788,986 27. are transcribed from the report of the Minister
Justice, Public Worship, and Pubof Public Instruction for 1882: Assuming the
War and the Navy: population of the republic to be 2,500,000, and
War-Office..... $6,150,924 79 the proportion of the children between the ages
Navy Department 2,549,537 88
8,700,462 60 of six and fifteen to be 20 per cent., we should
$34,063,484 85 have:
Estimated deficit for 1884
$283,151 Children fit to attend school..
500,000 Actual number attending public primary
The actual showing of the Finance Departschools..
99,963 Estimated number attending private pri
ment for 1882 was unusually favorable; for, mary schools
100,000 as Gen. Roca observes in his message to ConEstimated number home-taught
10,000 gress in May, of a revenue of $26,763,985.27, Total number possessing or acquiring
but $25,354,996.76 were required for the ordiprimary education....
nary expenditure of the administration. “The Total number illiterate
surplus, $1,408,988.51, together with $3,712,Total......
.... 600,000 962.54, the proceeds of the treasury notes isYet these figures attest a notable improvement sued under the law of Nov. 3, 1881, the $2,when compared with those for 1872, in which 312,704.16 balance in the treasury at the end year but 81,183 children, out of a total of of that year, and other funds resulting from suc468,987, attended school.
cessful credit operations, was applied to reduce Finance.- Contrary to the almost general the treasury in a position to discharge within
the balance overdue on our debt, thus placing rule
in Spanish America-witness Mexico, Costa Rica, Honduras, and principally Peru-the a few days all our old accounts.” The consoliArgentine Republic, while rapidly extending dent's statement, amounted on Dec. 31, 1881,
dated national debt, according to the Presiher already considerable railway
and telegraph to $82,048,004.50, and to $94,565,787.90 at the systems, and otherwise facilitating transportation to and from the seaboard, not only ac- end of 1882, in which latter year the principal complishes this without sacrifice to the nation. of the debt was reduced by $3,625,257.13, and al credit, but seldom fails to render such mate increased by new emissions to the amount
of rial improvements subservient to the financial $14,283,788.50. Gen. Roca affirms that the prosperity of the country. Thanks to this sys- reduction just alluded to was a real diminution tem, and to punctuality in the service of the of the country's indebtedness, while the fournational debt and in the
payment of interest teen million increase represented only the thereon, Argentine bonds, first quoted at a al of productive outlays on works the yield of
transformation of existing debts or the defraypremium in December, 1881, have rarely de- which would be more than sufficient for the scended below par since that year. The budget estimates for 1883 were: rexe end of the present year” (1883), adds the
amortization of the bonds emitted. “At the nue, $29,576,000;
expenditure, $31,224,749, President, the 6 per cent. consolidated debt, whereby there would be a deficit of $1,648,- with a small portion at 8 and 9 per cent., will 749.
The subjoined tables, which are transcribed have been reduced to $75,418,201.31.' The from official returns published this year, ex
amount paid annually on the national debt hibit the branches of the national revenue and should the conversion * which I proposed to
(principal and interest) is $8,979,061.51. expenditure, and the amounts of each, as estiinated in the budget for 1884:
Congress last year be sanctioned, we should
only require to dispose of 5 per cent. bonds REVENUE.
to the amount of $88,727,295.66, at the price Import duties......
of 85 per cent. (the rate taken as a basis by Additional duties.
the committee on ways and means), for the exExport duties..
tinction of those debts. And if the emission Additional duties.
were made without a sinking fund for a term
8,593,000 Warehouse fees.
*500,000 of twenty or twenty-five years, the annual serStamped paper.
1,500,000 vice would only call for $4,436,364.78. The Licenses.
650,000 Direct taxes..
advantages accruing from either of these plans Post-Office.
560,000 are apparent, and would enable us to carry on Telegraphs...
200.000 numberless works of public utility without Lighthouses, etc.... Sanitary Department..
20,000 burdening future generations with such debts Forests
10,000 as have been handed down to us and were conWater-works.
tracted to defray the expenses of wars abroad National Bank shares
600,000 and internecine strife." The President referred Wharfage Penitentiary.
100,000 to the urgent need of a national bank law Mint..
800,000 similar to that existing in the United States. Bundries..
410,000 Up to March 31, 1883, there were delivered Total
838,770,383 • See the “Annual Cyclopædia " for 1881, p. 25.
from the mint 5,755,257 coins (gold, silver, Argentine territory, unburdened by any such and copper), representing an aggregate of $4,- tax as Peru used and Chili continues to exact, 154,519.16, and most of which was to replace and with the great additional advantage of the fractional paper currency, the withdrawal ready access to the Atlantic seaboard. In of which from circulation was decreed on Nov. November, 1883, Bolivian explorers announced 5, 1881.
the navigability of the Pilcomayo river throughThe following tables exhibit the sources, out, which circumstance, with the completion destinations, and values respectively of the Ar- of the Northern Central Railway, will establish gentine imports and exports for the year 1882: easy communication between the two countries.
The export branch of this trade consists chiefly Belgium..
$2.775.735 of bismuth, tin, silver, silver-ore, etc., while 128,688
the imports are European manufactures. 2,084,293
Thus, the foreign commerce of the republic France.
11,793,701 for 1882 was of the aggregate value of $117,Germany.
711,271, constituting an increase of $7,612,518
978,011 as compared with 1881. On comparing the Italy.
2,322,801 value of the imports and exports for each of Paraguay Portugal
85,555 these two years, it will be seen that the bal. Spain...
2,812,409 ance of trade for 1882 ($829,461) was against, United States
while that for 1881 ($1,039,455) was in favor
120,367 of the republic. It has been officially objected, Other countries
3,839,712 however, that the unfavorable showing for Total (for 1832)
$59.270,866 1882 is rather apparent than real, since of the Against (for 1881)
64,029,649 value of the imports $4,513,638 were for " arIncrease in 1882.
$5,240,717 ticles of a productive character, such as rail
way materials, machinery for industrial purBelgium
$18,901,460 poses, and a large quantity of tools and agricul
818,605 tural implements." Among the more extensive 2,092,219 1,463,078 consumers of Argentine products, as shown by
15,869,992 the foregoing table of exports, France stands Germany.
first, Belgium second, Great Britain third, Holland..
65,660 Germany fourth, and the United States fifth. Italy..
1,620.931 In the table of imports, those same countries Paraguay
range in the following order as shippers to the
152.768 republic: Great Britain first, France second, Spain
1,264,562 United States
the United States third, Germany fourth, and
1,982,639 Belgium fifth. The imports from Germany,
1,411,561 the United States, and Great Britain are steadi. Other countries.
ly increasing, wbile those from Belgium and Total (for 1892).
$58.410,905 France fluctuate from year to year; and the Against (for 1881).
exports to Germany and France, and particuIncrease (in 1982).
$2,371,801 larly to the former, have increased, while The exports and imports for the first ten those to the other three countries have fluctumonths of 1883 were of the respective values ated during the seven years 1876–82. of $35,532,486 and $50,176,456, against $34,- Of the aggregate trade—imports and exports 325,245 and $41,217,972 respectively for the —of the republic with all countries for the sepcorresponding period of 1882.
tennial period 1876-'82, the subjoined table exThe trade in transitu for 1882 was as follows: hibits the proportions representeel by each of
the five countries just referred to:
Chief among the competitors of the United $12,853,535 $1,802,180
as a supplier of the Argentine Republic, 55,655 1,287,059
is Great Britain.
The American articles shipped most extenParaguay.
sively to the republic are: lumber ($2,019,216 Other countries (of Europe)... 2,977,749 13,050,403 in 1882, against $157,090 from Great Britain);
agricultural instruments ($528,046, the total
from all countries having been $727,807); kerBolivia, now landlocked, finds a convenient osene ($363,139); books and other printed matchannel for her foreign commerce through ter ($98,326); machinery ($126,588); manufact
COASTING AND FLUVIAL TRADE.
ured tobacco ($120,339); clocks and watches The distribution of the foreign carrying($30,347, against $24,006 from France, and $14,- trade by flags was as follows: British, 31 per 926 from Great Britain). Of American musical cent.; French, 16; Argentine, 13; Italian, 9; instruments of all kinds, but $5,939 worth were Uruguayan, 9; German, 6; Brazilian, 4; Norsent to the republic in 1882. American ma- wegian, 4; Spanish, 3; American, 2; Belgian, chinery is fast gaining favor, no fewer than 1; others, 2. sixty-two locomotives having been ordered of a single Philadelphia firm in 1882, while the Entered : total number imported from the United States Stearners, 6,002, with an aggregate of 1,851,468 tons. in the year previous was but seven; and exten
476,465 * sive orders for rolling-stock, particularly draw
1,498,588 ing-room cars, were also given in 1883. Indeed, Sailing-vessels, 16,195,
500,838 " there is a growing appreciation of things Ameri
The distribution of this trade by flags was: can in the Argentine Republic.
Argentine, 57 per cent.; British, 24; French, The imports of specie in 1882 were $2,683,327, and the exports, $2,225,082; against $4,
9; Uraguayan, 3; Paraguayan, 2; others, 5. 157,648 and $2,991,305 respectively in 1881.
“We have no merchant navy," writes a nàChief among the Argentine export staples is
tive statistician," unless that name be given to wool; the quantity shipped in 1882 was 111,- which, with Italian and Austrian crews, ply
a few hundred barges, lighters, and schooners, 009,796 kilogrammes, of the value of $29,033,000, against 89,259,122 in 1876. Next in im- as they might carry the Turkish.”
on our rivers and carry the Argentine fiag just portance after wool are hides, of which but 1,945,427, of the value of $8,286,000, were ex
Railways. The railways in operation, and in ported in 1882, against 2,326,866 in 1876; then process of building, at the end of 1883, were as follow sheep-skins (22,353,021, of the value of $4,095,000 in 1882, against 27,597,973 for 1876); jerked beef, 26,996,613 kilogrammes, $3,766,000; tallow, $2,699,000; maize, 107,327,156 kilogrammes, $2,141,000; live cattle, Central Argentine (Rosario to Córdoba).. 94,649, $1,478,000; linseed, 23,351,794 kilo: Northern Central (Córdoba to Tucuman). grammes, $1,650,000; bones, ores, etc.
Northern Central (Tucuman to Jujuy).
Northern Central (branch from Frias to Agriculture, etc.—Until within a few years an Santiago).. importer, the Argentine Republic is now an ex
Northern Central (branch from Recreo to
Chumbicha)* porter of wheat in constantly increasing quan Andine (Villa Maria to La Paz) ....
470 tities: 1,705,292 kilogrammes in 1882. Sugar- Andine La Paz to San Juan via Mendoza) culture is rapidly developing in Tucuman, Sal
Western (Buenos Ayres to Bragado, and
branches to Pergamino and Lobos).. ta, Jujuy, Santiago, Corrientes, and in parts of Western (extensions). the Gran Chaco and Misiones. The total su
Southern (Buenos Ayres to Altamirano,
and branches to Olavarria and Tandil).. 679 gar-crop for 1882 was estimated at 11,615,000 Southern (Olavarria to Eahía Blanca).
86 kilogrammes. Tucuman now grows 17,500 acres
Northern (Buenos Ayres to El Tigre).... of cane, giving work to thirty-four mills. The Campana (Buenos Ayres to Campana).
Ensenada Buenos Ayres to Ensenada)... vine is extensively cultivated; Catamarca, in Eastern (Concordia to Ceibo)...... 1881, produced 1,200,000 gallons of wine, val- Puerto Ruiz and Gualeguay ued at $108,000; and, in 1882, San Juan pro- Transandine + (Mercedes in Buenos Ayres duced 5,236,186 gallons, valued at $1,107,275.
to Mercedes in San Luis)...
Santa Fé Colonial... But the main sources of the country's wealth are cattle-rearing and sheep-farming. There Totals...
2,950 2,567 were in the republic, at the beginning of 1883, 93,000,000 head of sheep, while Australia's
Tramways. At the end of 1882 there were filocks numbered but 72,000,000, and those of in the capital five tramway or horse-car lines, the United States, 41,000,000'; of horned cattle which, covering an aggregate of 95 miles, and there were 16,000,000 in the republic; and of with 1,001 employés, carried an average of 51,horses, about 5,000,000. The statistics of these 740 passengers daily. There were also lines in industries, for the single province of Buenos some of the smaller towns of the province of Ayres, were given in the census returns of Oct. Buenos Ayres; Córdoba city had two lines, 9, 1881, as follow : Sheep, 57,838,073; horned and Rosario one. cattle, 4,754,810; horses, 2,396,469; hogs,
Telegraphy.—The total length of the Argen155,134; goats, 7,612.
tine telegraph lines at the end of 1882 was 13,Shipping Movements.—The shipping movements 543 kilometres, of which 10,772 belonged to at the various ports of the republic were as be- the Government; there were 202 offices, and low, in 1882:
the number of dispatches transmitted through
out the year was 509,928, of which 71,838 Entered :
FOREIGN TRADE. Steamers, 8 010, with an aggregate of 1.104.927 tons. * From Chumbicha the line is to be extended southwest to Sailing-vessels, $,031,
La Rioja, and northeast to Catainarca. Cleared :
+ This line will open direct communication between Buenos Steamers, 2,742,
1,080,214 " Ayres and Santiago, the capital of Chill, and so between the Sailing-vessels, 2,023,
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
85 58 81 100 10
were official. By Dec. 31, 1883, 1,727 addi- Mining.–Since the building of the Southern tional miles of Government liné were com- Pacific Railroad, mining has made rapid progpleted.
ress, and now Arizona stands second on the Telephone.-In December, 1882, there were list of silver-producing States and Territories. two telephone companies in Buenos Ayres, Eight years ago the bullion yield of the Terwith 1,500 subscribers.
ritory was but a little over $100,000, while Post-Office.-In 1881 the number of letters now it stands third on the list in its yield of that passed through the post-office was 9,723,- the precious metals. 740, of wbich 2,380,065 were official; and According to the best information at hand, that of packages of printed matter, 6,132,374, the production of Arizona in gold and silver of which 1,191,046 were to or from foreign for the four years ending Dec. 81, 1882, was as countries.
follows: Improvements. The much-needed work of 1879
$1,942,403 | 1881
$8.198,766 improving the condition of the ports, which is
4,472,471 | 1832
9,298,267 "still almost the same as at the arrival of the A large quantity of rich ore and base bullion first Spanish settlers," says President Roca, which finds its way out of the country is not was continued actively during the past year. included in the above. It is safe to estimate The canalization of the Riachuelo, at Buenos the value of such ores and bullion at 10 per Ayres, was sufficiently far advanced in Janu- cent. of the figures given. ary, 1883, to admit vessels of 1,120 tons reg- From careful estimates it is believed that ister, and the intention is to prepare the har. Arizona's yield of gold and silver for 1883 will bor for craft of all sizes.
exceed $12,000,000. ARIZONA. Territorial Government. The fol- As near as can be ascertained, the copper lowing were the Territorial officers during the yield of the Territory for the past three years year: Governor, Frederick A. Tritle; Secre- has been as follows: tary, H. M. Van Arnam; Chief-Justice of Supreme Court, Charles G. W. French ; Asso
15,000,000 ciate Justices, Wilson W. Hoover and Daniel 1881
5,000,000 H. Pinney.
The estimated yield for 1883 has been placed General Condition.—During the past two years at from 20,000,000 to 25,000,000 pounds. the advancement of the Territory, both with The combined value of the silver and copper regard to wealth in the development of profit- product for 1883 will be between fifteen and able industries and
increase of population, has sixteen million dollars. been remarkable. The Territory can now claim Agriculture and Grazing.–Irrigation is neces75,000 people and over $20,000,000 of taxable sary to the raising of a crop in Arizona. It is property; and while the progress of its civili- estimated that there are at the present time zation and the development of its resources between 60,000 and 70,000 acres under cultivahave been opposed by most serious difficulties, tion in the Territory, and that the quantity of it is now safe to say that those dangerous and grain (wheat, barley, and corn) produced durdisturbing elements are well under control. ing the year was nearly 60,000,000 pounds. In During the past two years exceptional devel- the valleys of the Gila and Salt rivers alone opment has been made in all industries, mining, there are 400,000 acres which can be brought grazing, and agricultural ; extensive railroad under cultivation, of which only about one enterprises have been successfully completed; tenth is now utilized. Two crops a year can and the affairs of the Territory generally are be grown. After the wheat or barley is barexceedingly prosperous.
vested, corn is planted. There are at present The great natural facilities of the country about 30,000 acres under cultivation along the for stock-raising and wool-growing are begin- Salt river, yielding, in 1883, 14,000,000 pounds ning to be understood, and large droves of cat- of wheat, and 18,000,000 pounds of barley. Of tle and sheep are being driven in from the fruit-trees there are nearly 40,000, and over neighboring States and Territories.
300,000 vines in bearing. Alfalfa is sown exThe valleys along the principal water-courses tensively, and yields three cuttings during the yield magnificent crops of grain, fruits, and season, averaging two tons to the acre at a vegetables, and even the mesa or table-lands cutting. The number of cattle in the Territory adjacent will grow almost everything with a is about 280,000, an increase of more than 300 sufficient water-supply. The valleys of the per cent. during the past two years. It is estiGila and Salt river are being rapidly settled. mated that the area of grazing-land in the
Beyond the making of flour and lumber the Territory will reach 60,000 square miles. The manufacturing interests of the Territory are in country north of the thirty-fourth parallel is their infancy. Some of the native plants fur- well adapted to the raising of sheep. The nish excellent material for the manufacture number of sheep in the Territory is placed of paper, coarse cloths, mats, ropes, and other at 300,000, and the yearly clip at 2,400,000 articles. No attempt has been made to utilize pounds. this raw material, although it is known that As near as can be ascertained, the number the aborigines have succeeded, in their crude of horses, mules, and hogs in the several counway, in making ropes of fair quality.
ties is as follows: