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STENDING FROM THE CLOSE OF THE TROJAN WAR TO THE FIRST WAR WITH PERALA

1183 TO 490 B. C. = 693 YEARS,

ANALYSIS. 1. Introductory.-2. Consequences of the Trojan war.-3. THESSA'LIAN COMO QUEST.-[Epirus. Pin'dus. Peneus.)44. BEO'TIAN CONQUEST.-ÆO'LIAN MIGRATION. (Les'bos. 5 Dóris.) RETURN OF THE HERACLI' DÆ.-6. Numbers and military character of tho Dórians.- Passage of the Corinthian Gulf.—(Corinthian Isthmus.-Corinthian Gulf.–Naupactus)-7. Dorian conquest of the Peloponnésus. [Arcadia. Achaia.] lónian and Dórian mi grations.-8. Dorian invasion of At' tica.-[Athens. Delphos.) Self-sacrifice of Códrus, Government of At'tica.—. (Lacónia.] Its government. Lycur'gus.—10. Travels of Lycur' gus. (The Brahmins.) INSTITUTIONS OF LYCUR'ous.-11. Plutarch's account-senateIsseinblies-division of lands.-12. Movable property. The currency.-13. Public tablos. Object of Spartan education, and aim of Lycurgus.--14. Disputes about Lycurgus. His supposed fate, (Delphos, Crete. and Eʻlis.]—15. The three classes of the lónian population Tralment of the Hélots.–16. The provincials. Their condition.—17. (Messenia. Ithome FIRST MESSE' NIAN WAR. Results of the war to the Messenians.—18. Its influence on the Spartans. Second MESSE'NIAN WAR. Aristom'enes.-19. The Poet Tyrtæ' us. (Corinth. Sic' yon.) Battle of the Pamisus. The Arcadians. 20. Results of the war.-21. Government of Athens. Dra' co.-22. Severity of his laws.—23. Anarchy. LEGISLATION OF Solox. Solon's integrity.-24. Distresses of the people. The needy and the rich —25. The policy of Solon. Debtors-lands of the poor-imprisonment. Classification of the citizens.--26. Disabilities and privileges of the fourth class. General policy of Solon's system.-27. The nine archons. The Senate of Four Hundred.-28. Court of the Areop'agus. Its powers. Institutions of Solon compared with the Spartan code.-29. Parly feuds. Pisis' tratus.-30. His usurpation of power. Opposition to, and character of, his government.-31. The sons of Pisis' tratus. Conspiracy of Harmódius and Aristogiton.–32. Expl’LSION OF THE PisistratiDS. Intrigues of Hip' pias. [Lyd’ia. Perʻ sia.]–33. The Grecian colonies conquered by Cræ' sus—by the Persians. Application for aid. —-34. Ion'ic Revolt. Athens and Eubm'a aid the lónians. (Eube'a Sar'dis. Eph'esus.] Results of the lónian war. (Milétus.) Designs of Darius.

COTEMPORARY HISTORY.-I. Phan CIAN HISTORY, 1. Geography of Phænicia.-2. Early his lory of Phænicia. Political condition. Colonies.—3. Supposed circumnavigation of Africa.4. Commercial relations. II. Jewish HISTORY- continuation of.-6. Accession of Saul to the throne. Slaughter of the Am' monites. (Jabesh Gil' ead. Gil' gal.] War with the Philistines.-7. Wars with the surrounding nations. Saul's disobedienco.-8. David-his prowess. (Gath.] Saul's jealousy of David. David's integrity.–9. Death of Saul. (Mount Gil' boa.) Division of the kingdom between David and Ish' bosheth. (Hebron.] Union of the tribes.-10. Limited possessions of the Israelites. (Tyre. Sidon. Joppa. Jerusalem.) David takes Jerusalem.-11. His other conquesta. (Syria. Damascus. Rabbah.] Siege of Rabbah. Close of David's reign.-12. Solomon. His wisdom-fame-commercial relations.-13. His impiety. Close of his reign.14. Revolt of the ten tribes. Their subsequent history.–15. Rehoboam's reign over Judah, Reign of Abaz. Hezekiah. Signal overthrow of the Assyrians.-17. Corroborated by pro. fane history.-12. Account given by Herodotus,-19, Reigns of Manas' seh, A'mon, Josiah, and Jehóahaz.-20. Reign of Jehoiakim-of Jochoniah.—21. Reign of Hezekiah. Destruic. tion of Jerusalem.-H. Captivity of the Jews.-23 Rebuilding of Jerusalem. III. RoKAN HISTORY.-1. Founding of Rome.-IV. Persian HISTORY.—25. Dissolution of the As syrian empire.%Establishment of the empire of the Medes and Babylonians. First and

Bocond captivity of the Jews.-27. Other conquests of Nebuchadnez' zar. His war with the Phænicians.-28. With the Egyptians. Fulfilment of Ezekiel's prophecy.-29. Impiety and pride of Nebuchadnez' zar. His punishment.–30. Belshaz' zar's reign. Rise of the separato kingdom of Media. Founding of the Persian empire.-31. Cyrus defeats Cro' sus—subjugates the Grecian colonies-conquers Babylon. Prophecies relating to Babylon.—32. Remainder of the reign of Cyrus.—33. Reign of Camby'ses. [Júpiter Am' mon.]–34. Accession of Darius Hystas' pes.

Revolt and destruction of Babylon.-35. Expedition against the Scythians. [Scythia. River Don. Thruco.]–36. Other events in the history of Darius. His aims, policy, and government.-37. Extent of the Persian empire.

1. PASSING from the fabulous era of Grecian history, we enter upon a period when the crude fictions of more than mortal heroes, and demi-gods, begin to give place to the realities of human existence; but still the vague, disputed, and often contradictory annals on which we are obliged to rely, shed only an uncertain light around us; and even what we have gathered as the most reliable, in the present chapter, perhaps cannot wholly be taken as undoubted historic truth, especially in chronological details.

2. The immediate consequences of the Trojan war, as represented by Greek historians, were scarcely less disastrous to the victors than to the vanquished. The return of the Grecian heroes to their coun. try is represented by Homer and other early writers to have been full of tragical adventures, while their long absence had encouraged usurpers to seize many of their thrones; and hence arose fierce wars and intestine commotions, which greatly retarded the progress of Grecian civilization.

3. Among these petty revolutions, however, no events of general I. THESSA' Lian interest occurred until about sixty years after the fall of

CONQUEST. Troy, when a people from Epírus,' passing over the mountain chain of Pin' dus, descended into the rich plains which lie along the banks of the Penéus,' and finally conquereda the country, to

1. The country of Epirus, comprised in the present Turkish province of Albania, was at the north-western extremity of Greece, lying along the coast of the Adriatic Sea, or Gull of Venice, and bounded on the north by Macedónia, and on the east by Macedonia and Thes'. saly. The inhabitants in early times were probably Pelas' gic, but they can hardly be conside ered ever to have belonged to the Hellenic race, or Grecians proper. Epirus is principally distinguished in Roman history as the country of the celebrated Pyr'rhus (see p. 149.) The earliest oracle of Greece was that of Dodona in Epirus, but its exact locality is unknown. There was another oracle of the same name in Thes' saly. (Map No. I.)

2. Pin' dus is the name of the mountain chain which separated Thes' saly from Epirus (Map No. I.)

3. Penéus, the principal river of Thes' saly, rises in the Pin' dus mountains, and flowing in a course generally east, passes through the vale of Tem' pe, and err pties its waters into the Ther maic Gulf, now the gulf of Salonica, a branch of the Æ' gear Sea, or Archipelago. (Map No. I.)

4. About 1224 B. C.

which they gave the name of Thes' saly; driving away most of the inhabitants, and reducing those who remained to the condition of serfs, or agricultural slaves.

4. The fugitives from Thes' saly, driven from their own country, passed over into Bæótia, which they subdued after a long 1. BĘO'TIAN struggle, imitating their own conquerors in the disposal CONQUEST. of the inhabitants. The unsettled state of society occasioned by the Thessalian and Bæótian conquests was the cause of collecting together various bands of fugitives, who, being joined by adventurers from Peloponnésus, passed over into Asia, constituting the Æblian migration, so called from the race which took tho prin. m. ÆO'LIAN cipal share in it. They established their settlements in MIGRATION. the vicinity of the ruins of Troy, and on the opposite island of Les'. bos,' while on the main land they built many cities, which were comprised in twelve States, the whole of which formed the Æólian Con. federacy.

5. About twenty years after the Thessalian conquest, the Dórians, a Hellénic tribe, whose country, Dóris,' a mountainous region, was on the south of Thes' saly, being probably harassed by their northern r.eighbors, and desirous of a settlement in a more fertile territory, sommenced a migration to the Peloponnésus, accompanied by portions of other tribes, and led, as was asserted, by descendants of Her' cules, who had formerly been driven into exile from the latter country. This important event in Grecian history is called the Return of the Heraclide. The migration of the Dórians was similar in its character to the return of the

HERACLI DA Israelites to Palestine, as they took with them their wives and chil. dren, prepared for whatever fortune should award them.

6. The Dórians could muster about twenty thousand fighting men, and although they were greatly inferior in numbers to the inhabitants of the countries which they conquered, their superior military tactics appear generally to have insured them an easy victory in the

IV. RETURN

OF THE

1. Les' bos, one of the most celebrated of the Grocian islands, now called Mytilene, from its principal city, lies on the coast of Asia Minor, north of the entrance to the Gulf of Smyrna. Anciently, Les' bos contained nine flourishing cities, founded mostly by the Æblians. The Les' bians were notorious for their dissolute manners, while at the same time they were distinguished for intellectual cultivation, and especially for poetry and music. Map No. III.)

2 Dóris, a small mountainous country, extending only about forty miles in length, was situated on the south of Thes' saly, from which it was separated by the range of mount (E' tela The Dórians were the most poworful of the Hellénic tribes. (Map No. I.)

B. About 1040 B, C.

open field. Twice, however, they were repelled in their attempts to break through the Corinthian isthmus,' the key to Southern Greece, when, warned by these misfortunes, they abandoned the guarded isthmus, and crossing the Corinthian Gulf from Naupac' tus,' landed safely on the north-western coast of the peninsula. (B. C. 1104).

7. The whole of Peloponnésus, except the central and mountainous district of Arcádia' and the coast province of Acháia,' was eventually subdued, and apportioned among the conquerors,—all the old inhabitants who remained in the country being reduced to an inferior condition, like that of the Saxon serfs of England at the time of the Norman conquest. Some of the inhabitants of the southern part of the peninsula, however, uniting under valiant leaders, conquered the province of Acháia, and expelled its Iónian inhabitants, many of whom, joined by various bands of fugitives, sought a retreat on the western coast of Asia Minor, south of the Æólian cities, where, in

1. The Corinthian Isthmus, between the Corinthian Gulf (now Gulf of Lepan' to) on the north-west, and the Saron' ic Gull (now Gulf of Athens, or Ægina) on the south-east, unites the Peloponnesus to the northern parts of Greece, or Greece Proper. The narrowest part of this celebrated Isthmus is about six miles east from Corinth, where the distance across is about Ave miles. The Isthmus is high and rocky, and many unsuccessful attempts have been made to unito the waters on each side by a canal. The Isthmus derived much of its early celebrity from the Isthmian games celebrated there in honor of Pale' mon and Nep'tune. Ruins of the temple of Nep'tune have been discovered at the port of Schæ' nus, on the east side of the Isthmus. (Map No. I.)

2. The Corinthian Gulf (now called the Gulf of Lepan'to) is an eastern arm of the Adriatic, or Gulf of Venice, and lies principally between the coast of ancient Phocis on ine north, and of Achaia on the south. The entrance to the gulf, between two ruined castles, the Roume ia on the north, and the Morea on the south, is only about one mile across. Within, the waters expand into a deep magnificent basin, stretching about seventy-eight miles to the south-east, and being, where widest, about twenty miles across. Near the mouth of this gulf was fought, in the yoar 1570, one of the greatest naval battles of modern times. (Map No. I.)

3. Naupac' tus (now called Lepan' lo) stands on a hill on the coast of Lócris, about three and a half miles from the ruined castl, of Roumelia. It is said to have derived its name from the circumstance of the Heraclidæ having there constructed the fleet in which they crossed over to the Peloponnésus. (Naus, a ship, and Pego, or Pègnumi, to construct.) It was once a place of considerable importance, but is now a ruinous town. (Map No. I.)

4. Arcadia, the central country of the Peloponnésus, and, next to Laconia, the largest of its six provinces, is a mountainous region, somewhat similar to Switzerland, having a length and breadth of about forty miles each. The most fertile part of the country was towards the south, where were several delightful plains, and numerous vineyards. The Alphéus is the principal river of Arcadia. Tégea and Mantinéa were its principal cities. Its lakes are small, but among them is the Stymphalus, of classic fame. The Arcàdians, scarcely a genuine Greek race, were a rude and pastoral people, deeply attached to music, and possessing a strong love of freedom. (Map No. I.)

5. Achaia, the most northern country of the Peloponnésus, extended along the Corinthian Gull, north of E'lis and Arcadia. It was a country of moderate fertility; its coast was for the most part level, containing no good harbors, and exposed to inundations; and its streams were of small size, many of them mere winter torrents, descending from the ridges of Arcadia. Originally Achaia embraced the territory of Sic' yon, on the east, but the latter was finally wrested from it by the Dorians. The Achæ' ans are principally celebrated for being the origo Idators of the celebrated Achæan league. (See p.107.) (Map No. I.)

process of time, twelve Ionian cities were built, the whole of which were united in the Iónian Confederacy, while their new country received the name of Iónia. At a later period, bands of the Dorians themselves, not content with their conquest of the Peloponnésus, thronged to Asia Minor, where they peopled several cities on the coast of Cária, south of Iónia; so that the Æ' gean Sea was finally circled by Grecian settlements, and its islands covered by them.

8. About the year 1068, the Dorians, impelled, as some assert, by a general scarcity, the natural effect of long.protracted wars, invaded At' tica, and encamped before the walls of Athens. The chief of the Dórian expedition, having consulted the oracle of Del' phos,' was told that the Dórians would be successful so long as Códrus, the Athenian king, was uninjured. The latter, being informed of the answer of the oracle, resolved to sacrifice himself for the good of his country, and going out of the gate, disguised in the garb of a peasant, he provoked a quarrel with a Dórian soldier, and suffered himself to be slain. On recognizing the body, the superstitious Dó. rians, deeming the war hopeless, withdrew from At' tica; and the Athenians, out of respect for the memory of Códrus, declared that no one was worthy to succeed him, and abolished the form of roy. alty altogether. Magistrates called archons, however, differing little from kings, were now appointed from the family of Códrus for life; after a long period these were exchangedb for archons appointed for ten years, until, lastly, the yearly election ofra senate of Archons gave the final blow to royalty in Athens, and established an aristo. cratical government of the nobility. These successive encroachments

1. Athens, one of the most famous cities of antiquity, is situated on the western side of the At' tic peninsula, about five miles from the Saron' ic Gull, now the Gulf of Ægina. Most of the ancient city stood on the west side of a rocky eminence called the Acrop'olis, surrounded by an extensive plain, and, at the time when i, had attained its greatest magnitude, was twenty miles in circumference, and encompassed by a wall surmounted, at intervals, by strongly-fortifiod towers. The small river Cephis' sus, flowing south, on the west side of the city, and the river Ilis'sus, on the east, flowing south-west, inclosed it in a sort of peninsula ; but both Etreams lost themselves in the marshes south-west of the city. The waters of the Ilis' sus were mostly drawn off to irrigate the neighboring gardens, or to supply the artificial fountains of Athens. (Map No. I. See farther description, p. 564.)

2. Del phos, or Del' phi, a small city of Phocis, situated on the southern declivity of Mount Parnas' sus, forty-five miles north-west from Corinth, and eight and a half miles from the nearest point of the Corinthian Gulf, was the seat of the most remarkable oracle of the ancient world. Above Del' phi arose the two towering cliffs of Parnas' sus, while from the chasm between them flowed the waters of the Castalian spring, the source of poetical inspiration. Below lay 1 rugged mountain, past which flowed the rapid stream Plis' tus; while on both sides of the plain, where stood the little city, arose steep and almost inaccessi le precipices. (Map No. I.)

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