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$15,000; buildings, etc., at Sam Houston Nor


$75,665,500 mal School, $10,000; university grounds and Cotton, 1,518.810 bales...

4,100,441 buildings, $100,000, and school-bouses in many Hides, 18,812,746 pounds.

1,464,402 of the counties belonging to the State. The Cattle, 703,642 head (including the drive) 16,846,980

$480,60 scholastic census shows a population of about Lumber ard shingles .

9,226,418 310,500, to which is to be distributed about Grain and huy....


8,428,516 $1,375,000, or about $4.41 per capita, which Cotton-seed, cotton-seed cake and oil.

2,876,419 will probably support a term of 54 months. Sugar and molasses..

642,210 The change in the Constitution separates the

Total ......

.$119,906,296 school-tax from that for general purposes, and will permit an increased school revenue.

THEOLOGICAL SCHOOLS OF THE UNITED The State University was opened in the au- STATES. The early New England colonists tumn. The State, by the last Constitution, brought from the Old World their Puritan gave a million acres of land to the institution, doctrines and customs. Many of the first which was located in the pastoral regions of preachers had received their training in the southwest Texas, and which will probably be English universities. When the earliest colleased and produce a handsome income. Also, leges were founded, the prime object contemat the last session of the Legislature, a fur- plated was the fitting of young men to preach ther donation of a million acres of land was the gospel, which accounts for the fact that made, which is in Northwest Texas. The uni- the colleges on this continent are mostly deversity permanent fund now comprises about nominational. No professors of divinity were $539,198.40 in bonds and 2,000,000 acres in appointed, nor were theological topics introlands.

duced into the courses of study; but the presiThe Agricultural and Mechanical College, dents of the colleges were expected to be able endowed by act of Congress, has a permanent to give timely and special counsel to young fand in State bonds of $209,000, and enjoys men who might contemplate devoting themannual appropriations from the State treasury, selves to the work of the ministry. Dr. Dwight, supporting 93 State students. At the last ses- at Yale College, taught theology in his Sunday sion of the Legislature the sum of $40,000 was sermons, which were so arranged as to form a appropriated to equip the agricultural and me body of divinity. Rev. Charles Backus (born chanical departments.

1749, died 1803), while a pastor in Connecticut, The two permanent normal schools, one at educated nearly fifty theological students. The Huntsville for wbite, and the other at Prairie first actual experiment in public theological View for colored students, are liberally sup- instruction was begun by the Rev. Dr. John ported. Not only are the students provided M. Mason, of New York. Dr. Mason was free tuition, but their board and lodging are graduated at Colombia College in 1789, went paid for out of the State treasury. The State to Edinburgh to study theology, and in 1793 also, during one or two months in the sum- assumed the pastorate of the Reformed Church mer, supports thirty-one normal schools for in New York city. He gathered ministerial whites, and eleven for colored teachers. The candidates about him, and for some years average attendance is about 25 each, or gave them regular instruction in Greek and about 1,000 teachers preparing for the public Hebrew exegesis, and kindred topics. At schools.

length he projected the plan of a theological The Penitentiaries. During the year the Legis- seminary, wbich (the first on this continent) lature made a change from the system of leas- was established in New York in 1804, Dr. Maing the penitentiaries and convicts so long in son being its professor of theology. In 1808 vogue. Under the new system contracts are the Congregationalists organized a theological made for working 1,500 of the 2,300 State con- seminary at Andover, Mass., which was the victs in the walls of the two penitentiaries. first in the United States having a fully

Railroads.—The following figures relate to equipped faculty. In 1812 the Presbyterians the close of 1883:

founded a theological seminary at Princeton, Total miles of railroad (including side-tracks)....... 6,465•24 N.J. In 1817 the Protestant Episcopal Church Total miles of wood bridges..

164.07 founded the General Theological Seminary in Total miles of combination bridges Total miles of iron and steel bridges..

New York. Since the above dates such instiTotal number of locomotives

601 tutions have multiplied rapidly, and now all Total number of passenger-cars..

269 the larger denominations have well-organized Total number of baggage, express, and mail cars... Total number of freight-cars...

13,242 theological schools. Total miles of steel rails

2,248.20 The regular course of study in all the fully Total miles of iron rails


organized theological schools extends over a There is little prospect of railway construc- period of three years. A few of the semition being resumed to any very great extent naries have recently added a fourth year, for during 1884.

post-graduate study. The curriculum is deCrops and Shipments. The following is an ex- signed for college graduates, but others are hibit of the amount and value of State prod- admitted if their previous studies enable them ucts-principally exports—for the year ending to pursue it profitably. Young men who have Aug. 31, 1883:

not enjoyed the benefits of liberal culture are





49 56

19 11 6 2 19 17

1 17 20

5 21 27

968 887 162

61 476 570

6 697 886 96

79 67 18 121

8 19

48 81 78



permitted to take a partial course, omitting


Studenta. the advanced studies, and more difficult and critical questions. Among the topics embraced Baptist.. in the regular course are the following: 1. Congregationalist

. Biblical interpretation, including study of the Free-will Baptist.. Hebrew language, exegesis of parts of the Lutheran. Greek Testament, and history of manuscripts. New Jerusalem. 2. Theology, including a systematic examina- Presbyterian tion of the proofs of the existence of God, Protestant Episcopal... origin and inspiration of the Scriptures, and Poman Catholic

1,008 Jesus Christ, his deity, his humanity, his the- Unitarian


Universalist ..... anthropio personality, the atonement, etc. 3. Others . Ecclesiastical history, including study of the

Totals........ ancient, mediæval, and modern Church,

4,784 schisms, history and development of doctrines, the Reformation, Reformed Churches, subject of fixing upon a uniform standard of time,

TIME, STANDARD AND COSMOPOLITAN. The etc. In addition to class recitations from text- with which the local time of all places may be books, the student is expected to do much collateral reading, and to prepare essays upon The confusion which may arise from the exist

compared, has been discussed for many years. the subjects gone over. The professors of the ence of so many varying standards of time as department also give instruction by lectures. 4. Homiletics, or a study of the best methods been recognized by sailors, who, when they have

now prevail at different meridians has long of preparing and delivering sermons. 5. Prac- reached a point half-way around the earth from tical duties of the pastor. 6. Elocution. In ad- the one whence they started, are accustomed dition to instruction in breathing and voiceculture, particular attention is given to the to add a day to their reckoning, or to subtract reading of Scripture and hymns, and to lect- one, according as they have sailed east or west.

The same difficulties exist, but lessened in a ures on pulpit oratory. 7. Lectureships. During the past few years provision has been made degree in all the continents and in all single in nearly all of the larger institutions for a countries of considerable extent. They have course of lectures each year, by men who have tention of the general public as matters de

not, however, forced themselves upon the atbeen successful as ministers and of acknowledged eminence in scholarship, on subjects remanding practical treatment until since the lating to preaching, and to the practical work general extension of the railroad systems and of the pastor.

telegraph lines. They have been felt with peThe following is a statistical summary, the great longitudinal extent of the country,

culiar force in the United States, because of from the latest reports available, January 1; which causes a difference of four hours in time 1884, of the theological schools in the United between the Atlantic and the Pacific States, and States :

of the intricacies of the railroad connections.

Previous to the adoption of the uniform standNumber of ards, in November, 1883, the managers of the professors. students.

several railroads in the United States endeavAlabama

ored to conform to the local time of the most California..

important or most central stations on their reColorado Connecticut.

157 spective lines. Sometimes they used one standGeorgia..

ard to control the running of the trains on one Illinois.

part of their line, and another standard on anIndiana

other part. Sometimes they had to arrange for

time-connections with other railroads running Kentucky

by standards differing from their own and from Maine

one another. It was computed that there were Maryland... Massachusetts

about 75 different standards controlling the Michigan..

moving of the trains in different parts of the Minnesota

country. A traveler going from Boston to Mississippi Missouri.

Washington would have to set his watch five Nebraska.

times in order to keep correct time while on New Jersey

the journey. From Boston to Providence he North Carolina

would be traveling on Boston time; from Ohio..

Providence to New London on Providence Pennsylvania.. South Carolina

time; from New London to New York on

New York time; from New York to Baltimore Virginia.

on Philadelphia time; and from Baltimore to Wisconsin

Washington on Washington time, which is 24 District of Columbia..


* In several schools as well as this the number of teachers Totals...

4,784 is not given in reports.

+ Including Divinity at Harvard, marked "non-sectarian."


Nurnber of

Number of seminaries.




3 3 1 8 8 16 8 5

Iowa. Kansas


9 11

2 18 5 9 81 40





4 12

2 27 62 10

122 464 79 66

2 216 68 45 884 260 49 66 23 153

7 806 627

68 274 454

69 259

26 171 270

New York.

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minutes slower than Boston time. Sometimes eral view of the relations in round minutes of three or four standards of time competed with the standard meridians to Greenwich and to each other in the same city, as in Hartford, the true local times of the places adopting Conn., where some of the traips left on Boston them: time and others on New York time, while the local time was used in the city at large. The

Standard time, same embarrassment had already been felt,

Designation of though on a much smaller scale, in England; and, to remedy it, on Jan. 13, 1848, all the clocks in the kingdom were set to conform to Greenwich time; and they have been regu- Newfoundland.... 29- St.Johns, N.F. lated by that standard ever since.

New Brunswick...

24+ St. John, N.B. Nova Scotia...

14+ Halifax, N.S.. The question of introducing a uniform sys- Canada.

15- Quebec... tem in the United States was discussed for

18+ Toronto..

16- Boston.. several years before a practicable plan was


8- New York.. found. It was agreed that the adoption of a

8+ Washington.. Eastern

19 + Charleston single standard for the whole United States Florida


45+ Montgomery.. would be impracticable, because it would in

14+ Buffalo.. troduce too many and too great discrepancies Alabama


80+ Detroit.

88 + Cincinnati.. between the time by the clock and the solar Lower Lakes

0+ New Orleans.. time, and would be repugnant to the habits Mississippi valley. 1+ St. Louis....


12+ St. Paul. and convenience of the people. Four stand- Missouri valley...


18+ Kansas City. tie. ards were accordingly proposed, so adjusted as Texas.

19+ Galveston.. to be one hour apart, and to differ by exact

10- Chicago.. hours from the time at Greenwich; the effect Rocky Mt. region. 105°{8+ Denver

Rocky of which would be, that the only difference

28+ Salt Lake City



12- San Diego.... should be in the numbering of the hours, while

Pacific States.....

10+ San Francisco. Pacific the numbering of the minutes and seconds British Columbia.. 11 + Olympia

time. should be the same at all places using the

12+ Victoria, standards as well as at all places using Green-. wich time. The details of a plan embracing The belt of country situated 77° on either these principles were worked up by Mr. W.F. side of a standard meridian generally (with Allen, Secretary of the General and Southern such exceptions as the peculior relations of cerRailway Time Conventions; and at the meet- tain places may make it expedient to recognize) ings of the time conventions, held in New York is expected to adopt the time of that meridian. and Chicago in April, 1883, the following reso Related to the subject of Standard time for lutions were adopted :

the United States is that of Cosmopolitan time, 1. That all roads now using Boston, New York, or the selection of a uniform meridian and Philadelphia, Baltimore, Toronto, Hamilton, or Wash- standard of time for the whole world. A scheme ington time as standard, based upon meridians east for an international system of time-reckoning, by the 75th meridian or Eastern time (four minutes embodying this principle, was proposed inde. slower than New York time).

pendently by the Hon. Sandford Fleming, Chan2. That all roads now using Columbus, Sarandah, cellor of Queen's University, Toronto, and Prof. Atlanta, Cincinnati, Louisville, Indianapolis, Chicago, Cleveland Abbe, of the United States Signal Jefferson City, St. Paul, or Kansas City time, or Service, and was presented by President Barstandards based upon meridians adjacent thereto, shall be run by the 90th meridian time, to be called nard, of Columbia College, to the International Central time, one

hour slower than Eastern time and Association for the Reform and Codification nine minutes slower than Chicago time.

of the Law of Nations, at its meeting in Coshall be run by the 105th and the 120th meridian 24 standard meridians be fixed upon, distant

3. That west of the above-named section the roads logne, in August, 1881.' It recommended that times, respectively, two and three hours slower than Eastern time.

from each other 15° or one hour each in longi4. That all changes from one hour standard to an- tade, to which only the arbitrary local times other shall be made at the termini of roads or at the kept at all places on the earth's surface shall ends of divisions.

be referred; that the prime meridian, by referThis scheme was received favorably by most ence to which all the other hour meridians of the railroads whose time would be regulated shall be determined, be that of 180° or twelve by that of the Eastern and Central meridians, hours from the meridian of Greenwich; a meand was put in operation by the principal rail. ridian which passes near Behring strait and roads of the New England States on October lies almost wholly on the ocean; that the di7th, and, with few exceptions, by those of the urnal change of count in the monthly calendar other States east of the Rocky mountain re- begin when it is midnight on this prime merigion on November 18th. The local time at dian, and take place for the several meridians most of the towns and cities was also made to successively; that the hour of the day at each conform to the new standards, the greatest al. place be reckoned by the standard meridian teration in clocks required to do so being about nearest to it in longitude, it being reckoned as half an hour. The following table gives a gen- twelve o'clock, noon, at the moment the mean

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