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at the Khyber pass. The spirit of discontent Another systematic act fixes the rate of poll began to pervade the great Ĝhilzai nation, up- and other taxes, the amount and kind of license on whose loyalty the power of the Amir main- fees, and defines the classes of taxable property. ly rests. These warning signs impelled Abdur. By an act "to establish a Department of Agrahman not to strain his authority, and he ac- riculture for the State of Alabama," a departcordingly withdrew the military and yielded ment of agriculture is created and established to the demands of the Shinwarris.
“which shall be under the management and The British, seeing the power of the Amir control of the Commissioner of Agriculture, broken in the north and threatened in the who shall be a practical and experienced agrisouth, and knowing that the treasure which culturist. Said commissioner shall be appointed they had given him three years before, with by the Governor, and shall hold his office for which he had established his position, was the term of two years, and until his successor exhausted, thought they could strengthen his is appointed and qualified.” hands to maintain his power and at the same An act " to assist the University of Alabama, time secure his wavering and uncertain attach- and the State Agricultural and Mechanical Colment by coming to him in the hour of his need lege, in furnishing additional room for students with the promise of a stated annual allowance and facilities for instruction," appropriates the sufficient to support his power and state. Pe- sum of $90,000. It was further enacted that cuniary gifts and subsidies have been a feature “Jandlords of storehouses, dwelling-houses, and of British policy in Afghanistan from the be- other buildings shall have a lien for rent, upon ginning. Dost Mohammed received, by the such goods, furniture, and effects as may belong treaty of 1856, twelve lacs of rupees per an- to the tenant, and that this lien shall be a supenum during the war with Persia, besides large rior lien to all other liens on said goods, except occasional presents of money and arms. Shere for taxes.” Ali was the recipient of lavish gifts of money An act "to prevent monopolies in the transand munitions of war, and a treaty to bestow portation of freight, and to secure free and fair on him a subsidy of 'twelve lacs a year was competition in the same," provides that "it in negotiation when bis secret understanding shall be unlawful for two or more railroad comwith Russia was discovered, and was declared. panies or persons operating railroads in this Sir Louis Cavagnari, whose murder created a State to enter into any agreement among themfresh rupture, was the bearer of an offer to selves, directly or indirectly, for the division Yakub Khan of half that amount per annum. among themselves of the freight-carrying busiWhen the British set Abdurrahman on the ness at any station, town, or city in this state, throne, they supplied him with treasure to the or into any pool arrangement among themselves amount of over thirty lacs of rupees, or nearly of the nature and character aforesaid, the oba million and a half of dollars. The offer now ject, purpose, and effect of which in either event made to Abdurrahman by the Indian Govern- shall be to prevent free and fair competition ment, and accepted by him, was twelve lacs among said railroad companies or persons operof rupees per annum. The payment of this ating said railroads, for said freight-carrying large subsidy is conditional on his conforming business, and to establish extortionate rates in his external policy to the wishes and interests favor of said companies or persons in doing of the British Empire.
said business, and which shall have the effect ALABAMA. State Government.—The following of being in undne restraint of the trade and were the State officers during the year: Gov- business at any such station, town, or city of ernor, Edward A. O'Neal, Democrat; Secre- this State"; that "it is the true intent and meantary of State, Ellis Phelan, Treasurer, Fred- ing of this act that any such agreement rates erick H. Smith; Auditor, Jesse M. Carmichael; or pool agreement made by any convention or Attorney-General, Henry O. Tompkins; Su- association of freight agents, or commissioner perintendent of Public Instruction, Henry C. of freight rates or rate-making committee outArmstrong. Judiciary, Supreme Court-Chief- side of this state, but to be performed in whole Justice, Robert C. Brickell; Associate Justices, or in part in this state, shall as to such part of George W. Stone and H. M. Somerville. the same as is to be performed within this
Legislative Session. — The Legislature, which State, come within the provisions of this act.” was in session at the beginning of the year, Other acts were entitled as follows: adjourned near the close of February. Perhaps the most important act of the session was one county convicts.
To regulate the hiring and treatment of State and "to provide for the assessment and collec To regulate the business of co-operative and mution of taxes for the use of this state and the tual aid and relief associations, societies, and corcounties thereof, and to define the duties of porations. officers engaged about the said assessment and logical and Agricultural Survey of the State of Ala
To amend an act to revive and complete the Geocollection of taxes."
bama. It provides a complete system, and contains To provide for the introduction of the study of the stringent provisions requiring individuals and laws of health in the public schools of this state. corporations to make return by specific items of the general incorporation laws to extend their lines their property, and special provisions relating to and build branch roads. railroad, telegraph, and telephone companies. To vacate and annul the charter and dissolve the
corporation of the city of Selma, and to provide for of tax retained in these five counties for the the application of the assets thereof to the payment of school fund, which of course never reached the the debts thereof. To prevent cruelty to animals.
State treasury, was $43,435.25, or over 19 per To empower the Railroad Commission of Alabama cent. of the whole school fund. to recommend joint local rates on freight to railroad Adding to the tax of the counties mentioned companies and persons operating railroads in this that of Barbour, Bullock, Jackson, Lowndes, State.
To provide for the comfort and accommodation of Talladega, and Tuscaloosa, all of which pay passengers at each of the passenger depots along the
over $15,000, we have the eleven counties in line of every railroad operated by every railroad com- the State which pay over $15,000 in direct pany in this State.
taxes, paying considerably more than half the To provide that a determination of any matter by entire property-tax of $651,156.83. The black the Railroad Commission within its jurisdiction shall belt is still by far the richest portion of the be prima facie evidence that such determination was right and proper, etc.
State, especially if we include those black counTo conter police powers upon the conductors of ties which are not in the black belt proper. passenger-trains in this State.
The entire tax paid by Montgomery county, To make appropriations for the payment of the rail- for general purposes, for the school fund, from road commissioners and their clerk, and for other expenses of the Railroad Commission.
licenses and from general taxes, aggregated To incorporate the inhabitants and territory for- $93,383.75. The whole amount paid by Mobile merly embraced within the corporate limits of the county was $109,620.64. The next bighest was municipal corporation, since dissolved, sty led the city Dallas, with $40,983. Of the $651,156.83 paid of Selma, and to establish a local government therefor. into the treasury from the tax on property, holders' and directors' meetings outside of this state Montgomery and Mobile paid $164,976.67, or in certain cases.
about one fourth. The amount of appropriations for the fiscal
Congressional Election.—On the 2d of January, year was $1,120,435.
Gen. Joseph Wheeler was elected, by a majorStatistics. —The total taxable property in Ala- ity of 3,846, to fill the vacancy in the 8th disbama in the year 1881, on which the tax trict, caused by the death of Ňr. Lowe. for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1882,
Miscellaneous.—In February, Walter L. Bragg was collected, is $152,880,069.24.
was chosen President of the Railroad Com
Of this ainoant the railroads of the State furnished
mission. James Crook and Charles P. Ball $17,574,583. The total railroad mileage in
were chosen members. In January, State Alabama is, main track, 1,788 miles; side-track, Treasurer Isaac H. Vincent absconded, leav131 miles—1,919 in all. The total valuation of ing a deficit of about $212,000.
ALGERIA. See FRANCE. track is $15,801,829.78; of rolling-stock, $1,762,753.89. The average value of the main
AMSTERDAM EXPOSITION. See WORLD'S FAIR
AT AMSTERDAM. track is $8,643 per mile. Of the several railroads in the State, the Nashville and Decatur work of the Church of England, and the vari
ANGLICAN CHURCHES. An exhibit of the has the highest valuation, it being $14,000 per mile. Of the whole taxable property, the rail
ous societies co-operating with it, is given in roads furnish over 11 per cent. Variations in
“ The Official Year-Book of the Church of land values, shown by the Auditor's report, are
England," the first volume of which was pubas numerous as the counties in the State." In lished in 1883, under the sanction of the ArchBaldwin, the value is 65 cents per acre. Even bishops and Bishops of the English, Irish, and in so rich a county as Barbour, the valuation Scottish Churches, and of the lower house of is only $3.50 per acre ; in Cherokee, $4.50; in the Convocation of Canterbury. The present Escambia, less than 50 cents ; in Etowah, $6.50; number of dioceses in the Church of England, in Limestone, $5.11; in Lowndes, $5.06; in including the two archdioceses, is thirty-two. Madison, $6; in Marshall, over $1; in Wash. With them are connected 17,970 clergymen, of ington, less than 50 cents.
whom 11,186 are registered as “incumbents The whole tax raised on property that reached resident,”. 1,509 as "incumbents non - resithe Treasury in the fiscal year ending Septem- dent,” 387 as "curates in sole charge,” and ber 30, 1882, was $651,156.83. Of this amount 4,888 as “ assistant curates." In communion the five counties in the State paying over $20, with the Church of England are the Church 000 apiece contributed $254,351.56, or 39 per copal Church of Scotland, having seven dio
of Ireland, having twelve dioceses; the Episcent. The amounts paid by each of these counties were as follow:
ceses; sixty colonial dioceses in America, Asia,
Africa, Australasia, New Zealand, and other Mobile..... Montgomery
$93.917 28 colonial settlements, and the Protestant EpisDallas.
86.535 23 copal Church in the United States. (See the Jefferson..
27,255 35 article on ProteSTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH.) Madison
The official records of the sereral dioceses of The county coming next to these, but pay- the Church of England show the number of ing less than $20,000, is Barbour, with $19,- ordinations to the order of deacons, during the 185.30. The amount of licenses paid by these ten years ending in 1881, to have been 6,560. five counties is $25,998.90, or 36 per cent of The number of confirmations during the same the whole amount of license-tax. The amount period was 1,471,718. Five general societies, two of them dating from the last century, aid trust, exercise, and dispose of the patronage of theological students requiring pecuniary help; benefices. besides which a few diocesan societies exist for The Church of England Temperance Society, the same purpose, and special funds are set formed in 1862, bas organizations in twentyapart in some of the theological schools. Spe- nine dioceses, twenty-six of which return 2,443 cial theological training is given at ten theo. branch societies. Steps have been taken in later logical schools, besides the universities. The years for making the cathedrals more accessible Society for Promoting the Employment of to the people, and introducing into them serAdditional Curates returns an income of vices adapted to popular wants, and for encour£42,686, and supports, in whole or in part, aging the employment of lay-readers and as620 clergymen; the Church Pastoral Aid So- signing them a recognized place in the service ciety, existing with the similar purpose of in- of the church. Much attention has also been creasing the number of clergymen and lay given to the sending out of earnest men and peragents, returns an income of £55,659, and suasive speakers to interest the masses in relimaintains, wholly or in part, 540 clergymen gious concerns, or in the work of what are called and 168 lay agents. Besides these societies “Parochial Missions." The Church Parochial and similar diocesan organizations, societies Mission Society, organized in 1873, supports exist within the Church, whose object it is to eight preachers, and reported, in 1881, that support agencies supplementary to clerical more than 500 'missions had been held by its work; and numerous special mission agencies agents. Similar enterprises are sustained by a are maintained in all the large centers of popu. number of diocesan organizations. Nine dealation, and among particular classes of work- conesses' institutions have been formed in difingmen, wherever they are congregated; in ferent dioceses, as homes for women who will the army and navy; among British seamen devote themselves to religious work and the abroad, at seventy foreign ports; among the care of the sick. They returned, in 1881, 190 fishermen of the Mersey and the Thames; nurses domiciled within them. The National among navvies, or laborers on works of pub- Society for Promoting the Education of the Poor lic improvement; among bop-pickers; among in the Principles of the Established Church has homeless and friendless women and girls and spent, since its formation, in 1811, more than abandoned women; among emigrants collect- £1,100,000 in furtherance of its object, involved at ports of embarkation preparatory to ing, according to the statement of its secretary, sailing; and among the miscellaneous popu- an expenditure of at least twelve times as much lations of the lower classes in the larger towns from other sources, for the same end. In 1881 and cities.
it returned 11,589 efficient church schools unAccording to the report presented by Lord der government inspection, which afforded acHampton in the House of Lords in 1874, 1,727 commodation for 2,351,235 children, or more churches and 27 cathedrals had been built, and than half the school accommodation of the 7,117 churches restored, froin 1840 to that time, country. Thirty colleges have been established at a total cost of £25,548,703. According to a for the training of teachers, in which two thirds later return, the sum of £4,326,469 was spent of the entire number of trained teachers in the in thirteen dioceses upon church building and country have received their professional edurestoration between 1872 and 1881. Among cation. Provision is made for the religious inthe larger funds in aid of this purpose are that spection of the schools under the direction of of the Incorporated Church Building Society, the bishops in the several dioceses, and for the which has expended for it £785,859 since 1818, regular examination of students in religious and which granted £13,690 in 1881, and the knowledge. A society of fellows of a college Bishop of London's Fund, applicable to the has been formed for the promotion of middlediocese of London alone, of which £588,412 class schools; and eight such schools provide were spent during the eighteen years ending for the education of more than two thousand with 1881. The Ecclesiastical Commissioners boys and girls. The interests of Sunday-schools were the means of securing through their own are cared for by the Church of England Sungrants and the benefactions that were called day-School Institute, which publishes returns out to meet them, between 1840 and 1880, a from 8,405 of the 14,466 parishes in England total increase in the incomes of benefices of and Wales, of 16,498 Sunday-schools with 113,£765,500, representing a capital sum of about 412 teachers and 1,289,273 enrolled scholars. £23,000,000 ; and during 1881 they made 347 The tendencies of inodern thought which are grants, amounting to £26,270, to maintain as- described under the general term of “secusistant clergy in twenty dioceses. The Free larism” are opposed by the Christian Eviand Open Church Association seeks to multi- dence Society, in which the Church co-opply free sittings in churches; to spread the doc- erates with other denominations, and which trine that the offertory is an obligation " for works by means of conferences and meetwhich there is a direct scriptural warrant"; ings, sermons, lectures, open-air lectures, inand to have the churches opened daily for pri- struction of classes, publication and other n. vate prayer. It is also prepared to receive and cies; and by the Christian Evidence Committee hold trust gifts for building, endowing, and re- of the Society for the Promotion of Christian pairing free-seated churches, and to accept in Knowledge.
Missionary Societies. The principal foreign dren had been baptized in London up to 1881. missionary societies of the Church are the “So- Its missionaries estimate that there are now ciety for the Propagation of the Gospel in 2,000 Christian Israelites in London, and probaForeign Parts," which was organized in 1701 bly a thousand inore in other parts of England, and has missions in all the British colonies and that there are nearly 5,000 Jewish Chrisamong colonists and natives ; the “Church tians in Prussia. Missionary Society for India and the East," The ordinary increase of the Society for the organized in 1799, and having missions, chiefly Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts to the heathen, in West, East, and Central Af- for 1882 was £109,041. Including £33,571 adrica, Palestine, Persia, India, Ceylon, Mauri. ditional of gifts for special purposes, the gross tius, China, Japan, New Zealand, Northwest receipts were £142,612. The general fund had America, and the North Pacific coast and isl. increased £7,805 in two years. Five hundred ands; the Zenana Missionary Society, affiliated and twenty-seven ordained ministers were emwith the Church Missionary Society, and labor- ployed by the society, of whom 161 were laboring among women exclusively; the South Amer- ing in Asia, 129 in Africa, 20 in Australia and ican Missionary Society, founded in 1844, and the Pacific, 216 in America and the West Indies, having missions in the southern part of South and one in Europe. There were also in the vaAmerica and among Indians of the Patagonian rious missions abont 1,400 catechists and lay race; the Universities Mission to Central Afri- teachers, mostly natives, and about 300 students ca, founded in 1859, especially to take care of in colleges. An important change had been Africans freed by the British Government from made in the constitution and administration slavery, and having its center of operations at of the society. A supplemental charter granted Zanzibar and in the neighboring regions of by the Crown had removed the various anomaAfrica; the Oxford Mission to Calcutta, or- lies which in the course of 181 years had surganized in 1830; the Cambridge Mission to rounded the ancient charter ; and the incorNorth India, formed in 1876; the Indian Church porated members scattered over the whole Aid Association, formed in 1880; the mission country now possessed by representation that in the Diocese of Maritzburg, South Africa; the power in the conduct of the society's affairs Melanesian Mission, begun in 1848; the Colo- which a very large proportion of them had not nial and Continental Church Society, for pro- previously enjoyed. viding clergymen, teachers, etc., for the colo- The ordinary income of the Church Missionnies of Great Britain, and to minister to British ary Society for 1882 was £200,402; including residents in other parts of the world; and the in addition the special gifts, the gross receipts Anglo-Continental Society, instituted in 1853, amounted to £225,231. The total expenditures " to serve as an organ of the Church of Eng- were £215,483. Missionary work was carried land in dealing with Christians outside of Eng- on at 206 stations, under the agency of 227 land.” Six special colleges or mission-bouses ex- European ordained missionaries, 244 native ist for the training of missionaries, and twenty clergy, 44 European lay missionaries, 3,106 na"Missionary Studentship Associations” hare tive lay agents. Of 182,000 native Christian been formed in different dioceses.
adherents reported, 37,391 were communicants. The Colonial Bishopric's Fund was founded New work had been taken up, or extended, in 1811, to promote the growth of the Church at the Afghan frontier, at Kok-Ning-Fu in the in the colonies and distant dependencies of the Fuhkien province of China, among the EsquiBritish Crown, by securing the endowment of maux, at Bagdad, and at Cairo, Egypt, to the bishoprics in them. From its foundation to Mohammedans. A gift of £72,000 had been 1882 it had been the means of raising £635,311 received from Mr. W. C. Jones for a “ William toward the endowment of forty-one sees. Charles Jones China and Japan Native Church
The London Society for Promoting Chris- and Mission Fund." tianity among the Jews was founded in 1809, Convocation of Canterbury. Both houses of the and has been distinctively a Church of Eng- Convocation of Canterbury met for business, land institution since 1815. It seeks to extend for the first time in the year, April 10th. A its labors among the people of the Hebrew race minute was unanimously adopted in the upper wherever they may be found, and has mission house, with the expectation that the lower stations in England, Austria, France, Germany, house would concur in it, taking notice of the Holland, Italy, Persia, Poland, Turkey, the death of the late archbishop. A "statement" Principalities, Asia Minor, Syria, and North was then made by the committee, to whom America, with a special station, comprising had been referred the question of the attitude schools, an inquirer's home, a house of indus- the Church should assume with reference to try, and a hospital at Jerusalem. It promotes the movements of the Salvation Army. The the circulation of the Hebrew Bible, of a trans- archbishop represented in behalf of the comlation of the liturgy of the Church of England, mittee that it had not been found possible to and of controversial works, and maintains make any definite statement or recommendaschools in London, Warsaw, Bucharest, and tion on the subject, as the committee considJerusalem. It reports that 360 Israelites had ered that the movements of the organization been baptized at Warsaw before the mission were still in a transitory condition, and he sugwas broken up, and 767 adults and 784 chil. gested that the committee should be constituted as one of inquiry rather than as a com- above referred to; and, lastly, to the grave consemittee to make any report or recommendation. quences which must ensue if the law of the Church In the course of the discussion which followed,
and the law of the state be brought into open opposi
tion. while some of the bishops thought that the Salvation Army was doing a good work in par- The subject was referred in the upper house ticular places, and others conceded that its to a committee, wbose report, which was promoters were actuated by good intentions adopted, besides minutely setting forth the conand motives, the general expression of opinion siderations on which the action was based, was, that many of the methods employed by it embodied a resolution to the effect that “this were unhealthful and likely to lead to immo- house concurs with the lower house in their rality. The committee was reconstituted, and earnest desire for the inaintenance in its integinstructed to consider whether the Church rity of the Table of Prohibited Degrees, set should take any steps having particular refer- forth in the year of our Lord 1563, in order to be ence to the unsatisfactory spiritual state of publicly set up in churches by the 99th canon." large masses of the population, especially in the À resolution was adopted that the Church, towns,
“though always insisting on the use of wine in The subject of the “* Affirmation Bill," which the holy communion, bas never prescribed the was pending in Parliament, was brought be- strength or the weakness of the wine to be foro the lower house upon a recommendation used, and consequently it is always possible to of a committee that the members of the upper deal with even extreme cases without departhouse be requested to oppose the bill. A mo- ure from the custom observed by the Church, tion was offered in amendment that their lord- and it is most convenient that the clergy should ships be requested to watch the progress of conform to ancient and unbroken usage, and the bill through the Houses of Parliament, in to discountenance all attempts to deviate from order to prevent its being enacted with retro- it.” spective powers. Some of the members of the Enthronement of the Archbishop of Canterbury.house expressed a preference of affirmations The Rev. Edward White Benson, D. D., Bishop to oaths, on grounds of principle. Canon of Truro, having been nominated by the Queen, Gregory contended that the real question was, was formally elected Archbishop of Canterbury whether the house was anxious to support the at a special session of the Dean and Chapter of introduction into Parliament of Mr. Bradlaugh, the See, Jan. 28th. The election was confirmed or whether they were anxious to prevent peo- by the Bishop of London and a commission of ple of that description from polluting the legis- bishops of the Southern Province, March 3d. lature of the country. Prebendary Stephens The new archbishop was enthroned with imconsidered that oath-taking was most injurious, posing ceremonies at the Cathedral of Canterin that it had a pernicious tendency to cause a bury, March 29th. The proceedings were parbelief in two kinds of truth-oath-truth and ticipated in or witnessed by a large assemblage ordinary truth. The proposal of the committee of clergy and laily, and home, colonial, and was agreed to.
foreign bishops, ainong whom the Duke of The convocation met again on July 3d. The Edinburgh represented the royal family, and following address to the upper house was adopt- Bishop Littlejohn, of Long Island, the Protesed in the lower house :
tant Episcopal Church in the United States. The lower house of Convocation of the Province of The Ritualistic Controversy.—The late ArchCanterbury, in humble thankfulness to Almighty bishop Tait, of Canterbury, a short time before God for the rejection by the House of Lords on Thurs- his death, in December, 1882, had devised and with a deceased wife's sister, make this their dutifui partly carried into effect a plan for indirectly representation and prayer to the upper house.
removing from the courts the suit against the They represent that there is reason to apprehend Rev. A. H. Mackonochie, of St. Alban's, who an immediate renewal of the agitation upon this ques. was still under prosecution for contumacy, tion. That
, inasmuch as holy matrimony is the founda- hoping that one of the results of his action tion of human society ; and inasmuch as there is a might be to help allay the ritualistic agitation. wide-spread ignorance of the principles of Christian He induced Mr. Mackonochie to resign his benemarriage, the lower house, as in love and duty bound, fice in the interest of the peace of the Church, turns to the Archbishop and Bishops in Convocation while the Bishop of London offered him anassembled; earnestly praying them to exhort all who other benefice, that of St. Peter's, London set forth plainly, from time to time, in their addresses Docks, at the same time transferring the into their flocks the aforesaid principles; as embodied cumbent of that benefice to Mr. Mackonochie's on, and in the form of Solemnization of Matrimony; sociation refused to acquiesce in this proceedin the Table of Prohibited Degrees, in the 99th Can- former parish of St. Alban's. The Church As and, in particular, to remind their people that the union of a man with his wife's sister has been forbid- ing. It published a statement showing that den by the Church of Christ from the beginning, as illegal acts were still practiced at St. Alban's being contrary to the Word of God.
and St. Peter's, and addressed resolutions of The lower house venture further to call special at- protest against the fulfillment by the Bishop of tention to the injury which would be done to the London of the compromise which had been also to the disruption of domestic and social relations arranged. The Bishop of London replied to necessarily involved in the success of the agitation these resolutions: