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Don Z. Concha.
Don B. Paz
The estimated population of the city of Bue Jujuy..
Don E. Tello.
Don B. Jaramillo. nos Ayres was, in September, 1882, 295,000;
Don J. M. Segura. and those of other important cities as follows: Salta...
Don M. S. Ortiz
Don A. Gil. Córdoba, 39,651; Rosario, 32,204; Tucuman, 24,237.
Santa Fé. Immigration. By the terms of the "homestead Santiago del Estero.
Don L. G. Pinto,
Tucuman law," enacted Oct. 6, 1876, inducements were Gran Chaco Territory. Col. F. Bosch. offered with a view to attract Europeans to the Patagonia...
Col. L. Winter. shores of the republic.*
Col. R. Roca, In pursuance of a new decree of May 16, The Argentine Envoy Extraordinary and 1883, passage-money was advanced to 135 inn- Minister Plenipotentiary to the United States migrants in that year. A new and prosperous is Dr. Don Luis L. Dominguez (accredited in colony in the fertile region surrounding Bahía 1882); and the Argentine Consul-General (at Blanca, in southern Buenos Ayres, bids fair to New York) for the American Union, is Don make of that seaport at no distant day “one Cárlos Carranza. of the great centers of Argentine commerce." The United States Minister Resident in the The already rapid growth of the settlement Argentine Republic is Gen. Thomas 0. Osborn; will be materially enhanced on the completion and the United States Consul at Buenos Ayres of the railway between Buenos Ayres city and is Mr. E. L. Baker. Bahía Blanca, the northern half of which line Army.—The Argentine army in June, 1883, is now in operation to Olavarria. Of the older comprised, exclusive of the National Guard, colonies may be mentioned those of Santa Fé, 6,787 men, as follows: 3,500 foot, 2,474 horse, sixty-eight in all, with an aggregate population and 815 artillery. There were 4 lieutenantof 55,143 (in 1883); and Entre Rios, number- generals, 14 generals of division, 50 colonels, ing seventeen, with 9,905 inhabitants. The 127 lieutenant-colonels, 142 majors, and 742 Santa Fé colonists, besides other products, har- officers of other grades. The National Guard vested upward of 1,000,000 bushels of wheat was 315,850 strong. The military academy in 1882.
had, in 1882, 14 teachers and 123 students; and The following table exhibits the nationality the military school (for non-commissioned offiand number of the immigrants who landed at cers) 6 teachers and 68 pupils. Buenos Ayres in 1879, 1880, 1881, and 1882: Navy.—The navy, in June, 1883, was com
posed of 39 vessels, namely: 3 steam-ironclads, NATIONALITIES. 1879. 1880. 1881. | 1882. 6 gunboats, 7 torpedoes, 2 steam-transports, Italians... 22,774 18,416 20,506 29,587
3 cruisers, 6 other steam-vessels, and 12 sailSpaniards.
8,112 8,474 8,520 of-the-line, with an aggregate tonnage of 12,French.
2,175 8,612 8,892 English.
630, and an armament of 55 guns, and manned Swiss
with 1 rear-admiral, 2 chiefs of squadron, 3 1,128
colonels, 9 lieutenant-colonels, 9 majors, 20 Austrians.
captains, 32 lieutenants, 45 second-lieutenants, Belgians
63 students, 23 midshipmen, 20 paymasters, Danes
48 engineers, 23 physicians, 2 almoners, 20 Russians. 15 8
8+ 57 54
635 591 495
78 140 11 10 81 28 72 643
672 103 1:3 11
pilots, 1,505 seamen, 1,737 marines (including Greeks and Turks..
officers), and a torpedo division 137 strong. Americans Various...
In the foregoing enumeration is not included
the flotilla of the Rio Negro, comprising 3 Total......... 32,70226,613 | 81,463 41,041
steamers and 3 steam-launches. The number of arrivals for 1883 was 63,325.
The naval school had, in 1882, 17 teachers Government, Public Officers, etc.—The President and 69 students; and another school, for seaof the Republic is Lieut.-Gen. Don Julio A. men, had 9 teachers and 43 pupils. Roca (inaugurated Oct. 12, 1880), and the Vice
The navy, like the army, is recruited by vol. President, Don Francisco Madero.
untary enlistment for a fixed period. The Cabinet was composed of the following
Education. The cause of popular education Ministers: Interior, Don Bernardo de Irigoyen; continues to be zealously fostered by the ArForeign Affairs, Don Francisco Ortiz; Finance, gentine Government, than which none has disDon Victorino de la Plaza ; Justice, Public played more untiring energy in its efforts to Worship, and Public Instruction, Dr. Eduardo insure the benefits of rudimentary instruction Wilde; War and the Navy, Gen. Don Benja- to the youth of all classes of society. In the min Victorica.
budget for 1883 the cost of this department to The governors of the several provinces, etc., the state was estimated at $2,190,430.88. were :
There were in the republic, in 1882, 2,023 Buenos Ayres
Dr. D. Rocha.
educational establishments of all grades, with Catamarca
Don J. Acuña.
an aggregate of 4,097 teachers, and a total of Córdoba..
Don G. Gavier. Corrientes.
Don A. Soto.
136,928 pupils. Primary instruction was given, Entre-Rios... ... Col. J. Antelo.
in 1881, at 1,985 schools, national, provincial An abstract of this “ homestead law,” or “colonization municipal, and private, by 3,544 teachers to bill," was given in our volume for 1877, p. 29.
128,919 children. But as, from a bare statement
17 51 864
11 21 232
26 14 226 410
of the number of primary schools, no precise
EXPENDITURE. idea of the status of rudimentary education can Ministry of the Interior....
$6,950,714 09 Foreign Affairs......
871,700 00 be derived, the following comparative statistics
18,788,986 27. are transcribed from the report of the Minister
Justice, Public Worship, and Pubof Public Instruction for 1882: Assuming the
War and the Navy: population of the republic to be 2,500,000, and
War-Office..... $6,150,924 79 the proportion of the children between the ages
Navy Department 2,549,537 88
8,700,462 60 of six and fifteen to be 20 per cent., we should
$34,063,484 85 have:
Estimated deficit for 1884
$283,151 Children fit to attend school..
500,000 Actual number attending public primary
The actual showing of the Finance Departschools..
99,963 Estimated number attending private pri
ment for 1882 was unusually favorable; for, mary schools
100,000 as Gen. Roca observes in his message to ConEstimated number home-taught
10,000 gress in May, of a revenue of $26,763,985.27, Total number possessing or acquiring
but $25,354,996.76 were required for the ordiprimary education....
nary expenditure of the administration. “The Total number illiterate
surplus, $1,408,988.51, together with $3,712,Total......
.... 600,000 962.54, the proceeds of the treasury notes isYet these figures attest a notable improvement sued under the law of Nov. 3, 1881, the $2,when compared with those for 1872, in which 312,704.16 balance in the treasury at the end year but 81,183 children, out of a total of of that year, and other funds resulting from suc468,987, attended school.
cessful credit operations, was applied to reduce Finance.- Contrary to the almost general the treasury in a position to discharge within
the balance overdue on our debt, thus placing rule
in Spanish America-witness Mexico, Costa Rica, Honduras, and principally Peru-the a few days all our old accounts.” The consoliArgentine Republic, while rapidly extending dent's statement, amounted on Dec. 31, 1881,
dated national debt, according to the Presiher already considerable railway
and telegraph to $82,048,004.50, and to $94,565,787.90 at the systems, and otherwise facilitating transportation to and from the seaboard, not only ac- end of 1882, in which latter year the principal complishes this without sacrifice to the nation. of the debt was reduced by $3,625,257.13, and al credit, but seldom fails to render such mate increased by new emissions to the amount
of rial improvements subservient to the financial $14,283,788.50. Gen. Roca affirms that the prosperity of the country. Thanks to this sys- reduction just alluded to was a real diminution tem, and to punctuality in the service of the of the country's indebtedness, while the fournational debt and in the
payment of interest teen million increase represented only the thereon, Argentine bonds, first quoted at a al of productive outlays on works the yield of
transformation of existing debts or the defraypremium in December, 1881, have rarely de- which would be more than sufficient for the scended below par since that year. The budget estimates for 1883 were: rexe end of the present year” (1883), adds the
amortization of the bonds emitted. “At the nue, $29,576,000;
expenditure, $31,224,749, President, the 6 per cent. consolidated debt, whereby there would be a deficit of $1,648,- with a small portion at 8 and 9 per cent., will 749.
The subjoined tables, which are transcribed have been reduced to $75,418,201.31.' The from official returns published this year, ex
amount paid annually on the national debt hibit the branches of the national revenue and should the conversion * which I proposed to
(principal and interest) is $8,979,061.51. expenditure, and the amounts of each, as estiinated in the budget for 1884:
Congress last year be sanctioned, we should
only require to dispose of 5 per cent. bonds REVENUE.
to the amount of $88,727,295.66, at the price Import duties......
of 85 per cent. (the rate taken as a basis by Additional duties.
the committee on ways and means), for the exExport duties..
tinction of those debts. And if the emission Additional duties.
were made without a sinking fund for a term
8,593,000 Warehouse fees.
*500,000 of twenty or twenty-five years, the annual serStamped paper.
1,500,000 vice would only call for $4,436,364.78. The Licenses.
650,000 Direct taxes..
advantages accruing from either of these plans Post-Office.
560,000 are apparent, and would enable us to carry on Telegraphs...
200.000 numberless works of public utility without Lighthouses, etc.... Sanitary Department..
20,000 burdening future generations with such debts Forests
10,000 as have been handed down to us and were conWater-works.
tracted to defray the expenses of wars abroad National Bank shares
600,000 and internecine strife." The President referred Wharfage Penitentiary.
100,000 to the urgent need of a national bank law Mint..
800,000 similar to that existing in the United States. Bundries..
410,000 Up to March 31, 1883, there were delivered Total
838,770,383 • See the “Annual Cyclopædia " for 1881, p. 25.
from the mint 5,755,257 coins (gold, silver, Argentine territory, unburdened by any such and copper), representing an aggregate of $4,- tax as Peru used and Obili continues to exact, 154,519.16, and most of which was to replace and with the great additional advantage of the fractional paper currency, the withdrawal ready access to the Atlantic seaboard. In of which from circulation was decreed on Nov. November, 1883, Bolivian explorers announced 5, 1881.
the navigability of the Pilcomayo river throughThe following tables exhibit the sources, out, which circumstance, with the completion destinations, and values respectively of the Ar- of the Northern Central Railway, will establish gentine imports and exports for the year 1882: easy communication between the two countries. FROM IMPORTS.
The export branch of this trade consists chiefly Belgium...
$2.775.785 of bismuth, tin, silver, silver-ore, etc., while Bolivia..
128.688 the imports are European manufactures. Brazil
15,185 Thus, the foreign commerce of the republic France
11,793,701 for 1882 was of the aggregate value of $117,Germany
4,610,925 Great Britain
711,271, constituting an increase of $7,612,518 Holland.
978,011 as compared with 1881. On comparing the Italy.
2,823,301 value of the imports and exports for each of Paraguay Portugal.
85,555 these two years, it will be seen that the balSpain..
2,812,409 ance of trade for 1882 ($829,461) was against, United States
while that for 1881 ($1,039,455) was in favor West Indies...
120,867 of the republic. It has been officially objected, Other countries
8,839,712 however, that the unfavorable showing for Total (for 1832).
$59.270,866 1882 is rather apparent than real, since of the Against (for 1881)
54,029,649 value of the imports $4,513,638 were for “arIncrease in 1882..
ticles of a productive character, such as rail
way materials, machinery for industrial purBelgium...
$18,901,460 poses, and a large quantity of tools and agriculBolivia.
818,605 tural implements.”* Among the more extensive Brazil. Chili.
1,463,078 consumers of Argentine products, as shown by France.
15,869,992 the foregoing table of exports, France stands Germany,
4,648,995 first, Belgium second, Great Britain third, Holland....
65,660 Germany fourth, and the United States fifth. Italy.
1,620.931 In the table of imports, those same countries Paraguay Portugal
28.780 range in the following order as shippers to the South Africa
162,768 republic: Great Britain first, France second, Spain
1,260,562 the United States third, Germany fourth, and United States Uruguay
1,982,639 Belgium fifth. The imports from Germany, West Indies.
1,411.56! the United States, and Great Britain are steadiOther countries.
ly increasing, wbile those from Belgium and Total (for 1882)..
$58,440,905 France fluctuate from year to year; and the Against (for 1881).
exports to Germany and France, and particuIncrease (in 1882).
$2,371,801 larly to the former, have increased, while The exports and imports for the first ten those to the other three countries have fluctumonths of 1883 were of the respective values ated during the seven years 1876–82. of $35,532,486 and $50,176,456, against $34, Of the aggregate trade-imports and exports 325,245 and $41,217,972 respectively for the-of the republic with all countries for the sepcorresponding period of 1882.
tennial period 1876–82, the subjoined table exThe trade in transitu for 1882 was as follows: hibits the proportions represented by each of
the five countries just referred to: COUNTRIES.
Inward. Outward. Chief among the competitors of the United Bolivia
States, as a supplier of the Argentine Republic, Brazil.
is Great Britain. Chili.
The American articles shipped most extenParaguay
55,133 588,660 Uruguay
sively to the republic are: lumber ($2,019,216 Other countries (of Europe)... 2,977,749 18.050,403 in 1882, against $157,090 from Great Britain); Totals........
agricultural instruments ($528,046, the total
from all countries having been $727,807); kerBolivia, now landlocked, finds a convenient osene ($363,139); books and other printed matchannel for her foreign commerce through ter ($98,326); machinery ($126,588); manufact
1876. 1877. 1878. 1879. 1880. 1881. 1882.
8.9 17.0 8.2
7.9 22.8 6.6
COASTING AND FLUVIAL TRADE.
ured tobacco ($120,339); clocks and watches The distribution of the foreign carrying($30,347, against $24,006 from France, and $14,- trade by flags was as follows: British, 31 per 926 from Great Britain). Of American musical cent.; French, 16; Argentine, 13; Italian, 9; instruments of all kinds, but $5,939 worth were Uruguayan, 9; German, 6; Brazilian, 4; Norsent to the republic in 1882. American ma- wegian, 4; Spanish, 3; American, 2; Belgian, chinery is fast gaining favor, no fewer than 1; others, 2. sixty-two locomotives having been ordered of a single Philadelphia firm in 1882, while the Entered : total number imported from the United States Stearners, 6,002, with an aggregate of 1,851,468 tons. in the year previous was but seven; and exten
476,465 * sive orders for rolling-stock, particularly draw
1,498,588 ing-room cars, were also given in 1883. Indeed, Sailing-vessels, 16,195,
500,838 " there is a growing appreciation of things Ameri
The distribution of this trade by flags was: can in the Argentine Republic.
Argentine, 57 per cent.; British, 24; French, The imports of specie in 1882 were $2,683,327, and the exports, $2,225,082; against $4,
9; Uraguayan, 3; Paraguayan, 2; others, 5. 157,648 and $2,991,305 respectively in 1881.
“We have no merchant navy," writes a nàChief among the Argentine export staples is
tive statistician," unless that name be given to wool; the quantity shipped in 1882 was 111,- which, with Italian and Austrian crews, ply
a few hundred barges, lighters, and schooners, 009,796 kilogrammes, of the value of $29,033,000, against 89,259,122 in 1876. Next in im- as they might carry the Turkish.”
on our rivers and carry the Argentine fiag just portance after wool are hides, of which but 1,945,427, of the value of $8,286,000, were ex
Railways. The railways in operation, and in ported in 1882, against 2,326,866 in 1876; then process of building, at the end of 1883, were as follow sheep-skins (22,353,021, of the value of $4,095,000 in 1882, against 27,597,973 for 1876); jerked beef, 26,996,613 kilogrammes, $3,766,000; tallow, $2,699,000; maize, 107,327,156 kilogrammes, $2,141,000; live cattle, Central Argentine (Rosario to Córdoba).. 94,649, $1,478,000; linseed, 23,351,794 kilo: Northern Central (Córdoba to Tucuman). grammes, $1,650,000; bones, ores, etc.
Northern Central (Tucuman to Jujuy).
Northern Central (branch from Frias to Agriculture, etc.—Until within a few years an Santiago).. importer, the Argentine Republic is now an ex
Northern Central (branch from Recreo to
Chumbicha)* porter of wheat in constantly increasing quan Andine (Villa Maria to La Paz) ....
470 tities: 1,705,292 kilogrammes in 1882. Sugar- Andine La Paz to San Juan via Mendoza) culture is rapidly developing in Tucuman, Sal
Western (Buenos Ayres to Bragado, and
branches to Pergamino and Lobos).. ta, Jujuy, Santiago, Corrientes, and in parts of Western (extensions). the Gran Chaco and Misiones. The total su
Southern (Buenos Ayres to Altamirano,
and branches to Olavarria and Tandil).. 679 gar-crop for 1882 was estimated at 11,615,000 Southern (Olavarria to Eahía Blanca).
86 kilogrammes. Tucuman now grows 17,500 acres
Northern (Buenos Ayres to El Tigre).... of cane, giving work to thirty-four mills. The Campana (Buenos Ayres to Campana).
Ensenada Buenos Ayres to Ensenada)... vine is extensively cultivated; Catamarca, in Eastern (Concordia to Ceibo)...... 1881, produced 1,200,000 gallons of wine, val- Puerto Ruiz and Gualeguay ued at $108,000; and, in 1882, San Juan pro- Transandine + (Mercedes in Buenos Ayres duced 5,236,186 gallons, valued at $1,107,275.
to Mercedes in San Luis)...
Santa Fé Colonial... But the main sources of the country's wealth are cattle-rearing and sheep-farming. There Totals...
2,950 2,567 were in the republic, at the beginning of 1883, 93,000,000 head of sheep, while Australia's
Tramways. At the end of 1882 there were filocks numbered but 72,000,000, and those of in the capital five tramway or horse-car lines, the United States, 41,000,000'; of horned cattle which, covering an aggregate of 95 miles, and there were 16,000,000 in the republic; and of with 1,001 employés, carried an average of 51,horses, about 5,000,000. The statistics of these 740 passengers daily. There were also lines in industries, for the single province of Buenos some of the smaller towns of the province of Ayres, were given in the census returns of Oct. Buenos Ayres; Córdoba city had two lines, 9, 1881, as follow : Sheep, 57,838,073; horned and Rosario one. cattle, 4,754,810; horses, 2,396,469; hogs,
Telegraphy.—The total length of the Argen155,134; goats, 7,612.
tine telegraph lines at the end of 1882 was 13,Shipping Movements.—The shipping movements 543 kilometres, of which 10,772 belonged to at the various ports of the republic were as be- the Government; there were 202 offices, and low, in 1882:
the number of dispatches transmitted through
out the year was 509,928, of which 71,838 Entered :
FOREIGN TRADE. Steamers, 8 010, with an aggregate of 1.104.927 tons. * From Chumbicha the line is to be extended southwest to Sailing-vessels, $,031,
La Rioja, and northeast to Catainarca. Cleared :
+ This line will open direct communication between Buenos Steamers, 2,742,
1,080,214 " Ayres and Santiago, the capital of Chill, and so between the Sailing-vessels, 2,023,
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
85 58 81 100 10
were official. By Dec. 31, 1883, 1,727 additional miles of Government line were completed. Telephone.—In December, 1882, there were two telephone companies in Buenos Ayres, with 1,500 subscribers. Post-Office.—In 1881 the number of letters that passed through the post-office was 9,723,740, of which 2,380,065 were official; and that of packages of printed matter, 6,132,374, of which 1,191,046 were to or from foreign countries. Improvements.-The much-needed work of improving the condition of the ports, which is “still almost the same as at the arrival of the first Spanish settlers,” says President Roca, was continued actively during the past year. The canalization of the Riachuelo, at Buenos Ayres, was sufficiently far advanced in January, 1883, to admit vessels of 1,120 tons register, and the intention is to prepare the harbor for craft of all sizes. ARIZONA. Territorial Government.-The following were the Territorial officers during the year: Governor, Frederick A. Tritle; Secretary, H. M. Van Arnam; Chief-Justice of Supreme Court, Charles G. W. French: Associate Justices, Wilson W. Hoover and Daniel H. Pinney. General Condition.—During the past two years the advancement of the Territory, both with regard to wealth in the development of profitable industries and increase of population, has been remarkable. The Territory can now claim 75,000 people and over $20,000,000 of taxable property; and while the progress of its civilization and the development of its resources have been opposed by most serious difficulties, it is now safe to say that those dangerous and disturbing elements are well under control. During the past two years exceptional development has been made in all industries, mining, grazing, and agricultural ; extensive railroad enterprises have been successfully completed ; and the affairs of the Territory generally are exceedingly prosperous. The great natural facilities of the country for stock-raising and wool-growing are beginning to be understood, and large droves of cattle and sheep are being driven in from the neighboring States and Territories. The valleys along the principal water-courses yield magnificent crops of grain, fruits, and vegetables, and even the mesa or table-lands adjacent will grow almost everything with a sufficient water-supply. The valleys of the Gila and Salt river are being rapidly settled. Beyond the making of flour and lumber the manufacturing interests of the Territory are in their infancy. Some of the native plants furnish excellent material for the manufacture of paper, coarse cloths, mats, ropes, and other articles. No attempt has been made to utilize this raw material, although it is known that the aborigines have succeeded, in their crude way, in making ropes of fair quality.
Mining.—Since the building of the Southern Pacific Railroad, mining has made rapid progress, and now Arizona stands second on the list of silver-producing States and Territories. Eight years ago the bullion yield of the Territory was but a little over $100,000, while now it stands third on the list in its yield of the precious metals. According to the best information at hand, the production of Arizona in gold and silver for the four years ending Dec. 31, 1882, was as follows: 1879 ............. $1,942,408 || 1881 ............. $8,198,766 - 4,472,471 | 18S2 ............. 9,298,267 A large quantity of rich ore and base bullion which finds its way out of the country is not included in the above. It is safe to estimate the value of such ores and bullion at 10 per cent. of the figures given. From careful estimates it is believed that Arizona's yield of gold and silver for 1883 will exceed $12,000,000. As near as can be ascertained, the copper yield of the Territory for the past three years has been as follows: Pounds. 15,000,000 The estimated yield for 1883 has been placed at from 20,000,000 to 25,000,000 pounds. The combined value of the silver and copper product for 1883 will be between fifteen and sixteen million dollars. Agriculture and Grazing—Irrigation is necessary to the raising of a crop in Arizona. It is estimated that there are at the present time between 60,000 and 70,000 acres under cultivation in the Territory, and that the quantity of grain (wheat, barley, and corn) produced during the year was nearly 60,000,000 pounds. In the valleys of the Gila and Salt rivers alone there are 400,000 acres which can be brought under cultivation, of which only about one tenth is now utilized. Two crops a year can be grown. After the wheat or barley is harvested, corn is planted. There are at present about 30,000 acres under cultivation along the Salt river, yielding, in 1883, 14,000,000 pounds of wheat, and 18,000,000 pounds of barley. Of fruit-trees there are nearly 40,000, and over 300,000 vines in bearing. Alfalfa is sown extensively, and yields three cuttings during the season, averaging two tons to the acre at a cutting. The number of cattle in the Territory is about 280,000, an increase of more than 300 per cent. during the past two years. It is estimated that the area of grazing-land in the Territory will reach 60,000 square miles. The country north of the thirty-fourth parallel is well adapted to the raising of sheep. The number of sheep in the Territory is placed at 300,000, and the yearly clip at 2,400,000 pounds. As near as can be ascertained, the number of horses, mules, and hogs in the several counties is as follows: