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her successes over the Achæ' ans, eventually induced them to call in the aid of the Macedónians, their former enemies.
36. Antig' onus II., readily embracing the opportunity of restor ing the influence of his family in Southern Greece, marched against the Lacedæmónians, over whom he obtained a decisive victory, which placed Sparta at his mercy. But he used his victory moderately, and granted the Spartans peace on liberal terms. On his death, which occurred soon after, he was succeeded on the throne of Mac' edon by his nephew and adopted son, Philip II., a youth of only seventeen.
37. The Ætólians,' the rudest of the Grecian tribes, who had acquired the character of a nation of freebooters and pirates, had at this time formed a league similar to the Achæ' an, and counting on the inexperience of the youthful Philip, and the weakness of the Achæ' ans, began a series of unprovoked aggressions on the surrounding States. The Messenians, whose territory they had invaded by way of the western coast of the Peloponnésus, called upon the Achæ' ans for assistance, but Arátas, going to their relief, was attacked unexpectedly, and defeated. Soon after, the youthful Philip was placed at the head of the Achæ'an League, when a general war began between the Macedónians, Achæ' ans, and their confederates, on the one side, and the Ætólians, who were aided by the Spartans and E' leans, on the other.
38. The war continued four years, and was conducted with great cruelty and obstinacy on both sides; but Philip and the Achæ' ans were on the whole successful, and the Ætólians and their allies became desirous of peace, while new and ambitious views more eagerly inclined Philip to put an end to the unprofitable contest. At this time the Carthaginians and Romans were contending for mastery in the second Punic war, and Philip began to view the struggle as
one in which an alliance with one of the parties would be desirable, .by opening to himself prospects of future conquest and glory. By
siding with the Carthaginians, who were the most distant party, and from whom he would have less to fear than from the Romana, he hoped to be able eventually to insure to himself the sovereignty of all Greece, and to make additions to Macedónia on the side of Italy. He therefore proposed terms of peace to the Ætólians; and a treaty
1. Ætólia was a country of Northern Greece, bounded on the north by Thes' saly, on the oast by Dóris, Phocis, and Lócris, on the south by the Corinthian Gull, and on the west by Acarnania. It was in general a rough and mountainous country, although some " the valleys were remarkable for their fertility. (Map No. I.)
was concluded at Naupac' tus, which left all the parties in the war in the enjoyment of their respective possessions. (217 B. C.)
39. After the great battle of Can' næ,a which seemed to have ex. tinguished the last hopes of Rome, Philip sent envoys to Hannibal, the Carthaginian general, and concluded with him a treaty of strict alliance. He next sailed with a small fleet up the Adriat' ic, and while besieging Appollónia,' a town in Illyr' ia, was met and defeated by the Roman prætor, M. Valerius, who had been sent to succor the Illyr' ians. (215 B. C.) Philip was forced to burn his ships, and retreat over land to Macedónia, leaving his baggage, and the arms of many of his troops, in the enemy's hands. Such was the unfortunate issue of his first encounter with the Roman soldiery.
40. Soon after his return to Macedónia, finding Arátus in the way of his projects against the liberties of Southern Greece, he contrived to have the old general removed by slow poison ;-a crime which filled all Greece with horror and indignation. In the mean. time, the Romans, while recovering ground in Italy, contrived to keep Philip busy at home, by inciting the Ætólians to violate the recent treaty, and inducing Sparta and E' lis to join in a war against Mac' edon. Still Philip, supported for awhile by the Achæ' ans, under their renowned leader, Philopae' men, maintained his ground, until, first, the Athenians, no longer able to protect their fallen fortunes, solicited aid from the Romans; and finally, the Achæ' ans themselves, being divided into factions, accepted terms of peace.
41. Philip continued to struggle against his increasing enemies, until, being defeated in a great battle with the Romans,b he purchased peace by the sacrifice of the greater part of his navy,
the payment of a tribute, and the resignation of his supremacy over the Grecian States. At the celebration of the Isth' mian games at Corinth the terms of the Roman senate were made known to the Grecians, who received, with the height of exultation, the proclamation that the independence of Greece was restored, under the auspices of the Roman arms. (196 B. C.)
42. Probably nothing was farther from the intention of the Roman senate than to allow the Grecian States to regain their ancient power and sovereignty, and it was sufficient to damp the joy of the more
1. Apollónia was situated on the northern side of the river Aous (now Vojutza) near its mouth. Its ruins still retain the name of Pollini. Apollónia was founded by a colony from Corir b and Corcyra, and, according to Strabo, was renowned for the wisdom of its li wa.
. See p. 158.
b. Battle of Cynocephalæ, 197 B. C. See p. 181.
considerate that the boon of freedom which Rome affected to bestow was tendered by a master who could resume it at his pleasure. At the first opportunity of interference, therefore, which opened to the Romans, the Ætólians, who had espoused the cause of Antiochus, king of Syria, the enemy of Rome, were reduced to poverty and deprived of their independence. At a later period Per' seus, the successor of Philip on the throne of Mac' edon, being driven into a war by Roman ambition, finally lost his kingdom in the battle of Pyd' na," in which twenty thousand Macedónians were slain, and ten thousand taken prisoners, while the Roman army, commanded by Lúcius Æmilius Paulus, lost scarcely a hundred men. (168 B. C.) The Macedonian monarchy was extinguished, and Per' seus himself, a wanderer from his country, was taken prisoner in an island of thc Æ' gean, and conveyed to Rome to grace the triumph of the conqueror.
43. Soon after the fall of Per' seus, the Achæ' ans were charged with having aided him in the war against Rome, and, without a shadow of proof, one thousand of their worthiest citizens, among whom was the historian Polyb' ius, were sent to Rome to prove their innocence of this charge before a Roman tribunal. (167 B. C.) Here they were detained seventeen years without being able to obtain a hearing, when three hundred of the number, the only surviving remnant of the thousand, were finally restored to their country. The exiles returned, burning with vengeance against the Romans; other causes of animosity arose; and when a Roman embassy, sent to Corinth, declared the will of the Roman senate that the Achæ' an League should be reduced to its original limits, a popular tumult arose, and the Roman ambassadors were publicly insulted.
44. War soon followed. The Achæ' ans and their allies were defeated by the consul Mum' mius near Corinth, and that city, then the richest in Greece, after being plundered of its treasures, was con. signed to the flames. The last blow to the liberties of the Hellénio race had been struck, and all Greece, as far as Epírus and Macedó. nia, now become a Roman province, under the name of Acháia. (146 B. C.) “ The end of the Achæ' an war," says Thirwall, “ was the last stage of the lingering process by which Rome enclosed her victim in the coils of her insidious diplomacy, covered it with the
1. Pyd' na was a city near the south-eastern extremity of Macedónin, on the western shore of the Thermaic Gulf, (no * Gulf of Saloniki.) The ancient Pydna is now called Kidros. Du Clarke observed here a vast mound of earth, which he considered, with much probability, ke marking the site of the great battle fought there by the Romans and Macedónians. (Map No. Le
elime of her sycophants and hirelings, crushed it when it began to struggle, and then calmly preyed upon its vitals."
45. W, have now arrived at the proper termination of Grecian history. Niebuhr has remarked, that, “as rivers flow into the sea, so does the history of all the nations, known to have existed pieviously in the regions around the Mediterranean, terminate in that of Rome.” Henceforward, then, the history of Greece becomes in volved in the changing fortunes of the Roman empire, to whose early annals we shall now return, after a brief notice of the cotemporary history of surrourīding nations. With the loss of her liberties the glory of Greece had passed away. Her population had been gradually diminishing since the period of the Persian wars; and from the epoch of the Roman conquest the spirit of the nation sunk into de spondency, and the energies of the people gradually wasted, until, no later than the days of Strabo,' Greece existed only in the remembranco of the past. Then, many of her cities were desolate, or had sunk to insignificant villages, while Athens alone maintained her renown for philosophy and the arts, and became the instructor of her conquerors;-large tracts of land, once devoted to tillage, were either barren, or had been converted into pastures for sheep, and vast herds of cattle; while the rapacity of Roman governors had inflicted upon the sparse population impoverishment and ruin.
COTEMPORARY HISTORY: 490 to 146 B. C.
1. Of the cotemporary annals of other nations during the authentio period of Grecian history, there is little of importance to be narrated beyond what will be found connected with Roman affairs in a subsequent chapter; although the Grecian cities of Italy, Sicily, and Cyrenaica, considered not as dependent colonies of the parent State, but as separate powers, will require some further notice. Of the history of the Medes and Persians we have already given the most interesting portion. Of Egyptian history little is known, beyond what has been narrated, until the beginning of the dynasty of the Ptol'emies (301 B. C.,) and of the events from that period down to the time of Ro. man interference in the affairs of Egypt, we have room for only occasional notices, as connected with the more important 1. History histories of other nations. Of the civil annals of the OF THE JEWS. Jews we shall give a brief sketch, so as to continue, from a proced.
1. strabe was a celebrated geographer, born at Amásia in Pontus, alvout the year 54 B. C.
ing chapter, the history of Judea down to the time when that country became a province of the Roman empire.
2. It has been stated that the rebuilding of the second temple of Jerusalem was completed during the reign of Daríus Hystas' pes, about twenty-five years before the commencement of the war between the Greeks and Persians. During the following reign of Xerxes, the Jews appear to have been treated by their masters with respect, and also during the early part of the reign of Artaxerx' es Longimanus, who had taken for his second wife a Jewish damsel named Esther, the niece of the Jew Mor' decai, one of the officers of the palace. The story of Háman, the wicked minister of the king, is doubtless familiar to all our readers. After the Jews had been delivered from the wanton malice of Háman, Nehemíah, also an officer in the king's palace, obtained for them permission to rebuild the walls of the holy city, and was appointed governor over Judea. With the close of the administration of Nehemiah the annals embraced in the Old Testament end, and what farther reliable information we possess of the history of the Jews down to the time of the Roman conquest is mostly derived from Josephus.
3. After Nehemiah, Judea was joined to the satrapy of Syria, da though the internal government was still administered by the highpriests, under the general superintendence of Persian officers--the people remaining quiet under the Persian government. After the division of the vast empire of Alexander among his generals, Judea, lying between Syria and Egypt, and being coveted by the monarchs of both, suffered greatly from the wars which they carried on against each other. At one time the Egyptian monarch, Ptolemy Sóter, having invaded the country, stormed Jerusalem on the Sabbath day, when the Jews, from superstitious motives, would not defend their city, and transported a hundred thousand of the population to Egypt,--apparently, however, as colonists, rather than as prisoners.
4. During the reigns of Ptolemy Sóter, Ptolemy Philadelphus, Ptolemy Euer' getes, and Ptol'emy Philop' ater, Judea remained subject to Egypt, but was lost by Ptolemy Epiph'anes. Ptolemy Philadel' phus, by his generous treatment of the Jews, induced large numbers of them to settle in Egypt. He was an eminent patron of learning, and caused the septuagint translation of the scriptures to be made, and a copy to be deposited in the famous library which he established at Alexandria. On the accession of Ptolemy Epiph’anes to the throne, (204 B. C.) at the age of only five years, Altio:hus