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penditure, £457,242. The public debt, raised for the construction of public works, was on Dec. 31, 1881, £2,003,000, bearing interest at 6 per cent. The area is estimated at 26,215 square miles, or 16,778,000 acres, including the adjacent islands. The population in 1881 was 115,705, of whom 61,162 were males and 54,543 females. The increase in eleven years was but 16,377. The aborigines are entirely extinct. The exports in 1881 amounted to £1,555,576, the imports to £1,438,524. The chief articles of export are wool and tin, and more recently gold. The valuable deposits of tin and iron and the discovery of gold have given a slight impetus to enterprise and immigration, but in agriculture the colony has receded; barley, the quality of which is superior, is the only crop except potatoes that has increased. New Zealand was organized in six provinces in 1852, and united under a Governor and General Assembly in 1875. The members of the Legislative Council are appointed by the Crown for life. The House of Representatives consists of 95 members elected by household suffrage. The Maoris are represented by four members elected by themselves. The Governor is Maj.-Gen. Sir William Francis Drummond Jervois, transferred from South Australia in November, 1882. The Premier, Mr. Whittaker, resigned the office in 1883—not, however, for political reasons. He was succeeded by Maj. Atkinson, the Colonial Treasurer. The area of New Zealand is estimated at 105,342 square miles. Two thirds of the total surface is good agricultural or grazing land. The census of 1881 gave the total population as 534,032, including the Maoris, who numbered 44,099, divided into 24,370 males and 19,729 females; of the rest, 269,605 were males and 220,328 females. The Chinese numbered 5,004. The towns with more than 10,000 inhabitants were Dunedin (24,372—with suburbs, 48.802), Auckland (16,664—with suburbs, 39,966), Wellington (20,563), and Christchurch (15,213—with suburbs, 30,719). The population of New Zealand is increasing faster than that of any of the Australian colonies, both by immigration and by a high birth-rate. The total imports in 1881 amounted to £7,457,045, the exports to £6,060,866. The quantity of wool exported was 59,368,832 pounds; value, £3,477,993. Grain and flour were shipped to Great Britain in 1881 to the value of #913,581. Gum and preserved meat are, except gold, the next most considerable articles of export. There were in April, 1881, in the colony 161,736 horses, 698,637 cattle, 12,985,0.85 sheep, and large numbers of hogs and poultry. The New Zealand gold-fields, discovered in 1857, and yielding at the height of their production in 1877, £1,496,080, produced in 1881, Đ996,867. The railway system of New Zealand was begun in 1872. In 1882 there were 875 miles
completed on the South Island and 458 on the North Island. When completed, the system is to have 2,075 miles of line, and will cost £16,000,000. The capital already expended in 1883 was about £11,500,000. The railroads in the South Island already return 3 per cent. on the outlay, those in the North Island 14 per cent. There were 3,824 miles of telegraph open to traffic in March, 1882. The revenues of the Government are derived partly from customs receipts, etc., and partly from sales of public lands, depasturing licenses, export duties on gold, and mining licenses. The latter category, called the territorial revenue, was, down to 1879, nearly as productive as the ordinary sources of revenue. In 1882 the ordinary revenue amounted to £3,488,170, the territorial revenue to £317,063 ; total revenue, £3,805,233. The total expenditure was £3,590,233. The estimated revenue for the year ending March 31, 1883, is £3,393,500; expenditure, £3,478,639. The public debt amounted in 1882 to £29,946,711. At the end of March, 1883, it was £30,357,000, not deducting the sinking fund, amounting to £2,571,000. Notwithstanding the magnitude of its liabilities, the colony obtained a loan of £1,000,000 in London in 1883 at 4 per cent. at a very slight discount. This state of the credit allows the considerable floating debt to be converted at a reduced interest. The Government has introduced proposals in the Legislature to change the constitution of the Legislative Council, making it an elective body, as in the older colonies, instead of the members being appointed for life by the Governor. The difficulties with the Maoris in the western part of the North Island have ceased. The natives have abandoned their attitude of exclusion and isolation, and given pledges of peaceful submission to the laws. The pressure of public opinion in England has put some restraint upon the oppressive and confiscatory instincts of the colonists. Improvements are being introduced in the Maori country, and intercourse between the natives and the white settlers who have penetrated there has a beneficial influence on both races. The harbor of Kawhia, after being closed for twenty years, was opened again without opposition from the natives. A government township was laid out at that place. Surveys for roads and railways have extended into parts of the country where formerly no European was suffered to travel. AUSTRIA—HUNGARY, an empire constituted since 1867 as a dual monarchy. The Cisleithan Kingdom, or Austria, and the Transleithan, or Hungary, are connected by a common army, navy, and diplomacy, and in the person of the hereditary sovereign. The house of Hapsburg has reigned over Austria for six hundred years, and has possessed the Hungarian crown for more than half that period. Franz Josef I., reigning Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, was born Aug. 18, 1830, and suc
ceeded his uncle, Ferdinand I., who abdicated Mohammedans, 496,761 Greek Orthodox Chrisin 1848. The heir-apparent is the Archduke tians, 209,391 Roman Catholics, and 3,439 Jews. Rudolf, born Aug. 21, 1858.
The population of the cities in Austria and Government.—The common affairs of the two Hungary containing over 50,000 inhabitants, monarchies, restricted to military defense and was as follows-In Austria: Vienna, 726,105, foreign policy, are regulated by the Delega- with suburbs, 1,103,857; Prague, 162,323; tions, consisting of 120 members, chosen in Trieste, 144,844; Lemburg, 109,726; Gratz, equal numbers from the Austrian and Hun- 97,791; Brünn, 82,660; Krakau, 66,095. In garian legislatures-20 from the upper and 40 Hungary: Buda - Pesth, 360,551; Szegedin, from the lower house of each. The common 73,675; Holdmező-Vásárhély, 50,966; MariaMinisters, responsible to the Delegations, are Theresiopel, 61,367. as follow: Minister of Foreign Affairs and Among the population of Cisleithania, the of the Imperial Household, Count G. Kalnocky principal religious confessions were represented de Köröspatak, born in 1832, Minister to Rome, by the following numbers: Roman Catholics, 1879-'80, and then at St. Petersburg until he 17,693,648; Greek Catholics, 2,533,323 ; Israelwas called to the head of the administration, ites, 1,005,394; Greek Oriental, 492,088; EvanNov. 21,
1881 ; Minister of War for the whole gelicals of the Augsburg Confession, 289,005; empire, Count Bylandt-Rheydt, appointed June of the Helvetic Confession, 110,525. 21, 1876; Minister of Finance for the whole The percentage of the various nationalities empire, Baron von Kallay, appointed June 4, was as follows: Germans, 36.75 per cent. ; 1882.
Czechs, 23.77; Poles, 14:86; Ruthenians, 12Area and Population. The total area of the 81 ; Slovenes, 5•23; Italians, 3.07; Serbs and Austro-Hungarian Empire, exclusive of the Croats, 2.58; Roumanians, •88; Magyars, .05. occupied provinces, is 240,942 square miles; The Israelites have increased since 1869 22:58 the total population was returned in the cen- per cent., the Italians 13:19 per cent., the Poles sus of Dec. 31, 1880, as 37,786, 246, or 159 to 9.97 per cent., the Czechs 8.69 per cent., the the square mile. The population increased in Serbs and Croats 7677 per cent., the Rutheeleven years in Cisleithania, 8.5 per cent.; in nians 7:71 per cent., and the Germans 7.25 per Hungary only 1.24 per cent. In Transylvania cent. The Slovenes have decreased considerthere was an actual decrease of 70,000. The ably, owing to their adoption of the nationality area and population of the separate provinces of the Germans in Carinthia and Lower Styria, of the two monarchies were as follow : and in the coast-lands of that of the Italians,
who received accessions also from the SerboPROVINCES OF THE EMPIRE.
The percentage of the population of Austria AUSTRIAN MONARCHY :
who could neither read 'nor write was 44.5, Lower Austria (Unter der Ens).. 7,654 2,830,621 among the males 43.2, among the females 45.8; Upper Austria (Ober der Ens). Salzburg
2,767 163,570 percentage of those who could read only 6:1, Styria (Steiermark)
8,670 1,218,697 among males 4:6, among females 7.5; percentCarinthia (Kärnten).
4,005 848,780 Carniola (Krain).
age of those who could read and write 49-4,
481,248 Coast Land..
8,084 647,934 among males 52-2, among females 46-7. In Tyrol and Vorarlberg
11,324 912,549 the Bukovina the percentage of illiterates was Bohemia (Böhmen).
20.060 5,560,819 Moravia (Mähren)
89.7, in Dalmatia 89.3, in Galicia 81.1, in IsSilesia (Schlesien)
1,987 665,475 tria 77-8, in Borizia and Gradisca 60-3, in CarGalicia (Galizien)
80,307 5,958.907 niola 54'1, in Trieste 38.9, in Carinthia 47.6, Bukowina
4,035 Dalmatia (Dalmatien).
4,940 476,101 in Styria 37.3, in Bohemia 22:6, in Moravia
24:3, in Silesia 25.8, in Salzburg 22-9, in Tyrol Total, Austria ....
22:7, in Lower Austria 21, in Upper Austria KINGDOM OF HUNGARY:
20-2, and in Vorarlberg 16.2. Hungary Proper..
87,043 11,644,574 Croatia and Slavonia, with Military
The following table gives the millesimal Frontier....
16,778 1,892,899 proportions of the population of the Cisleithan Transylvania (Siebenbürgen)
2,094,049 lands engaged in the various classes of emTown of Fiume.
ployments, including families and dependents: Total, Hungary.....
125,089 15,642,002 Total, Austria-Hungary.. 240,942 87,786,246 Agriculture
Industry and mining..
Mercantile employments and transportation..
81.67 miles and 9,124 inhabitants, is nominally inde- Employed in educational and charitablo institutions. pendent, and its people are not subject to tax- With no known occupation. ation or military duty. The provinces of Bos
Total nia and Herzegovina and the Sanjak of Novi
....... 1000.00 Bazar, were placed provisionally under the Statistics collected by the Hungarian Goradministration of the common authorities by ernment bureau show that the ratio of the the Berlin Treaty of 1878. Their population Magyar-speaking portion of the population has numbered 1,326,453, of whom 448,613 were increased only 1 per cent, in sixty years. In
264.25 55.64 83.54
18.11 654 8.05
the capital, where the Germans are more pli- duty. A marked improvement in the indusant in changing their language than the Slavic trial situation and the consumptive capacity population of the provinces, particularly since of the people is indicated by a larger importhe recent Magyar agitation has made it more tation of raw stuffs of various kinds, of coloto their interest to do so, the extension of the na- nial wares, of machinery, of textile manufactional language has been greatest. The propor- tures, and of articles of luxury, and an increased tion of children under five years of age speaking exportation of textiles, paper manufactures, the Magyar tongue in Buda-Pesth is 47 per fine leathers, chemical products, etc. cent., against 45-7 per cent. among persons be More than half the export and import comtween fifty and sixty years of age. Of the Ger- merce of the Austrian Empire is with Germans in Hungary as many as 21 per cent. are many, next to which the chief market is Rouacquainted with the Magyar language; but of mania, which receives 50,000,000 florins of the the Slovaks not 10, and of the Roumanians and exports, and furnishes 40,000,000 florins of the Ruthenians not 6 per cent. The German lan- imports. Italy and Russia follow, but with a guage is extensively cultivated, over 10 per much smaller trade. cent. of the Magyars acquiring it for commer Precious Metals. The movement of the precial intercourse or education and travel. In cious metals in 1881, as compared with the the kingdom there are 817,668 non-Magyary previous year, was as follows, in florins: who can speak Hungarian, and 791,670 nonGermans who speak German. The progress
Imports. Esports, of education has been remarkable, 46 per cent.
imports. of the 10,844,000 above the age of seven being 1880 : able to read and write in 1880, against only 25
22,200,000 8,200,000 19,000,000 per cent. in 1870.
7,100,000 15,400,000 8,800,000* Commerce, Industry, and Agriculture.—The total
Total.. 29,800,000 18,600,000 10,700,000 value of the imports and exports of the Austro 1881 : Hungarian Empire for the last three years re
19,800,000 2,200,000 17,600,000
16,100,000 1,200,000 14,900,000 ported, was as follows, in florins:
Total.. 85,900,000 3,400,000 82,500,000 Imports. Exporta.
Customs.-The Hungarian Legislature passed 1879..
051,390,000 675,140,000 a law in 1881, denounced by the Constitutional
party in the Austrian House of Deputies as an
infringement of the customs-union, which reThe export of flour, which averaged, just quires a declaration to be made of all goods before the enactment of the German corn-du- imported into or exported from the kingdom. ties, about 2,400,000 metric quintals, has fallen
According to the statistics collected for the last to half that quantity. Owing to the active eight months of 1881 in pursuance of this regutrade in live hogs with Servia, the imports lation, Hungary has a balance decidedly in its and exports of live animals were considerably favor in the trade with Austria as well as with larger in 1881 than in the preceding year. The other countries. The returns exhibit the total comroercial treaty with Servia, ratified in June, value of imports as 185,800,000 forins, of which 1882, secures the entrance of certain Austrian 139,080,000 florins came from Austria ; and the products at half the ordinary duties, and on the total value of exports as 242,800,000 florins, other hand a reduction of the Austrian duties of which 165,250,000 florins were shipped into on live hogs, and Servian wines, prune-brandy,
Austria. etc. The exceptional treatment of German
Hungary.—Although in the social life of Hunpartly manufactured products, which was kept gary certain vestiges of feudalism survive the up as compensation for possible advantages to development of liberal political institutions, be extended to Austria-Hungary in the German she strives to keep abreast of economical progtariff, ceased from the beginning of 1883 to ress; people and Government uniting their operate as regards textile manufactures im- efforts to develop all their
resources under the ported for printing, dyeing, or bleaching, the pressure of American competition. The great most important branch of this trade. The im- richness of the Hungarian soil is counterbalportation of lard and pork products showed a
anced by adverse geographical and climatic great decrease in 1881, in consequence of the conditions which warn them against remainprohibition of American pork. The export of ing a purely agricultural state. It is only by wines, stimulated in 1880 by the failure of the gigantic protective works and a more and French vintage, decreased from 905,841 to 438,- more intensive culture that they can still hold 213 metric quintals. The import of petroleum their own. The invention of the Hungarian increased from 1,150,000 to 1,480,000 metric method of flour-milling, made necessary by the quintals. Cotton and other textile materials hard quality of their wheat, which has since were imported in considerably larger quanti- been adopted and improved in the United ties than in the preceding year. The contin- States, marked the beginning of industrial deued large importation of yarns strengthened velopment. A regular line of vessels from the spinners in their demand for a protective
* Excess of exports.
Fiume facilitates the export of Hungarian flour, which is now largely consumed in England. The new beet-sugar culture and manufacture are not sufficient to supply the home demand; but high-wines and refined spirits are exported as far as Spain. The wine production repays the encouragement bestowed upon it by the Government. The wines are produced in greater quantities, and of better and more uniform quality, and are shipped by the cargo to Bordeaux to replace the diminished growths of France. The number of persons engaged in industrial occupations proper increased between 1870 and 1880 from 784,378 to 908,958, or 14 per cent., while the whole population increased only by a small fraction. Manufactures.—Unable to resort to protection, owing to the customs-union with Austria, Hungary employed other methods of encouraging industry. Hungarian manufacturers have the o: in Government and municipal orers, if they can produce articles of satisfactory quality. In the iron industry there are the imerial railroad works at Oravicza and Resitza, or which the best technical skill in France was ...' the shops of the Hungarian state railroad, which excel in the production of iron bridges; and various private establishments which stand on the highest plane of technical art. Leather, paper, pottery, and glass are also manufactured successfully on a large scale; but the important branch of textile industry is represented only by factories which subsist on the Government commissions for the supply of the army, although the country produces an abundance of wool of superior quality. By a law which went into effect on Jan. 1, 1882, industrial establishments which found new industries, or utilize products previously wasted, are exempted from all public dues and taxes. This and other measures of the kind led to the establishment of some two hundred factories in new branches. In museums, industrial exhibitions, a national school of mechanical drawing, a technical school for wood-workers, industrial evening-schools, etc., the Government has co-operated with private individuals in fostering technical education and industrial art. A review of the industrial progress already attained is to be made in a national exposition in 1885. Live-Stock.-The live-stock census of the emire shows that horned cattle, which decreased etween 1857 and 1869, increased between the latter date and 1880 from 7,425,212 to 8,584,077; while sheep, in consequence of the Australian production, decreased from 5,026,398 to 3,841,340. American competition and the German protective tariff are beginning to exercise a depressing effect on the wheat-growing, flour-milling, and cattle-raising interests of Hungary and Austria. There have been actual importations of American wheat. Mining.—The total net value of the product of the mines and furnaces, after deducting the value of the ores, together with that of the sa
lines, was 83,790,373 florins in 1881, as against 79,988,819 florins in 1880. Railways.-The total length of railways in the empire, open to traffic in 1882, was 11,480 miles, of which 7,130 were in Austria and 4,350 in Hungary. There were, besides, 177 miles in Bosnia. The length of railway owned or operated by the state, at the close of 1881, was 2,912 kilometres, or 24 per cent. of the total mileage. To this was added on the 1st of January, 1882, the Empress Elizabeth railroad,922 kilometres in length, which was taken over into the management of the state under a convention providing for its eventual acquisition. On the 1st of July, 1882, a railroad bureau was created for the direction of the state railroads. The total receipts of the Austro-Hungarian railroads in 1881 were 215,950,000 florins, of which 47,950,000 florins were from passengers, and 168,000,000 florins from freight. Telegraphs.-The length of telegraph lines in 1881 was 21,735 miles in Austria, with 56,862 miles of wires, and 9,032 miles in Hungary, with 32,380 miles of wires. The number of messages carried in 1881 was 8,865,030, including 584,059 official dispatches. Post-Office.—The number of letters forwarded by the post-office in 1881 was 248,509,000, besides 47,858,000 postal-cards in Austria, and in Hungary 74,218,000 letters and 13,623,000 postal-cards. Shipping.—The merchant marine in 1882 numbered 70 ocean-steamers, of 16,145 horsepower and 62,387 tons; 42 coasting-steamers, of 2,179 horse-power and 4,472 tons; and 8,294 sailing-vessels and fishing-smacks of 259,970 tons. The crews numbered 27,187 men. The Austro-Hungarian Lloyd, which owns the large steamers and does the greater part of the carrying trade between Austria and the East through the Suez canal, receives a subsidy of 1,730,000 florins per annum. The number of vessels entering the Austrian and Hungarian ports, Trieste and Fiume, in 1881, was 47,045, of 5,911,885 aggregate tonnage, of which 19,415, of 4,947,399 tons, were steamers; the number of departures was 46,907, tonnage 5,913,720, of which 19,892, of 4,942,078 tons, were steamers. The tonnage entering Austro-Hungarian ports under the national flag was 5,197,855; under the British flag, 402,164; under the Italian, 201,603. Finance.—The budget estimates of revenue and expenditures for common affairs in 1882 place the total at 117,149,549 florins, of which the contributions from the two halves of the empire make up 113,824,679 florins (one florin = 50 cents). Of the total sum, 101,591,880 florins are devoted to the army, 9,177,829 florins to the navy, 4,328,900 florins to the diplomatic service, 1,926,040 florins to the financial administration, and 125,400 florins, to the financial control. The estimates for 1883 make the expenditures 184,661,988 florins, of which 102,413,318
BRANCHES OF EXPENDITURE,
florins are required for the army, 9,162,224 BRANCHES OF EXPENDITURE. florins for the navy, 4,246,900 florins for for. Ministry of Finance...........
20,745,335 eign affairs, and 1,962,661 forins for the finance
46,064,264 ministry. There are extraordinary expenses Board of Control...
128,425,063 for the army in Bosnia. The contributions to Pensions and grants
82,911,950 be assessed on the two parts of the empire Cisleithan portion of common expenditure .. 89,946,630 are 99,991,763 florins.
Total expenditure of 1882.....
485,720,951 The expenses of the civil administration of Bosnia and Herzegovina for 1883 are estimated
The Hungarian budgets from 1877 to 1882 at 7,039,809 florins, including the following show an average annual deficit of nearly 23,items: public highways, 239,500 florins; wor- 000,000 florins. The estimated revenue for ship, 162,503 florins; education, 91,889 forins; 1882 was as follows: military forces, 251,034 florins; gendarmerie,
SOURCES OF REVENUE.
88,690,000 1,114,475 florins. The receipts are estimated Indirect taxes and monopolies
118,127,261 at 7,217,819 florins, of which the tithes pro- State domains, mines, and railways
36,187,116 duce 2,250,000 florins; the income-tax, 600,- Miscellaneous receipts
27,782,188 000 forins; sheep-tax, 247,000 florins; customs, 702,000 florins; tobacco-tax, 1,896,000
Total revenue of 1882 ..
801,967,214 florins; salt, 867,135 florins; octroi, 43,000 The following were the estimated expendiflorins; and stamps, 300,000 florins.
tures under the principal heads: The estimates communicated to the Delegations for 1884 call for 4,383,110 florins for Royal household.
4,650,000 Royal Cabinet Chancery..
70,592 foreign affairs, 102,413,639 florins for the army,
Diet of the kingdom.
1,206,018 including 6,876,005 florins of extraordinary ex Ministry "ad latus"
58,909,830 penditure, 9,470,977 florins for the navy, 174,- Ministry of Finance
8,005,295 400 and 125,747 florins respectively for the
6,812,900 financial administration and control, and 1,973,
Education and Worship.
10,159,898 450 tlorins for pensions. The total expendi
28,348,743 tures are estimated at 115,170,880 florins, the
Agriculture and Commerce..
61,913,035 net surplus of the customs applicable to the Public debt and pensions...
10,900,000 common expenses at 17,633,570 florins, and Transleithan portion of the common expenditure the contributions of the two states at 98,107,
of the empire
63,892,174 Miscellaneous expenses
65,381,025 799 florins. For the army of occupation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 7,307,000 forins are Total expenditure of 1882 .... ..... 328,235,811 asked. The cost of the civil administration of The ordinary expenses for 1883 were estithe occupied provinces is estimated at 7,356,- mated at 288,800,000 forins, the ordinary rev267 florins, and the revenue from the provinces enues at 280,700,000 florins. The budget for at 7,412,615 flurins.
1884 places the ordinary expenditures at 298,The Austrian Government is very tardy in 200,000 forins, and the revenues at 295,500,publishing the accounts of actual receipts and 000 forins; the total expenditures at 329,200,expenditures. The budget estimates in recent 000 forins, and the total revenues at 308,900,years show invariably a deficit, averaging since 000 florins. 1876 some 37,500,000 florins a year. The es Public Debt.—The public debt of the Austrian timated revenue for 1882 is 448,155,793 flor- Empire was already large at the end of the Nains; expenditures, 485, 720,951 florins. The poleonic wars. After 1848 it increased again principal heads of revenue are as follow: rapidly from 1,250,000,000 florins to 3,000,000,SOURCES OF REVENUE.
000 florins in 1868. The war of 1866 added Direct taxes.
92,970,000 300,000,000 of new loans, which were offset Customs duties
29,820,684 by the amount of the Lombardo-Venetian debt Salt monopoly Tobacco monopoly
63,947,200 assumed by the kingdom of Italy. At the Stamps..
16.880.000 separation of Austria and Hungary an agreeJudicial fees State lottery
20:222,000 ment was made, in May, 1868, renewed with Excise duties
88,167,000 certain modifications in 1877, whereby 70 per State domains and railways
19,886, 110 cent. of the total charges of the debt fell upon Post and telegraphs... Miscellaneous receipts
41,628,899 Austria and 30 per cent. opon Hungary. Since
1868 the two kingdoms have kept their finances Total revenue of 1882....
separate. The deficits in Hungary constantly The following are the estimated expenditures recurring since 1867, have been funded in å of the several departments:
special debt, amounting in 1881 to the enorBRANCHES OF EXPENDITURE.
mous sum of 1,045,319,600 florins. Austria Imperial household..
4,650,000 has a large amount of floating liabilities arising Imperial Cabinet Chancery
170,285 from the
same cause, given in a return for Jan. Reichsrath Council of Ministers.
1,048,210 1, 1882, as 411,998,744 florins, represented by Ministry of the Interior..
17,530 765 a depreciated paper currency amounting to National Defense
8.991,700 320, 434,947 florins, and interest-bearing treasPublic Education and Worship Agriculture...
11,519,408 ury notes amounting to 91,563,797 florins, into