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$15,000; buildings, etc., at Sam Houston Normal School, $10,000; university grounds and buildings, $100,000, and school-houses in many of the counties belonging to the State. The scholastic census shows a population of about 310,500, to which is to be distributed about $1,375,000, or about $4.41 per capita, which will probably support a term of 54 months. The change in the Constitution separates the school-tax from that for general purposes, and will permit an increased school revenue. The State University was opened in the autumn. The State, by the last Constitution, gave a million acres of land to the institution, which was located in the pastoral regions of southwest Texas, and id: will probably be leased and produce a handsome income. Also, at the last session of the Legislature, a further donation of a million acres of land was made, which is in Northwest Texas. The university permanent fund now comprises about $539,198.40 in bonds and 2,000,000 acres in lands. The Agricultural and Mechanical College, endowed by act of Congress, has a permanent fund in State bonds of $209,000, and enjoys annual appropriations from the State treasury, supporting 93 State students. At the last session of the Legislature the sum of $40,000 was appropriated to equip the agricultural and mechanical departments. The two permanent normal schools, one at Huntsville for white, and the other at Prairie View for colored students, are liberally supported. Not only are the students provided free tuition, but their board and lodging are paid for out of the State treasury. The State also, during one or two months in the summer, supports thirty-one normal schools for whites, and eleven for colored teachers. The average attendance is about 25 each, or about 1,000 teachers preparing for the public schools. The Penitentiaries.—During the year the Legislature made a change from the system of leasing the penitentiaries and convicts so long in vogue. Under the new system contracts are made for working 1,500 of the 2,300 State convicts in the walls of the two penitentiaries. Railroads.-The following figures relate to the close of 1883:

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Values. Cotton, 1,518.810 bales......................... $75.665,500 Wool, 22,780,280 pounds ....................... 4,100,441 Hides, 13,312,746 pounds....................... 1,464,402 Cattle, 703,642 head (including the drive)....... 16,346,980 Horses, 19,224 head ... $480,60 Lumber and shingles. 9,226,418 Grain and hay..... .. 5,674,815 Cotton-seed, cotton-seed cake and oil. ... 8,428,516 Miscellaneous products......................... 2,876,419 Sugar and molasses............................ 642,210

Total ....................--------------- .3119,906,296

THEOLOGICAL SCH00LS OF THE UNITED STATES. The early New England colonists brought from the Old World their Puritan doctrines and customs. Many of the first preachers had received their training in the English universities. When the earliest colleges were founded, the prime object contemplated was the fitting of young men to preach the gospel, which accounts for the fact that the colleges on this continent are mostly denominational. No professors of divinity were appointed, nor were theological topics introduced into the courses of study; but the presidents of the colleges were expected to be able to give timely and special counsel to young men who might contemplate devoting themselves to the work of the ministry. Dr. Dwight, at Yale College, taught theology in his Sunday sermons, which were so arranged as to form a body of divinity. Rev. Charles Backus (born 1749, died 1808), while a pastor in Connecticut, educated nearly fifty theological students. The first actual experiment in public theological instruction was begun by the Rev. Dr. John M. Mason, of New York. Dr. Mason was graduated at Columbia College in 1789, went to Edinburgh to study theology, and in 1793 assumed the pastorate of the Reformed Church in New York city. He gathered ministerial candidates about him, and for some years gave them regular instruction in Greek and Hebrew exegesis, and kindred topics. At length he projected the plan of a theological seminary, which (the first on this continent) was established in New York in 1804, Dr. Mason being its professor of theology. In 1808 the Congregationalists organized a theological seminary at Andover, Mass., which was the first in the United States having a fully equipped faculty. In 1812 the Presbyterians founded a theological seminary at Princeton, N. J. In 1817 the Protestant Episcopal Church founded the General Theological Seminary in New York. Since the above dates such institutions have multiplied rapidly, and now all the larger denominations have well-organized theological schools.

The regular course of study in all the fully organized theological schools extends over a period of three years. A few of the seminaries have recently added a fourth year, for post-graduate study. The curriculum is designed for college graduates, but others are admitted if their previous studies enable them to pursue it profitably. Young men who have not enjoyed the benefits of liberal culture are permitted to take a partial course, omitting the advanced studies, and more difficult and critical questions. Among the topics embraced in the regular course are the following: 1. Biblical interpretation, including study of the Hebrew language, exegesis of parts of the Greek Testament, and history of manuscripts. 2. Theology, including a systematic examination of the proofs of the existence of God, origin and inspiration of the Scriptures, and Jesus Christ, his deity, his humanity, his theanthropic personality, the atonement, etc. 3. Ecclesiastical history, including study of the ancient, mediaeval, and modern Church, schisms, history and development of doctrines, the Reformation, Reformed Churches, etc. In addition to class recitations from textbooks, the student is expected to do much collateral reading, and to prepare essays upon the subjects gone over. The professors of the department also give instruction by lectures. 4. Homiletics, or a study of the best methods of preparing and delivering sermons. 5. Practical duties of the pastor. 6. Elocution. In addition to instruction in breathing and voiceculture, particular attention is given to the reading of Scripture and hymns, and to lectures on pulpit oratory. 7. Lectureships. During the past few years provision has been made in nearly all of the larger institutions for a course of lectures each year, by men who have been successful as ministers and of acknowledged eminence in o on subjects relating to preaching, and to the practical work of the pastor.

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The following is a statistical summary, from the latest reports available, January 1, 1884, of the theological schools in the United States:

Number of

Number of Number of states. seminaries. professors. students. Alabama ................. 8 4 58 California. --------- 3. 10 15 Colorado................. 1 4 1. Connecticut............... 8 27 157 Georgia....... 8 .* 122 Illinois. 16 to, 464 Indiana 8 79 Iowa... 5 11 66 Kansas 1 2 2 Kentucky -- 5 18 216 Louisiana................. 4. 5. 68 Maine ................... 2 9 45 Maryland...... . 5. 81 834 Massachusetts 7 40 260 Michigan... 2 6 49 Minnesota.. 8 28 66 M.P. - 2 4 28 Missouri........... 8 12 153 Nebraska........ 2 2 7 New Jersey 5 27 806 New York 14 62 627 North Carolina o, 10 68 io.......... 18 44 27.4 Pennsylvania.... -- 14 63 454 South Carolina ........... 8 4 69 Tennessee................ 7 21 250 Texas...... 2 8 26 Wirginia 4 16 171 Wisconsin ... .... 6 27 270 District of Columbia. 2 6 75 Totals... ...... ..... 148 565 4,784

Baptist.................. | 19 7 968 Congregationalist......... 11 53 837 Christian......... - 6 11 162 Free-will Baptist - 2 7 51 utheran.... 19 49 476 Methodist... 17 56 570 New Jerusalem - 1 ..* t; Presbyterian .............. 17 79 697 Protestant Episcopal...... 20 67 886 Reformed.......... ---- 5 18 96. Roman Catholic 21 121 1,008 Unitarian... 2+ 10+ 48 Universalist. 2 8 81 Others. ................. 6 19 78 Totals................ 148 565 || 4,184 TIME, STANDARD AND COSMOPOLITAN, The

subject of fixing upon auniform standard of time, with which the local time of all places may be compared, has been discussed for many years. The confusion which may arise from the existence of so many varying standards of time as now prevail at different meridians has long been recognized by sailors, who, when they have reached a point half-way around the earth from the one whence they started, are accustomed to add a day to their reckoning, or to subtract one, according as they have sailed east or west. The same difficulties exist, but lessened in a degree, in all the continents and in all single countries of considerable extent. They have not, however, forced themselves upon the attention of the general public as matters demanding practical treatment until since the general extension of the railroad systems and telegraph lines. They have been felt with pe. culiar force in the United States, because of the great longitudinal extent of the country, oš. a difference of four hours in time between the Atlantic and the Pacific States, and of the intricacies of the railroad connections, Previous to the adoption of the uniform standards, in November, 1883, the managers of the several railroads in the United States endeavored to conform to the local time of the most important or most central stations on their respective lines. Sometimes they used one standard to control the running of the trains on one part of their line, and another standard on another part. Sometimes they had to arrange for time-connections with other railroads running by standards differing from their own and from one another. It was computed that there were about 75 different standards controlling the moving of the trains in different parts of the country. A traveler going from Boston to Washington would have to set his watch five times in order to keep correct time while on the journey. From Boston to Providence he would be traveling on Boston time; from Providence to New London on Providence time; from New London to New York on New York time; from New York to Baltimore on Philadelphia time; and from Baltimore to Washington on Washington time, which is 24 minutes slower than Boston time. Sometimes three or four standards of time competed with each other in the same city, as in Hartford, Conn., where some of the trains left on Boston time and others on New York time, while the local time was used in the city at large. The same embarrassment had already been felt, though on a much smaller scale, in England; and, to remedy it, on Jan. 13, 1848, all the clocks in the kingdom were set to conform to Greenwich time; and they have been regulated by that standard ever since. The question of introducing a uniform system in the United States was discussed for several years before a practicable plan was found. It was agreed that the adoption of a single standard for the whole United States would be impracticable, because it would introduce too many and too great discrepancies between the time by the clock and the solar time, and would be repugnant to the habits and convenience of the people. Four standards were accordingly proposed, so adjusted as to be one hour apart, and to differ by exact hours from the time at Greenwich; the effect of which would be, that the only difference should be in the numbering of the hours, while the numbering of the minutes and seconds should be the same at all places using the standards as well as at all places using Greenwich time. The details of a plan embracing these principles were worked up by Mr. W. F. Allen, Secretary of the General and Southern Railway Time Conventions; and at the meetings of the time conventions, held in New York and Chicago in April, 1883, the following resolutions were adopted: 1. That all roads now using Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Toronto, Hamilton, or Washington time as standard, based upon meridians east of those points, or adjacent thereto, shall be governed }. the 75th meridian or Eastern time (four minutes slower than New York time). 2. That all roads now using Columbus, Savannah, Atlanta, Cincinnati, Louisville, Indianapolis, Chicago, Jefferson City, St. Paul, or Kansas City time, or standards based upon meridians adjacent thereto shall be run by the 90th meridian time, to be calle Central time, one hour slower than Eastern time and nine minutes slower than Chicago time. 3. That west of the above-named section the roads shall be run by the 105th and the 120th meridian times, respectively, two and three hours slower than Eastern time. 4. That all changes from one hour standard to another shall be made at the termini of roads or at the ends of divisions.

* in several schools as well as this the number of teachers

is not given in reports. + Including Divinity at Harvard, marked “non-sectarian.”

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This scheme was received favorably by most of the railroads whose time would be regulated by that of the Eastern and Central meridians, and was put in operation by the principal railroads of the New England States on October 7th, and, with few exceptions, by those of the other States east of the Rocky mountain region on November 18th. The local time at most of the towns and cities was also made to conform to the new standards, the greatest alteration in clocks required to do so being about half an hour. The following table gives a gen

eral view of the relations in round minutes of the standard meridians to Greenwich and to

the true local times of the places adoptin

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them: Standard time, West of compared with true section. Green- local times. . ei wich. + = Faster than. -o- = slower than. Min. Newfoundland.... 29-St.Johns, N.F. New Brunswick...] }- 60°- 24+ St. John, N.B. Nova Scotia....... 14+ Halifax, N.S.. Canada........... } 15- Quebec....... h 18+ Toronto...... 16- Boston....... Maine 3- New York.... to X. . . . . . . . . . 75° 8+ Washington... iFastern Florida f 19+ Charleston ... til...e. Ohio 45+ Montgomery. to X'........ 14+ Buffalo.... ... Alabama | 30+ Detroit....... | Lower Lakes..... J 38+ Cincinnati.... 0+ New Orleans. | No.o. valley. 1+ St. Louis..... Missouri valley.... 90- ||## St. Paul;3:... Upper Lakes ..... 18+ Kansas City.. Texas............ 19+ Galveston.... 10- Chicago...... • { | 0+ Denver...... y Rocky Mt. region. 105 { 28+ Salt Lake do *** 12- San Diego.... Pacific States..... } 120°] of San Francisco. 1 Pacific British Columbia.. 11+ Olympia..... time. 12+ Victoria......

The belt of country situated 74° on either side of a standard meridian generally (with such exceptions as the peculiar relations of certain places may make it expedient to recognize) is expected to adopt the time of that meridian.

Related to the subject of Standard time for the United States is that of Cosmopolitan time, or the selection of a uniform meridian and standard of time for the whole world. A scheme for an international system of time-reckoning, embodying this principle, was proposed independently by the Hon. Sandford Fleming, Chancellor of Queen's University, Toronto, and Prof. Cleveland Abbe, of the United States Signal Service, and was presented by President Barnard, of Columbia College, to the International Association for the Reform and Codification of the Law of Nations, at its meeting in Cologne, in August, 1881. It recommended that 24 standard meridians be fixed upon, distant from each other 15° or one hour each in longitude, to which only the arbitrary local times kept at all places on the earth's surface shall be referred; that the prime meridian, by reference to which all the other hour meridians shall be determined, be that of 180° or twelve hours from the meridian of Greenwich; a meridian which passes near Behring strait and lies almost wholly on the ocean; that the diurnal change of count in the monthly calendar begin when it is midnight on this prime meridian, and take place for the several meridians successively; that the hour of the day at each place be reckoned by the standard meridian nearest to it in longitude, it being reckoned as twelve o'clock, noon, at the moment the mean

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