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The School System.—No Territory of the Union has a better school system than Arizona. All children of school age are compelled to attend the public schools, and the expenses are borne by a direct tax on the people. A superintendent is elected every two years. In each county the probate judge is ex-officio superintendent of the schools of his county. According to the latest census, the number of schools was 97. The total revenue for school purposes in the Territory, for 1882, was $101,967.35. There are many small communities that fail to receive any advantage from the school fund, owing to the necessity of only organizing schools with a large number of pupils. The number of children of school age is nearly 10,000. Railroads.-Arizona is now in possession of two transcontinental railroads. The Southern Pacific enters the Territory at Yuma, and crosses nearly along the line of the thirty-second parallel. Its length through the Territory is 389 miles. From Benson, 40 miles east of Tucson, the Arizona and New Mexico Railroad branches from the Southern Pacific and runs southward to Guaymas, on the Gulf of California. The length of this road through Cochise and Pilna counties is about 65 miles. The Atlantic and Pacific Railroad begins at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and strikes westward, following very nearly the line of the thirtyfifth parallel, to Colorado river. Its length through the Territory is about 350 miles. This road opens up the great coal-beds and the grand timber-belt of the Mogollon mountains. This great forest is nearly 200 miles in length by 60 in width, and contains some of the finest timber in the United States. There is also the Clifton and Lordsburg road, now nearly completed, running in this Territory a distance of about 60 miles, and furnishing an outlet to a very rich mineral and grazing region. Other roads have been projected, and some are under way. In connection with these roads there is over a thousand miles of telegraph lines. The Indian Question.—One of the greatest drawbacks to the prosperity of Arizona has been found in the hostile Apaches. o to 1874 they terrorized the entire Territory, kept out immigration and capital, and had life and property virtually at their mercy. In that year they were placed on a reservation, where those of them who are not absent in Mexico yet remain. . It was supposed that an end had been put to Indian troubles, but the raids of the

vol. xxiii.-2 A

past two years have shaken the feeling of security. There are in Arizona about 25,000 Indians occupying lands reserved to them by the General Government. A large part of them are self-supporting, although about 5,000 depend almost entirely upon the Government. The tribes occupying the Territory are the Hualapais, Yumas, Papagoes, Pimas, Maricopas, Mohaves, Navajos, Ava Supies, and Moquis; also various branches of the Apache family, who have been placed upon the San Carlos Reservation. With the exception, perhaps, of the Hualapais and Yumas, these indian tribes or cupy some of the finest spots in the Territory, covering a vast area. The Holi. and Yumas occupy reservations that are almost entirely barren lands. The principal dissatisfaction upon the San Carlos Reservation came from the Chiricahuas, and in April, 1882, it resulted in an open rebellion. On the morning of April 19th Loco's band of Chiricahuas broke out, and, after killing the chief of police, entered the valley of the Gila, and it is estimated that sixty industrious citizens were killed. The military force of the Territory was so small and so scattered that the raid was continued almost without interruption until the Indians reached the boundary line between Arizona and Sonora. Gen. Wilcox, then in command of this department, moved his forces with great activity, and the General of the Army, as well as the Secretary of War, responded promptly by sending more troops into the field, and several engagements took place within a few miles of the Sonora line, in which a number of the Indians were killed. The survivors, supposed to number about 500, took up their abode in the Sierra Madre mountains, in Sonora and Chihuahua, Mexico. They remained quiet until March, 1883, when a small number of them raided through Southeastern Arizona and Southwestern New Mexico, killed a number of citizens, and stole a large amount of property, returning to Mexico without receiving any punishment. Gen. George Crook visited Sonora and Chihuahua and arranged with the authorities there to take a military force into Mexico for the purpose of capturing these Indians. He found them encamped in the Sierra Madre mountains, but upon his approach many of the fighting men fled. An engagement was had, and some Indians killed. Quite a large number of men, women, and children were captured. With these the general returned and placed them upon their reservation. Lawlessness and the depredations of “cowboys” and “rustlers,” who at one time held portions of the Territory in a condition of terrorism, have succumbed in a large degree to law and order. ARKANSAS. State Government.—The State officers during the year were as follow: Governor, James H. Berry, Democrat; Secretary of State, Jacob Frolich; Auditor, A. W. Files; Treasurer, W. G. Woodruff, Jr.; Attorney-General, C. B. Moore; Superintendent of Public Instruction, W. E. Thompson; State Land Commissioner, W. P. Campbell. Judiciary, SuWoo. Court: E. H. English, Chief-Justice; W. . Smith and John R. Eakin, Associate Justices. Chancellor, D. W. Carroll. Legislative Session.—The Legislature met on the 8th of January, and adjourned on the 28th of March. The State was redistricted for congressional purposes as follows:


1st district, the counties of Randolph, Clay, Green, Lawrence, Sharp, Independence, Jackson, Craighead, Mississippi, Poinsett, Cross, Crittenden, St. Francis, Lee, Phillips, Desha, and Chicot.

district, the counties of Dorsey, Lincoln, Grant,

Jefferson, Arkansas, Monroe, Prairie, Lonoke, Woodruff, White, Faulkner, Conway, Pope, Van Buren, Stone, and Üleburne.

3d district, the counties of Polk, Howard, Sevier, Little River, Pike, Hempstead, Miller, Lafayette, Columbia, Nevada, Clark, Hot Spring, Dallas, Ouachita, Calhoun, Union, Bradley, Drew, and Ashley.

4th district, the counties of Crawford, Franklin, Johnson, Sebastian, Logan, Scott, Yell, Perry, Garland, Šajine, Pulaski, and Montgomery.

5th district, the counties of Benton, Washington, Madison, Carroll, Boone, Newton, Searcy, Marion, Baxter, Fulton, and Izar

An act was passed to provide for revising and digesting the statutes. Another act provides that “the charters and all the amendments thereto of all municipal corporations within this State, designated as cities of the second class and incorporated towns, may be surrendered, all offices held thereunto abolished, and the territory and inhabitants thereof remanded to the government of this State in the manner hereinafter provided.”

An act was passed to establish the county of Cleburne from portions of Van Buren, Independence, and White counties.

An important enactment was the following:

That if any o believing himself to be the owner, either in law or e o under color of title has Fo improved, or shall peaceably improve any and, which upon judicial investigation shall be decided to belong to another, the value of the improvement made as aforesaid, and the amount of all taxes which may have been paid on said land by such person and those under whom he claims, shall be paid by the successful party to such occupant, or the person under whom or from whom he entered and holds, before the court rendering judgment in such proceeding shall cause possession to be delivered to such successful party.

The principal law of the session, relating to the liquor-traffic, provides:

That any person owning or using or controlling any house or tenement of any kind, who shall sell or give away or cause or allow to be sold or given away any alcohol, ardent or vinous spirits or malt liquors, any compound or tincture commonly called bitters or tonics, whether the same be sold or given away, o or secretly, by such device as is known as “The Blind Tiger,” or by any other name or under any other device, shall be o of a misdemeanor, and if any person shall obtain any such alcohol, ardent or vinous spirits, or malt o: or any compound or tincture commonly called bitters or tonics, in any house, room, or tenement so owned, occupied, or controlled by another, by going therein or thereto, and by call, sound, word, or token, it shall be prima facie evidence of the

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ARTICLE XX. The General Assembly shall have no power to levy any tax, or to make any appropriations to pay either the principal or interest, or any part thereof, of any of the following bonds of the State, or the claims, or pretended claims, upon which they may be based, to wit: Bonds issued under an act of the General Assembly of the State of Arkansas, entitled “An act to provide for the funding of the public debt of the State,” approved April 6, A. D. 1869, and numbered from 491 to 1,860, inclusive, being the “funding bonds,” delivered to F. W. Caper, and sometimes called “Holford bonds,” or bonds known as railroad aid bonds, issued under an act of the General Assembly of the State of Arkansas, entitled “An act to aid in the construction of railroads,” approved July 21, A. D. 1868, or bonds called “levee bonds,” being bonds issued under an act of the General Assembly of the State of Arkansas, entitled “An act providing for the building and repairing the public levees of the State and for other purposes,” approved March 16 A. D. 1869; and the supplemental act thereto, approved April 12, 1869; and the act entitled “An act to amend an act entitled 'an Act providing for the building and repairing of the public levees of this State,’” approved March 23, A. D. 1871, and any law providing for any such tax or appropriation shall be null and void.

United States Senator Garland was re-electeCl. Finances.—The total amount of warrants drawn by the Auditor for the two years ending September 30, 1882, was $1,356,892.80, of which sum $498,382.63 was used in paying the current expenses of the State government for the two years. During the two years the 10 per cent. bonds of the State, known as the Baxter war bonds, amounting originally to $280,443.02, were redeemed and canceled. There is now outstanding only about $50,000 in State scrip. On the subject of the State debt, and the condition of the State's finances, Treasurer Woodruff says: “The redemption of the tenyear bonds, and the near absorption of the floating (scrip) debt, place the State in better financial condition than at any time since 1860. . . . Taking as correct the estimate of the bonded debt contained in statement No. 18, the acknowledged debt was, October 1, 1882,

$5,078,692. Of this amount, $2,495,500 bears of annoyance and embarrassment. The best interests interest at the rate of 6 per cent., and $22,000 of the people demand that the question of the State's at the rate of 5 per cent. per annum; $6,200 constitute a just claim, we ought to provide for their bears no interest, and will be redeemed before ultimate payment. If they are not a legitimate charge the Legislature meets. The remaining $2,554,- against the State, and we do not intend to pay them, 992 is unpaid interest accrued." In his message to the Legislature at the be- such a manner that we can not be misunderstood.

Two classes of these bonds, those known as the railginning of the year, the Governor says:

road aid and levee bonds, amounting to more than By reference to the reports of the Treasurer and Com- $10,000,000, have been declared by our Supreme missioner of State Lands, it will be seen that both rec- Court to have

been issued without authority of law, ommend the repeal of the donation or homestead and not binding upon the State. The remaining law, and that the forfeited lands, which now amount class, known as the Holford bonds, are based upon a to over 3,000,000 acres, be reserved, or sold only

for the claim which the authorities of the State refused to extinguishment of the State debt. This would seem recognize when first preferred-a claim the people to be a wise provision, and I most heartily concur in have never admitted to be just, but upon which they its recommendation.

have already paid all that, under any view of the Among the first things, however, to determine is, circumstances, could be claimed was either legal or of what does the just and legal debt consist? The le- equitable. In a matter of this magnitude it seems to gality and justness of a portion of this debt have been me eminently proper that the question should be questioned, and much bad feeling has been engendered withdrawn from the General Assembly and placed ainong the people of the State. Among all classes, directly before the people. Under our present syshowever, there is a disposition to act honorably and tem the railroad property practically escapes taxation, honestly by the State's creditors. The mass of the the total amount of State taxes upon railroad property people are honest and in favor of honest methods, upon last year's assessment, excluding lands, being and the one important point first to determine is, only $2,400. Some of these railroad corporations whether common honesty demands payment of any claim to be exempt from taxation by their charters. portion of our disputed indebtedness.

This claim should be thoroughly investigated. Repudiation, in any form or in any shape, can be fraught only with evil. No constitutional enactment

The Governor proposed a new revenue law, can do away with the State's legal responsibility for “that will compel assessors to assess all of the paper issued by her.

property of the State at its true value ; that The history of the issuance of $5,300,000 of bonds will impose upon railroad property its just to aid in the construction of railroads is well known. The bonds were issued to the roads, taken to New portion of taxes, levied for the benefit of all; York and other commercial centers, sold, and the pro- that will prevent tax-dodging," etc. ceeds used by the roads to aid in their construction. Ballroad Aid Bonds.--The railroad aid bonds When this was done, there was a contract between were issued by the State under the act of the

roads and the state that the latter should be held 1868. They were accepted and used by five harmless. These bonds are now in the hands of innom railroad companies, to which the following State has declared the act under which the bonds issues of bonds were made: were issued illegal, and as the General Assembly, at its Little Rock and Fort Smith....

$1,000,000 extraordinary session in 1874, repealed the act pro- Little Rock, Pine Bluff, and New Orleans......... 1.200,000 viding for the sequestration of the earnings of the Mississippi. Ouachita, and Red River...

600,000 roads, in default of payment of interest, it is contend- Memphis and Little Rock.

1,200,000 ed that the innocent holders of the bonds should re- Arkansas Central...

1,350,000 ceive nothing. So far as the State is concerned she


$5,350,000 can not be expected, nor is it assumed, by even the bondholders, that she ought to pay any part of this indebtedness. But does she not owe a duty to the in- interest at 7 per cent.

To which sum must be added twelve years' nocent purchasers of her bonds, to see that they are protected, and that the roads are compelled to comply

The Memphis and Little Rock Railroad with their contract? The State has the power, through Company owns and holds $938,000 of the $1,the Legislature, undoubted and supreme, to tax the 200,000 bonds originally issued to that corporailroads in an amount sufficient to meet the yearly ration, and the bonds owned and held by the interests and eventually the principal of these bonds; Little Rock and Fort Smith Railway Company this, irrespective of the unconstitutionality of the law amount to $644,000. These bonds were purunder which they were issued.

Since commencing my message, the Circuit Court chased years ago upon advice of counsel, at of the United States, for this state, has rendered a de- very low figures, with a view of hedging cision in regard to these railroad aid bonds, sustain against a possible decision by the courts, holding this view of the case, and therefore strengthens ing the railroads and not the State liable for this my recommendation.

I desire to again emphasize all that has heretofore the bonds issued to those corporations. The been said on the subject of the judgment held by citi- remainder are outstanding. zens against the State, on account of property taken from them during the pending of martial law in sev- all but one-the Arkansas Central—are thor

of the railway corporations above named, eral counties in 1869. Provision for the payment of oughly responsible, and fully able to liquidate this debt should be made at once.

the claims due on these bonds. Inaugural Views.—Gov. Berry was inaugurated on the 13th of January, and in his ad- and Fort Smith Railroad Company, in the

In the suit of Tompkins vs. the Little Rock dress expressed the following views:

United States Circuit Court, Judges Caldwell The fact that there are outstanding, bonds repre- and MoOrary held on demurrer that these senting some $13,000,000, which are claimed by the bonds were å lien on the railroads, but, at the which are believed by a large portion of our people to hearing on the merits, Justice Miller held the be fraudulent and void, has proved a constant source contrary. Judge Caldwell dissented, and the

case went to the Supreme Court of the United hoped by astronomers that the question of the States. These issues of railroad aid bonds form existence of an intra-Mercurial planet would a portion of the alleged public debt of the be definitely settled, as a special search had State, to repudiate which amendment No. 1 been arranged for by two parties of observers. was submitted to the electors in 1880, lost by The state of the atmosphere was favorable, the not receiving a constitutional majority, and duration of totality was unusually long, and will be resubmitted at the general election in Prof. Holden himself swept the region about 1884. The significance of Justice Miller's de- the sun with all possible attention. His search, cision is in holding the railroads harmless, and however, was entirely unsuccessful. The facts throwing the bonds back on the State, which of the case are thus exceedingly perplexing. issued them under an act in whose passage the That fixed stars, whose positions were well State Supreme Court has decided the necessary known, should have been mistaken for planets forms were not complied with.

by two experienced observers, such as Watson Miscellaneous.—The Insane Asylum has been and Swift, seems almost incredible. On the completed, and a State Board of Health organ- other hand, it is at least equally improbable ized. The building for a branch normal col- that Professors Holden and Palisa, with more lege for the education of colored teachers, time for the search, should have failed to denear Pine Bluff, has been completed.

tect a planet, if any were visible. During toIn March a joint legislative committee re- tality, M. Trouvelot noticed a reddish star of ported the net deficit of Gov. Churchill's ac the fifth magnitude-not far from the suncounts, as State Treasurer during three terms, which he has not since been able to identify. to be $233,616.89, differing widely from the Markings and Spots on Mercury.—"The Monthprevious report of a Senate committee, which ly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society" made the deficit about $114,000.

for March, 1883, contains the results of the reASTRONOMICAL PHENOMENA AND PROGRESS. cent observations of Mercury by Mr. W.F. DenSolar Activity.—The year 1883 has been char- ning, of Bristol, Eng., and Sig. Schiaparelli

, of acterized by considerable disturbance of the Milan, Italy. The former saw several dark, sun's surface. The “Comptes Rendus," vol. irregular spots on the mornings of Nov. 6, 7, xcvii, No. 4, describes in detail the phenomena 9, and 10, 1882; also a small bright spot and observed from the 16th to the 23d of Julya a large white area. The south horn of the period of very marked activity. At 4 o'clock planet was also seen on several mornings to be on the afternoon of the 16th, M. Thollon saw, very much blunted. Both Denning and Schiaon the sun's eastern limb, a most brilliant parelli find the markings on Mercury much prominence, in which the spectroscope indi- more distinct than those on Venus. They find, cated a violent displacement of the C line. At moreover, that the former bears a more strik55. 20". this displacement was so pronounced ing resemblance, in its physical aspect, to Mars that M. Thollon inferred an approach of solar than to Venus. Without undertaking to give matter at the rate of 186 miles a second-ten an exact determination of Mercury's rotationtimes the velocity of the earth in its orbit. period, Mr. Denning expresses the opinion, conSomewhat earlier in the afternoon a smaller curred in by Schiaparelli

, that Schroeter's pedisplacement was observed in the opposite di- riod of 24h. 5m. 30'is too short. The observarection. On the 21st and 22d, a considerable tions of these astronomers give promise that part of the sun's southern hemisphere gave this element, bitherto somewhat doubtful, may signs of great agitation. A large group, con soon be accurately found. sisting of spots too numerous to be counted, The Transit of Venus on Dec. 6, 1882.—The vawas seen near the eastern margin, and a long rious expeditions sent to different parts of the chain of spots, at almost regular intervals, world to observe the transit of Venus in 1882 stretched across the disk, from limb to limb. were generally successful. At the Naval ObOn the morning of the 22d a brilliant promi- servatory, Washington, D.O., Prof. E. Frisby, nence attracted attention, and a number of with the 26-inch equatorial telescope, observed metallic lines were strongly reversed. M. Thol- the four contacts as follows: lon says he had never, in so short a time, seen First contact... so many large displacements of the spectral

Second contact.

Third contact. lines.

Fourth contact... Total Eclipse of May 6, 1883.—This eclipse was observed at Caroline Ísland, in the South Pa. Capt. Sampson observed with the 9-inch equatocific Ocean, by parties from the United States,

8h. 56m. 458.
9 16 9
2 88 57


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rial telescope as follows:

First contact. Paris, and Vienna. The expedition sent by Second contact. , the United States Government was under the Third contact. direction of Prof. Edward S. Holden, of the

Fourth contact..

Uncertain Washburn Observatory, at Madison, Wis. Oth- The observations at Princeton, N. J., were reer members of the party were Lieut. Brown, of ported by Prof. Young in the "Sidereal Mesthe Navy; Prof. Hastings, of the Johns Hop- senger" for January, 1883. All of the kins University; Prof. O. S. Peirce, of the contacts were observed. One hundred and Coast and Geodetic Survey; and Mr. C. H. eighty-eight photographs were taken by Prof. Rockwell, of Tarrytown, N. Y. It had been Bracket. The spectroscopic observations by

Sh. 55m. 9.968. 9 16

18.96 2 89


Prof. Young and Mr. McNeill showed unmis- mapped about 1870, six have entirely disaptakably the presence of water-vapor in the at- peared. Seven new ones have been found, mosphere of Venus. “Between the first and however, during the recent observations. second contacts the atmosphere of the planet 2. A very large increase in visibility is found was conspicuous as a delicate halo around its in the spots numbered 12 and 13 on the chart disk."

of the floor of Plato. The latter also exhibits The transit was observed at Vassar College, some remarkable changes in form. Poughkeepsie, N. Y., by Prof. Maria Mitchell 3. No. 16 has to a considerable extent deat Harvard College Observatory, by Prof. Pick- creased in brightness. ering and others; at Dearborn Observatory, 4. Several streaks in the floor of the crater Chicago, by Professors G. W. Hough and S. W. have sensibly increased in breadth; three new Burnham; at Allegheny Observatory, Pa., streaks have appeared within the past ten by Prof. S. P. Langley; at Tarrytown, N. Y., years, and several that were distinctly visible by Mr. Charles H. Rockwell; at Columbus, O., about 1870 can not now be found. by Prof. R. W. McFarland and Mr. F. H, El 5. Very obvious changes in the state of the dredge; at Phelps, N. Y., by Mr. W. R. Brooks; floor of the crater have taken place since the at Nashville, Tenn., by Prof. E. E. Barnard ; at observations of 1869–71. New Windsor, Ill., by Prof. E. L. Larkin; and Diameter of the Moon.—Prof. H. M. Paul, of by many others in various parts of the country. the United States Navy, has lately redeterThe observations of foreign astronomers were mined the semi-diameter of the moon from two also generally successful."How long it will occultations of the Pleiades, observed on July be before the observations, especially the pho- 6, 1877, and September 6, 1879. His value of tograph and heliometer measures, are fully re- the mean apparent semi-diameter is 15' 31678"; duced and published, it is impossible to say. corresponding to a diameter of 2158-3 miles. It must be years at least. After this is done, Minor Planets. The 282d minor planet was it will be extremely probable that some high detected on the 21st of January, 1883, by Herr authority, perhaps an international commis- Palisa, of the Vienna Observatory. It is of sion, should collect and discuss all the various the twelfth magnitude, and is the thirty-ninth observations, both of this transit and that of discovered by this observer. The right to 1874, and, from the enormous mass of material select a name was delegated to Dr. Engelthus obtained, deduce the best final result which hardt, of Dresden, who

called it Russia. Its it can furnish—a result which can not fail to be elements, computed by Dr. Herz, from Vienna of the highest value in settling the dimensions observations of January 31st, Rome, March of our universe." *

8th, and Dresden, April 13th, are as follow: Mr. A. Stanley Williams, who observed the

Epoch, April 15.3, Berlin mean time, transit at Brighton, Eng, while examining the Longitude of perihelion...

2000 24' 87' border of light around Venus, noticed this

Longitude of ascending node.

Inclination.... fringe to be very conspicuous on the southern

Mean daily motion. portion of the planet's limb, but very faint and Period..

1489.26 days.

Mean distance. narrow elsewhere. During the transit, how


.. 0.1754 ever, some change was manifest in the relative brightness at different parts of the ring. The diately exterior to the well-known hiatus where

The mean distance falls in the cluster immephenomenon was ascribed by Mr. Williams to the presence of clouds on the limb of Venus.

the period of an asteroid would be one third The Moon-In “The Observatory " for March

that of Jupiter.

Another asteroid was discovered at MarWest Brighton, Eng., gives an interesting ac- light is about equal to that of a star of the West Brighton, Eng., gives an interesting ac- seilles, on the 11th of May, by M. Borelly. Its Plato during the past five years. The condi- of the year was detected, August 12th, by Dr.

eleventh magnitude. The third minor planet tion of our satellite has long been regarded as Peters, of Clinton, N. Y. This is the 234th dead and changeless: but the observations of of the group, and the 420 discovered by him. Mr. Williams, in connection with a most care. It is of the ninth magnitude, and its approxiful examination of the floor of Plato by several astronomers from 1869 to 1871, reveal the fact mate elements are as follows: of undoubted physical changes within the past Epoch, 1888, August 80-3, Berlin mean time. twelve years. The evidence of variation does Longitude of ascending node not rest on the testimony of a single observer,

Inclination..... Observations of Plato were simultaneously con- Mean daily motion ::

Eccentricity ducted by the Rev. J. B. Allison, of Chester Period...

1854.7 days.

Mean distance field; W. F. Denning, of Bristol; T. P. Gray, of Bedford; and H. Pratt, of Brighton. Some Owing to the great eccentricity of this of the changes discovered by a comparison of planet's orbit, its least distance from the sun the late observations with those of 1869–71 is only 1.812.' Its remarkable brightness when are as follow:

discovered was due to the fact that it was 1. Of the

thirty-seven spots observed and nearly in opposition, as well as near the sun, at "Sidereal Messenger," February, 1888.

the time of its detection. The 235th minor

152 80

6 8 870.2296"

28 84


832° 6' 85.5" 144 6

15 81 19 0.2436 956.674"


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