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If, by refusing to accept Mr. Mackonochie's resig- Dean of Arches by the Judicial Committee of nation, I had defeated the late archbishop's dying the Privy Council

for a " definitive sentence" desire and effort to promote the peace of the Church, to be passed, it having been decided that a I could never have forgiven myself; nor could I have expected the forgiveness of the great bulk either of sentence of suspension would be inadequate, the clergy or of the laity of England, whether within because it had once before been pronounced, the Church or without it. I ain not aware that the and Mr. Mackonochie had discharged it, and bishop has the power to require from a duly qualified that a sentence of deprivation was the only clergyman, the sufficiency of whose learning he has no reason to doubt, any conditions of adınission to a

one applicable. In the present case, however, benefice, when presented by the rightful patron, other the issue was more complicated than usual, than the production of testimonials signed by three the ordinary form of sentence being inapplicabeneficed clergymen and the oaths and declarations ble in consequence of the defendant having prescribed by law.

If there are those who, knowing as I do the good ceased to hold the living of St. Alban's, Holand self-denying work done among the poor and igno- born, in which the offense had been comrant by such men as Mr. Mackonochie and the late Mr. mitted. The court bad to consider whether a Lowder, are yet, on account of differences in disci- decree of deprivation had become impracticable pline and doctrine (the seriousness of which I do not by the course the defendant had adopted of reacknowledge it, I can not sympathize with them-1 signing the benefice with respect to which the can only pity them.

suit had been instituted. After a careful exA memorial was addressed to the bishop by amination of authorities, Lord Penzance came the Canons of Durham, Peterborough, Carlisle, to the conclusion that it had not. A depriand Ripon, and others, in which exception was vation of the defendant was then decreed from taken to the institution of Mr. Mackonochie,

all his ecclesiastical promotions in the province because by reason of it the recent legal de of Canterbury, among which is included the cisions against ritual (ritual openly acknowl- living of St. Peter's, London Docks. An apedged to be preparatory to the restoration of peal may still lie to the Privy Council

. the sacrifice of the mass) had apparently been

The parish of St. John's, Miles Platting, havrendered nugatory; because by it disloyalty to ing become vacant by the deprivation of the the formularies, articles, and homilies of the Rev. S. F. Green for contumacy in ritualism, Church of England had received tacit encour

the patron of the benefice presented the Rev. agement from her highest officers; because his Mr. Cowgill

, Mr. Green's former vicar, for the lordship's action in the matter would appear to incumbency. The Bishop of Manchester rethe public to be inconsistent with law and or- fused to institute Mr. Cowgill unless he would der; and because the illegalities of ceremony obligate himself to conform to the cathedral which had been practiced at St. Alban's would standard of services, and this Mr. Cowgill, in seem to them to have received episcopal sanc- turn, refused to do. The patron notified the tion and approval. Hence a most injurious bishop that if he persisted in his refusal to effect would be produced upon the Church and institute Mr. Cowgill, he (the patron) would pation, and a strong weapon placed in the be driven to one of two alternatives: either to hands of the enemies of the Church of Eng- seek in a court of law to protect his right of land, for the furtherance of their designs to patronage, which he had exercised to the best procure its disestablishment.

of his judgment, or to ask Mr. Green to reMr. Mackonochie was formally installed in ceive back his resignation, the bishop having the benefice of St. Peter's, London Docks, on refused to accept it, and to take his old place Jan. 21st, when he read himself into the vicar- at the rectory. The bishop replied that he ship and subscribed to the Thirty-nine Articles saw nothing in the patron's letter to modify of the Church of England.

or change the resolution he had come to not The suit against Mr. Mackonochie, which to institute Mr. Cowgill

, and added : “I deeply had been before the law courts in various regret that it should be so; but there is a phases for nearly fifteen years, was contin. peace which may be too dearly purchased, and ded, notwithstanding the exchange of bene- in my opinion it would be so in this instance fices which it was hoped would lead to a if it were purchased by the surrender of all cessation of proceedings. The final judgment law and authority in the administration of the in the case, by Lord Penzance, was given discipline of the Church of England.” AdJuly 21st. The question before his lordship dresses expressing sympathy with him, and was now whether Mr. Mackonochie should satisfaction at his course, were sent to the be deprived of all ecclesiastical promotions in bishop from different sources, to one of which the province of Canterbury. The defendant he replied: had been admonished by the Court of Arches With you, in the course which I have felt it my repeatedly for his illegal ritualistic practices duty to pursue, I desire no party triumph.” But the at St. Alban's, Holborn, and had treated the declared, seems to me to need to be vindicated; and orders of the court with contempt. He had again I agree with you in thinking that to institute to therefore been ordered to be committed. In a benefice a clergyman who would continue the same the mean time an exchange of livings had been illegal ceremonial acts for which the former incumeffected between Mr. Mackonochie and the the law which the common sense of the country would

bent had been deprived, would be a stultification of Rev. Mr. Suckling, incumbent of St. Peter's, not tolerate. If I am wrong in my conception of my London Docks. The case was remitted to the duty, the law, which is appealed to, will set me right,

and to its decision, when duly pronounced, I am pre- While by the Public Worship Regulation Act pared to bow. Meanwhile, I am anxious, as far as the co-operation in prosecution of three agmay be, without raising partisan passion or animosity, grieved parishioners was required as initiatory calmly to await that decision. To another address he replied :

to the beginning of proceedings against a clerMy course of action has not been dictated by any ritual, the act proposed by the commission

gyman charged with offending in doctrine or but simply to secure obedience to the law, as the only makes the right to begin an action open to guarantee of the stability of our beloved church, and, any one, and unrestricted. It is then left disindeed, of the rights and liberties of churchmen. cretionary with the bishop whether he shall

In May, the Archbishop of York issued a allow the complaint to be prosecuted or shall monition to the Rev. G. O. Ommanney, Vicar stop it at once. If it is allowed to proceed, the of St. Matthew's, Sheffield, directing him to bishop may, with the consent of the parties, discontinue eight specified ritualistic prac- deliver a final judgment; if this consent is not tices. The archbishop's requirements were given, the case is carried before the Diocesan as follow :

Court. This court will consist of the bishop, 1. To use pure wine, and not wine mixed with water, with the chancellor of the diocese, or some in the holy communion. 2. To use ordinary wheaten other person learned in the law, as legal asbread in all celebrations of the holy communion, and sessor, and a theological assessor to be chosen not bread pressed so as to resemble wafer bread, for the occasion by the bishop, with the adto proceed in the acts of the holy communion that the vice of the dean and chapter. From this court trating or bowing low over

the elements at the time of an appeal may be taken to the Provincial celebration. 5. To refrain from making the sign of the Court, where it may be heard, at the discrecross over the elements at the time of celebration. 6. To tion of the archbishop, by the official principal the cup; 7. To permit no person not licensed by the of the province, or by the archbishop himself, archbishop to officiate in any manner at the holy com- with the official principal as assessor, in which munion, whether such person be called server or by any case the archbishop is empowered to appoint other title; and 8. That the washing and cleaning of the any number of theological assessors, not exvessels used in the holy communion shall not take place ceeding five, to sit with the court. The theoin the service, but in some place apart.

logical assessor must be either a bishop within The observance of these rules was demanded the province, or a professor, past or present, of in virtue of the vicar's promise of canonical one of the English universities. From the obedience. Mr. Ommanney, in a published let- Provincial Court an appeal will lie to the ter, declared that he did not intend to abandon Crown, which is to exercise its prerogative the eastward position, the mixing of water and through an entirely new court, composed of wine at the communion, and the washing of the "a permanent body of lay judges, learned in chalice; but that, in order to promote peace in the law," of whom not less than five shall be his parish, he was willing to give up making summoned for each case, by the lord chancelthe sign of the cross and other practices that lor, in rotation. In doctrinal cases, this court did not interfere with his conscientious con- may, only on demand of one or more of its victions.

members, consult experts, namely, the archThe Archbishop of York, in a letter to the bishop or bishops of the province, or of both church-wardens of the parish on the subject provinces. The court shall not be bound to of the monition, pointed out that no person give the reasons for its decisions; but, if it does had a right to interfere and put a stop by force state its reasons, each judge shall deliver bis to ceremonies in churches.

own judgment separately, and only the bare Reorganization of Ecclesiastical Courts.--A royal words of the decree shall be legally binding. commission was appointed in May, 1881, to On this feature of the proposition, the report inquire into the constitution and working of furnishes the explanation : "Considering how the ecclesiastical courts under existing stat- widely different a matter the legal interpretautes. The principal object of its work was to tion of documents must often be from the defiframe a plan for such a reconstitution of the nition of doctrine, we hold it to be essential courts having cognizance of ecclesiastical mat- that only the actual decree, as dealing with the ters as would remove the objections entertained particular case, should be of binding authority by a large party in the Church to having ques. in the judgments hitherto or hereafter to be tions of doctrine and ritual decided by lay delivered, and that the reasoning in support of judges. An analysis of the report of the com- those judgments and the obiter dicta should mission was published in August. The essen- always be allowed to be reconsidered and distial features of the scheme proposed in it are puted.” Should a clergyman refuse to obey the establishment of an exclusively ecclesiasti- the sentence of a church court, he is to be puncal jurisdiction in the courts of first instance ished, not by imprisonment, but by a tempoand the postponement of the intervention of rary suspension. · A second disobedience shall lay authority to the court of final resort. Un- be followed by another suspension, and disoder its provisions, the Diocesan Court and the bedience for the third time by suspension until Provincial Court, which were practically de- the court is satisfied. Disobedience to a senstroyed by the Public Worship Regulation Act, tence of suspension may be visited, after three will be restored to their original vitality. months' notice, with deprivation; and any cler

gyman who, during suspension or deprivation, question of disestablishment should be dealt attempts to conduct divine service in a church with by the Legislature. The educational work forbidden to bim, may be charged with dis- of the society during the past three years had turbance of public worship. The practical been carried on on a large scale. As many as effect of the act, if it is adopted by Parliament, 3,074,000 publications had been issued, and will be to repeal the Public Worship Regula- 1,247 meetings had been held. During the tion Act, and restore the old courts to their course of the meetings Mr. John Bright made pristine vigor. By its provisions, the Dean of a speech censuring the Established Church for Arches is to be elected, and to be required to inefficiency. He discussed the questions, Is qualify in the ancient way. All spiritual sen- the state the better for its union with the tences are to be pronounced by the bishop in Church? or is the Church the better for its person in the Diocesan Court, and by the arch- union with the state? The theory of many bishop in the Provincial Court. And the two supporters of the union was that the Church primates are to be empowered, if they think tends to make the state more Christian—that fit, to appoint the same person as official prin- is, more just and gentle, more merciful and cipal for both provinces.

peaceful. That theory the speaker declared Some of the features of the scheme of the to be “unsound and baseless." The bishops commission have been criticised in the dis- of the Established Church in the House of cussions to which it has been subjected. Eight Lords had never exercised their influence in of the 23 members of the commission itself ex- behalf of Christian and generous legislation. pressed objections to the power of vetoing the In respect to the criminal code, when it was continuance of proceedings given by it to the most barbarous, the bishops and the clergy bishop. Among these are the Lord Chief. never raised a voice against the cruelty of the Justice and the Archbishop of York. The laws. The Church had provided no check, and archbishop remarked, in expressing his dissent, uttered no denunciation of the country's incesthat under the operation of this rule the courts sant wars. “I complain, then," he added, " of might be entirely closed to laymen. The Lord the Established Church in this broad manner, Chief-Justice, while he admitted that the power that it does nothing to guide the state in the of prosecution might be liable to abuse, if no way of righteousness; that it is, in certain retrammels were put upon it, thought it better spects, the bond-slave of the state ; that, in all to run the risk of abuse than to override the the great matters which must affect our counrights of the laity, and expressed himself per- try, the bishops and the clergy are dumb, and fectly confident that “competent judges, with their activity is shown only when any comabsolute power of costs, would very soon re- paratively small measure is discussed which strain, and indeed altogether put an end to they think treads a little upon their position inerely frivolous litigation." Similar objec- and their supremacy." He predicted a better tions were made by the Church Association, future for the Church as a church, and as an which devoted the entire session of its autum- object of popular affection, after it shall have nal conference in October to the discussion of been disestablished. the report. Besides this point, a number of The Church Congress.—The Church Congress speakers at the Church Congress, and the chair- met at Reading, Oct. 2d. The Bishop of Oxman of the Church Association, offered objec- ford, being the bishop of the diocese in which tions to the feature of the constitution of the the congress was held, presided, and delivered final court of Jaymen. The Executive Com- the opening address. He spoke of the subjects mittee of the Liberation Society has published which would engross the attention of the meeta statement of objections to the proposed ing as being such as men of academic culture, measure. It deprecates the investment with serious thinkers, and ardent seekers after knowl. judicial authority of bishops and judges ap- edge might properly discuss. The statement of pointed by the archbishops, so long as the them implied no foregoạe conclusion, and asChurch continues to be a national establish- sumed no contradiction to exist between the ment, and protests against the recommendation great generalizations of science and the Chris that the members of the courts shall declare tian faith. Believers in the one source of truth themselves to be “members of the Church of and life, the members of the congress could not England as by law established," as involving a conceive of any physical discovery which should civil disqualification on ecclesiastical grounds, destroy that faith; but they did not, therefore, as placing members of the Church of England separate themselves from the votaries of scion a different footing from Nonconformists in ence, or ask them to be untrue to themselves; regard to the administration of justice, and as but rather believed that the seeming contrabeing inconsistent with the position of that dictions would disappear. The president also Church as a national institution.

spoke of the subjects relating to social morality The Liberation Society.—The triennial confer- that were upon the programme of the congress, ence of the Liberation Society was held May particularly on the one concerning the proposi1st. Mr. H. P. Richard, M. P., presided. The tion to repeal the prohibition of marriage with report represented that the friends of religious a deceased wife's sister. He knew, he said, equality, who had waited during the abnormal the bishops were threatened with expulsion pressure on Parliament, now claimed that the from the House of Lords because they refused

to support a measure of which its friends could the Church. A suggestion by one of the speaknot give an intelligible account. He was not ers that women engaging in organizations for tenacious of temporal honors, and he hoped dealing with sorrow and misery should take they would not forfeit their place by coward- vows of celibacy, was met by a proposition by ice, political corruption, slavish adherence to a the Bishop of Lincoln that the ceremony should party, or subserviency to a court. He, however, be postponed till the women are sixty years *should feel no sense of shame if the bishops old. The subject of the promotion of personal gave the vote which was fatal to themselves in purity, and the prevention of the degradation defense of the purity of English homes, and of women and children, was considered in a the teaching of the word of God.”. Papers on private session. “ Recent Advances in Natural Science in Re- Episcopal Synod of Canada. — The Anglican lation to the Christian Faith" were read by Church of British North America is divided Prof. Flower, the Bishop of Carlisle, and the into two provincial synods, one of which is Rev. Aubrey Moore. The general expression composed of the Dioceses of Canada and the of the discussion was to the effect that the Maritime Provinces, with the Bishop of Frednewly developed theory of evolution, irrespect- ericton as metropolitan; and the other, conive of its scientific value, which was regarded stituted in 1873, includes the Dioceses of the favorably, had nothing in it contrary either to Northwest Territories, with the Bishop of the idea of an intelligent Creator or to the Rupert's Land as metropolitan. Bible. The Bishop of Carlisle affirmed that The Provincial Synod of Canada met in tri. recent advances in natural science do not lead ennial session in Montreal, September 12th. logically, and therefore ought not to lead at The Dioceses of Nova Scotia, Quebec, Toronto, all, to either unbelief or atheism. The Rev. Fredericton, Ontario, Montreal, Huron, and Aubrey Moore asked whether it is too much Niagara, were represented by their bishops to believe that the time will come when we and by delegates. The Rev. Charles Hamilshall see in evolution, modified perhaps by ton, of Quebec, was elected prolocutor of the wider knowledge—conditioned certainly by synod. The Central Board of Domestic Mistruths drawn from another sphere—a fuller sions presented its first triennial report. It revelation in nature than now seems possible showed that the eight dioceses had during the for man of the wonderful works of God? On past three years contributed $34,396 to the the subject, “Recent Advances in Biblical work of domestic missions, and $23,878 to Criticism in their Relation to the Christian the mission fund. The principal objects of Faith,” papers were read by the Rev. T. K. missionary work were in Algoma and the Cheyne on “Old Testament Criticism,” by Northwest. The Central Board of Foreign Prof. Sanday on “New Testament Criticism,” Missions reported that its receipts for the past and by Colonel Sir C. W. Wilson and Canon three years had been $6,743. The report of Rawlinson on “Historical Discovery.". the board closed with a recoinmendation that

Special interest was taken in the discussions it be amalgamated with the Board of Domestic on “the Marriage Laws,” in view of the pend- Missions; and a proposition was introduced ing applications for relaxing the restrictions for the organization of a Domestic and Forupon marriages of affinity. The speakers all eign Missionary Society of the Church of Engopposed the relaxation sought.

land in Canada. A memorial from the Diocese The subject of “ Ecclesiastical Courts” was of Niagara requested the enactment of a canon discussed during two sessions, with especial ref- for the promotion of greater uniformity in the erence to the report of the commission on the rubrio worship of the Church. The committee reorganization of those courts. Among the to which the subject was referred reported speakers were Dr. Hayman, Canon Trevor, Mr. that it was at present impossible to frame in Sydney Gedge, Lord Edward Churchill, the the dogmatic form of a canon what should be Rev. Dr. Porter, Prof. Burrows, of_Oxford, considered legal or illegal in the private ministhe Bishop of Winchester, Mr. W.G. F. Philli- trations of ritual, but that clergymen should more, the Rev. Dr. Hay, of the Protestant Epis- be advised to submit to the ruling of their copal Church in the United States, and Mr. bishops in all matters connected with worship Beresford-Hope, M. P. Two points elicited as to the legality of which doubts are enterdifferences of opinion. They were the pro- tained, or controversy shall have arisen. The posed constitution of the Court of Final Ap- Diocese of Montreal sent in a memorial, setpeal of Laymen, and the provision in the plan ting forth its claims to be the metropolitan projected by the commission for allowing the see, averring that it had never ceased to probishop a veto on the initiation of proceedings test against the action of the Provincial Synod in the courts. Other subjects discussed in the in appointing another than the Bishop of congress were the prevention of pauperism, Montreal as metropolitan, as illegal, and ask“personal religion,” education in the universi- ing for a reconsideration of the question. No ties and in the public schools, and “the rela- change was made in the present rule, which tions of the Church at home to the Church in vests the selection of the metropolitan in the the colonies and in missionary dioceses.” House of Bishops. A committee appointed

Woman's Work.—A session was given to the to consider the subject of the employment of subject of woman's work in connection with women in the work of the Church reported,

recommending the recognition of deaconesses on request, recommended the Rev. Canon Aland sisterhoods. Objection being made to the fred Barry, D. D., Principal of King's College, feature of sisterhoods, the synod, "adopting London, as a suitable candidate for the office. the principle of the desirability of making Anglican Church in Norway.--The foundationarrangements for the better employment of stone of an English Episcopal church has been Christian women in the work of the Church,” laid in Christiania, Norway. The ceremonies but without binding itself to the provisions were superintended by Sir Horace Rumbold, of the report, referred it back to the commit- the British minister resident at the court of tee to prepare a canon on the subject to be Norway and Sweden, and were witnessed by presented at the next session. Satisfaction the Norwegian Minister of State and other was expressed at the success of the recent members of the royal government, and the ecChurch Congress, with the declaration that clesiastical, military, and civil authorities. the organization and conduct of such bodies ANTISEPTICS. See SURGERY. ought to be free from any synodical action. ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. Area.--Since the set

The first Church Congress of the Episcopal tlement of the boundary question with Chili, Church in Canada was held at Hamilton in in October, 1881, the Argentine territory emJune. The Bishop of Niagara presided, and braces an area of 1,168,682 square miles. Bethe meeting was attended by a number of fore that settlement, the republic was credited clergymen from the United States. Among with but 841,000 * square miles (including the the subjects considered were those of clerical undisputed portion of the Gran Chaco), Pataeducation, the attitude clergymen should oc- gonia having then been treated as a separate cupy toward popular literature and recrea- region. tion, "Lay Co-operation," "the Revised Ver Population.—In no other country in the westsion of the New Testament," "Modern Doubts ern hemisphere, save the United States, has and Difficulties," " Woman's Work in the the population grown so rapidly as in the ArChurch," and "Church Music."

gentine Republic. From 620,730 in 1836, it Anglican Churches in South Africa and Australia. had reached 1,526,738 (an increase of 146 per The question whether the Diocese of Natal, cent.) in 1869; and in an official publication South Africa, shall be continued has been raised issued in September, 1882, it was estimated at by the death of Bishop John William Colenso. 2,942,000, as follows: Bishop Colenso was, in 1863, declared by the Bishop of Cape Town to be deposed from his PROVINCES, ETC. Population. Capitals. office for certain heretical doctrines which he

LITTORAL OR RIVERINE PROvwas found to have published. The validity of the act of deposition was not established, and Buenos Ayres..

907,000 Buenos Ayres. the Colonial Assembly of Natal, in 1872, passed Corrientes..

204,000 Corrientes. an act vesting in Bishop Colenso the property


188,000 Concepcion del

Uruguay. belonging to the See of Natal. In the mean- Santa Fé .......

187,000 Santa Fé. time, the Diocese of Maritzburg had been ANDINE PROVINCES. founded in 1869, with jurisdiction extending Catamarca.

102,000 Catamarca. over the colony of Natal, and conflicting with La Rioja....

87,000 La Rioja. the jurisdiction claimed for the Bishop of Na- San Juan..

99,000 Mendoza.

91,000 San Juan. tal. If the bishoprio of Natal were allowed

CENTRAL PROVINCES. to lapse, the conflict of jurisdictions would


820,000 Córdoba. be quietly terminated. The authority of the San Luis

76,000 San Luis. Bishop of Maritzburg is recognized by the other Santiago del Estero..

158,000 Santiago det South African dioceses, while that of the Bishop Tucuman.....


178,000 Tucuman. of Natal is acknowledged only by those imme

NORTHERN PROVINCES. diately connected with the diocese. The Dio


66,000 Jujuy. cese of Natal includes seven clergymen, all but Salta.

167,000 Salta. two of whom were ordained by Bishop Colen


112,000 so after he was excommunicated, with fifteen churches, three of which are closed and two Total..

2,942,000 are connected with native work, while two are in the hands of the Diocese of Maritzburg.

Of the total number of inhabitants, as given The latter diocese has thirty-four clergymen, in that table, the classification by nationalities seven of whom are missionaries to the heathen, was as follows: 2,578,255 Argentine citizens; while three others have native work, superin- 123,641 Italians; 55,432 French; 59,022 Spantended by themselves, going on in their par- iards; 8,616 Germans; 17,950 English; and ishes; and thirty-twochurches, seven of which 99,084 of various other nationalities. are devoted to native work.

* Details concerning territorial divisions, population, etc., The bishopric of Sydney, which includes the may be found in the Annual Cyclopædia" for 1872, '1877,

and 1878. metropolitanate and the Episcopal primacy of

+ The new capital of this province, La Plata, was founded Australia, having become vacant, the Arch- Nov. 19. 1862, on the banks of the river of the same name, bishops of Canterbury and York and the Bish- having been

constituted the Federal capital by the law of Sept. ops of Durham, Rochester, and Liverpool have, 21, 1850.


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