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limits strangers from every land, exiles, and even criminals, and fugitives from justice, found an asylum. The date usually assigned for the founding of the city is the 753d year before the Christian era.

13. But the Romans, as we must now call the dwellers on the Pal' atine, were without wives; and the neighboring tribes scorn. fully declined intermarriages with this rude and dangerous horde. After peaceful measures had failed, Rom' ulus resorted to stratagem. He proclaimed a great festival ; and the neighboring people, especially the Lat' ins and Sabines,' came in numbers, with their wives and daughters, to witness the ceremonies; but while they were intent on the spectacle, the Roman youths rushed in, and forcibly bore off the maidens, to become wives of the captors.

14. War followed this outrage, and the forces of three Latin cities, which had taken up arms without concert, were successively defeated. At last the Sábine king, Títus Tátius, brought a power.

ful army against Rome, which Rom' ulus was unable to WITH THE resist in the open field, and he therefore retreated to

SA' BINES. the city, while he fortified and garrisoned the Capitoline hill, over against the Pal' atine on the north, intrusting the command of it to one of his most faithful officers. But Tarpéia, the daughter of the commander, dazzled by the golden bracelets of the Sábines, agreed to open a gate of the fortress to the enemy on condition that they should give her what they bore on their left arms—meaning their golden ornaments. Accordingly the gate was opened, but the traitress expiated her crimes by her death; for the Sábines over. whelmed her with their shields as they entered, these also being carried on their left arms. To this day Roman peasants believe that in the heart of the Capitoline hill the fair Tarpéia is still sitting, bound by a spell, and covered with the gold and jewels of the Sábines.

15. The Sábines next tried in vain to storm the city, and Rom'. ulus made equally fruitless attempts to recover the fortress which he had lost. While both parties thus maintained their positions, the Sábine women, now reconciled to their lot, and no longer wishing for revenge, but for a reconciliation between their parents and husbands, rushed in between the combatants, and by earnest supplications in

1. The territory of the Sábines lay to the north-east of Rome. At the time when its limits were most clearly defined it was separated from Latium on the south by the river Anio, from Etruria by the Tiber, froia Umbria by the river Nar, and from Picenum on the east by the Apennines. (Maps Nog. VIII. and X.)

duced them to agree to a suspension of hostilities, which terminated in a treaty of peace. The Sábines and Romans were henceforth to form one nation, having a common religion, and Rom'ulus and Tátius were to reign jointly. Not long after, Tátius was slain by some Laurentines' on the occasion of a national sacrifice at aviu'. ium, and henceforward Rom' ulus ruled over both nations.

16. At this point in Roman history, remarks Niebuhr, the old Roman legend, or poetic lay, is suspended until the death of Rom'ulus; while the intervening period has been filled by subsequent writers with accounts of Etrus' can wars, which find no place in the ancient legend, and which are probably wholly fictitious. Just before the death of Rom' ulus, who is said to have ruled thirty-seven years, the poetic lay is resumed. It relates that, while the king was reviewing his people, the sun withdrew his light, and Mars, descending in a whirlwind and tempest, bore away his perfected son in a fiery chariot to heaven, where he became a god, under the name of Quirinus.a (B. C. 716.)

17. The legend further relates that after the death of Rom' ulus, the chosen senators, or elders of the people, who were also called patres, or fathers, retained the sovereign power in their hands during a year; but as the people demanded a king, it was finally agreed that the Romans should choose one from the Sabine part of the population. The election resulted in the choice of the wise and pious Núma Pompil' ius, who had married the daughter of Tátius. After Núma had assured himself by auguries that the gods approved of his election, his first care was to regulate the laws of landed property, by securing the hereditary possession of land to the greatest possible number of citizens, thereby establishing the most permanent basis of civil order. He then regulated the services of religion, pretending that he received the rituals of the law from the goddess Egéria : he also built the temple of Jánus ;' and


1. The Laurentines were the people of Lauren' tum, the chief city of Latium. Lauron'tum was eighteen miles south from Rome, on the coast, and near the spot now called Paterno. („Vaps Nos. VIII, and X.)

2. Janus was an ancient Italian deity, whose origin is traced back to India. He was represented sometimes with two faces looking in opposite directions, and sometimes with four. He was the god of the year, and also of the day, and had charge of the gates of heaven through

a. Niebuhr deals severely with those writers who, in attempting to deduce historic truth from this poetical fiction, have made the supposition that, instead of an eclipse, there was a tempest, and that the senator : themselves tore Rom'ulus to pieces. (See Niebuhr, i. 127 84 also Schmitz' Rome, p. 20.)


after a quiet and prosperous reign of forty-two years he fell asleep full of days and peaceful honors. (673 B. C.) The legend adda that the goddess Egéria, through grief for his loss, melted away in tears into a fountain.

18. The death of Núma was followed by another interregnum, after which the young and warlike Tullus Hostilius was chosen king: A gleam of historic truth falls upon his reign, and the purely poetic age of Roman story here begins to disap. BOETILIUS. pear in our confidence that such a king as Tullus Hostilius actually existed, and that during his reign the Albans became united with the Romans. Still, the story of the Alban war, and of subsequent wars during the life of Tullus, retain much of legendary fiction, des titute of historic certainty.

19. A tradition of the Alban war, preserved by the early poets, relates, that when the armies of Rome and Alba were drawn up against each other, their leaders agreed to avert the battle by a combat between three twin brothers on the one side, and three on the other, whose mothers happened to be sisters, although belonging to different nations. The Roman brothers were called Horatii, and the Albans Curiátii. Meeting in deadly encounter between the two armies, two of the Horatii fell, but the third, still unwounded, resorted to stratagem, and, pretending to flee, was followed at unequal distances by the wounded Curiátii, when, suddenly turning back, he overcame them in succession.

20. A mournful tragedy followed. At the gate of the city the victor was met by his sister Horátia, who, having been affiarced to one of the Curiátii, and now seeing her brother exultingly bearing off the spoils of the slain, and, among the rest, the embroidered cloak of her betrothed, which she herself had woven, gave way to a burst of grief and lamentation, which so incensed her brother that he slew her on the spot. For this act he was condemned to death, but was pardoned by the interference of the people, although they ordered a monument to be raised on the spot where Horátia fell. By the terms of an agreement made before the combat the Albans were to submit to the Romans; but not long after this event they showed evidence of treachery, when, by order of Tullus, their city

which the sun passes ; and hence all gates and doors on earth were sacred to him. January, the first month in the religious year of the Romans, was named after him. His temples at Rome were numerous, and in time of war the gates of the principal one were open, but in time of peace they were closed to keep wars within.


Fas levelled to the ground, and the people were removed to the Cælian hill, adjoining the Pal' atine on the east. After a reign of thirty-two years, Tullus and all his family are said to have been killed by lightning. (642 B. C.)

21. We find the name of Ancus Martius, said to have been a grandson of Núma, next on the list of Roman kings. He is represented both as a warrior, and a restorer of the ordi. nances and rituals of the ceremonial law, which had fallen into disuse during the reign of his predecessor. He subdued many of the Latin towns—founded the town and port of Ostia'-built the first bridge over the Tiber—and established that principle of the Roman common law, that the State is the original proprietor of all lands in the commonwealth. The middle of his reign is said to have been the era of the legal constitution of the plebeian order, and the assignment of lands to this body out of the conquered territories. He is said to have reigned twenty-four years.

22. The fourth king of Rome was Tarquinius Priscus, or Tarquin the Elder. The accounts of his reign are obscure and conflicting. By some his parents are said to have fled from Corinth to Tarquin' ii,' a town of Etruria, where Tarquin was born: by others he is said to have been of Etruscan descent; but Niebuhr THE ELDER. believes him to have been of Latin origin. Having taken up

his residence at Rome at the suggestion of his wife Tanaquil, who was celebrated for her skill in auguries, he there became distinguished for his courage, and the splendor in which he lived; and his liberality and wisdom so gained him the favor of the people that, when the throne became vacant, he was called to it by the unanimous voice of the senate and citizens. (617 B. C.)

23. Tarquin is said to have carried on successful wars against the Etrus' cans, Latins, and Sabines, and to have reduced all those people under the Roman dominion; but his reign is chiefly memorable on account of the public works which he commenced for the security and improvement of the city. Among these were the em banking of


1. Os'tia, the carly port and harbor of Rome, once a place of great wealth, population, and Importance, was situated on the east side of the Tiber, near its mouth, fifteen iniles from Romne. Ostia, which still retains ils ancient name, is now a miserable village of scarcely a bundred inhabitants, and is almost uninhabitable, from Malaria ; the fever which it engenders carrying off annually nearly all whom necessity confines to this pestilential region during the bot season. The harbor of Os' tia is now merely a shallow pool. (Maps N. VIII. and X.)

2. Tarquin' ii, one of the most powerful cities of Etruria, was about fi rty miles north-west from Rome, on the left bank of the river Marta, several miles from its mouth. The ruins of Turchina mark the site of the ancient city. (Maps Nos. VIII. and X.)



the Tiber; che sewers, which yet remain, for draining the marshes and lakes in the vicinity of the capital; the porticos around the market-place, the race-course of the circus, and the foundations of the city wa'ls, which were of hewn stone. It is said that Tarquin, after a reign of thirty-eight years, was assassinated at the instigation of the sons of Ancus Martius, who feared that he would secure the suc cession to his son-in-law Servius Tullius, his own favorite, and the darling of the Roman people. (579 B. C.)

24. Notwithstanding the efforts of the sons of Ancus Martius, the senate and the people decided that Servius should rule over them The birth of this man is said, in the old legends, to have been very humble, and his infancy to have been attended with marvellous omens, which foretold his future greatness. Of his supposed wars with the revolted Etrus' cans nothing certain is known; but his renown as a law.giver rests on more substantial grounds than his military fame.

25. The first great political act of his reign was the institution of the census, and the division of the people into one hundred and vinety. three centuries, whose rights of suffrage and military duties were regulated on the basis of property qualifications. The several Latin communities that had hitherto been allied with the Romans by treaty he now incorporated with them by a federal union; and to render that union more firm and lasting, he induced the confederates to unite in erecting a temple on Mount Aventine to the goddess Diana, and there unitedly to celebrate her worship. He also made wise regulations for the impartial administration of justice, prohibited bondage for debt, and relieved the people from the oppressions with which they already began to be harassed by the higher orders.

26. His legislation was received with displeasure by the patricians; and when it was known that Servius thought of resigning the crown, and establishing a consular form of government, which would have rendered a change of his laws difficult, a conspiracy was formed for securing the throne to Tarquinius, surnamed the Proud, a son of the former king, who had married a daughter of Servius. The old king Servius was murdered by the agents of Tarquin, and his body left exposed in the street, while his wicked daughter Tullia, in her haste to con gratulate her husband on his success, drove her chariot over her father's corpse, so that her garments were stained with his blood. (535 B. C.)

27. The reign of Tarquinius Superbus, or the Proud, was distin.

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