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Bectiox III.-Tux ROMAN REPUBLIC, FROM THE BEGINNING OF THE CARTHAGINIAN Wars,

263 B. C. TO TUE REDUCTION OF GREECE AND CARTHAGE, 146 B. C.-117 YEARB.

1. Carthage.-II. First Punic War.-111. Mlyrian War.-IV. War with the Gauls.-V. Second

Funic War.-VI. Grecian War.–VII. Syrian War.–VIII. Third Punic War. Page 150–105.

PART II.

MODERN HISTORY.

CHAPTER I.

ROMAN HISTORY CONTINUED, FROM THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE CARISTIAN ERA,

TO THE OVERTHROW OF THE WESTERN EMPIRE OF THE BOMANS :

A. D. 1 TO A. D. 476.

BECTION 1.-ROMAN HISTORY FROM THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE CHRISTIAN ERA TO THE

DEATH OP DOMITIAN, THE LAST OF THE TWELVE CESARS: A. D. 96.
. Earlier and later history of the Empire compared.-11. Julius Cæsar.-III. Augustus.-IV.

Tiberius. –V. Caligula.-VI. Claudius.-VII. Nero.-VIII. Galba.-IX. Otho.-X. Vitellius
--XI. Vespasian.-XII. Jowish war.-XIII. Titus.-XIV. Domitian........ Page 188_202.

SECTION II.--ROMAN HISTORY FROM THE DEATH OF DOMITIAN A. D. 96, TO THE ESTABLISH-

MENT OF MILITARY DESPOTISM, AFTER THE MURDER OP ALEXANDER SEVE'RUS,

A. D. 235-139 YEARS.

Nerva.-II. Trajan.-III. Adrian.-IV. Titus Antoninus.–V. Marcus Aurelius Antoninus.
VI. Com' modus.-VII. Per' tinax.–VIII. Didius Julianus.-IX. Septim'ius Severus.-X.
Caracalla.-XI. Macrinus.-XII. Elagabalus.—XIII. Alexander Severus.... Page 202–A11.

SECTION III.-ROMAN HISTORY, FROM THE ESTABLISHMENT OF MILITARY DESPOTISM APTER

THE REION OF ALEXANDER SEVE'RUS, A. D. 235, TO THE SUBVERSION OF THE

WESTERN EMPIRE OF THE ROMANS, A. D. 476:- 241 YEARS.

I. Maximin.-II. Gordian.-III. Pupienus and Balbinus.-IV. Second Gordian.-V. Philip the

Arabian.-VI. Decius.- VII. Gallus.-VIII. Æmiliánus.-IX. Valerian.-X. Gallienus.-XI. M,

Aurelius Claudius.-XII. Quintilius.-XIII. Aurelian.-XIV. Tacitus.--XV. Florian.-XVI.

Probus.-XVII. Cárus.--XVIII. Numerian and Carinus.--XIX. Diocletian.--XX. Maximian

XXI. Galérius and Constan' tius.-XXII. Con' stantine.-XXIII. Constantius II.-XXIV.

Julian the Apostate.-XXV. Jovian.-- XXVI. Valentin'ian and Valens.-XXVII. Barbarian

Inroads.--XXVIU. Gratian and Theodosius.-XXIX. Valentinian II.-XXX. Honorius and

Arcadius.--XXXI. Alaric the Goth.-XXXII. Valentin' ian III.-XXXIII. Conquests of

Attila.-XXXIV. The Vandals.-XXXV. Av' itus-Majorian.-XXXVI. Severus--XXXVIL.

Bubversion of the Western Empire.....

Page 211---235.

CHAPTER II.

HISTORY OF THE MIDDLE AGES: EXTENDING FROM THE OVERTHROW OF THE

WESTERN EMPIRE OF THE ROMANS, A. D. 476, TO THE DISCOVERY OT

AMERICA, A. 1. 1492:-1016 YEARS.

Section I.-GENERAL HISTORY, FROM THE OVERTHROW OF THE WESTERN EMPIRE OF TOR

ROMANS TO THE BEGINNING OF THE TENTH CENTURY :-424 YEARS.

. Introductory.-11. The monarchy of the Heruli.—III. Monarchy of the Ostrogoths.-IV. The

era of Justinian-V. The Lombard monarchy.-VI. The Saracen empire.- VII. Monarchy
of tho Franks.--VIII. English History...

Page 235–264.
SECTION II.-GENERAL HISTORY DURING THE TENTU, ELEVENTI, TWELFTE, AND

TELIRTEENTH CENTURIES : A. D. 900 TO 1300 :-400 YkARS.
L Complete Dissolution of the Bonds of Society.-1. Confusion of Historic materials.-II. The

Saracon world. - III. Tie Byzantine empire.--IV, Condition of Italy.-V. Condition of Ger.
many.-VL. Cuniliu » of France...

Page 264273.

The Feudal system, Chivalry, and the Crusades.-I. The Fendal system.-11. Chivalry.
III. Origin of ihe Crusades.- IV. The First Crusade.-V. The Second Crusade.-Vi. The
Third Crusade.-VII. The Fourth Crusade.-VIII. The Fifth Crusade.--IX. Tartar con
quests.-X. The Sixth Crusade.......

Page 273-288
2 English History.-1. England after the death of Alfred.II. Norman congrest.-III. RO

duction of Ireland.-IV. Subjugation of Wales.-V. Scottish wars......... Page 288–297.
SECTION IL-GENERAL HISTORY DURING THE FOURTEENTH AND FIFTEENTH CENTURIES.

1 England and France during the Fourteenth and Fifteenth centuries.-I. French and English

wars, 1318 to 1453.-11. Wars of the cwo Roses.-II. Reign of Henry VII. of Eng.

land..

Page 297–308.

1 Other

Nations at the close of the Fifteenth century.-1. Denmark, Sweden, and Norway.-II.

The Russian empire.-III. The Ottoman empire.-IV. Tartar empire of Tamerlane.-V.

Poland. - VI. The German empire. - VII. Switzerland. - VIII. Italian History. IX.

Spain......

Page 308-318.

à Discoveries.-Navigation.—Magnetic Needle.- Art of Printing.---The Canaries.-Capo do

Verd and Azore Islands.—The Portuguese.-Christopher Columbus.—Vasco de Gama......

Page 318-322

Coali..on :igainst Austria.-V. Events of 1742-3.-VI. Events of 1744.-VII. Events of 1745.

-VIII. Invasion of England by the Youry Pretender.--IX. Events in America.--X. 1746-7

--XI. Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1748...

Page 418-4:23.

4. The Seven Years' War : 1756-1763.-1. Eight years of peace.--II. Causes of another war.

- III. Beginuing of hostilities in America.-IV. European Alliances -V. First Campaign

of I'rederick, 1756.-VI. 1757.-VII. 1758.-VIII. 1759.-IX. 1760.-X. 1761.---X1. Peace

of 1763.—XII. Military character of Frederick..

Page 423-433,

5. State of Europe. The American Revolution.-I. General peace in Europe.-11. France.-

III. Russia.-IV. Dismemberment of Poland.-V. State of parties in England.--VI. Ainerican

Taxation.-VII. Opening of the war with the Colonies.-VIII. European relations with

England.-IX. Alliance bel ween France and the American States.--X. War between France

and England.--XI. War between Spain and England.--XII. Armed Neutrality against Eng.

land.-- XIII. Rupture between England and Holland.--XIV. War in the East Indies.-XV.

Treaty of 1702.--XVI. General Treaty of 1783.....

Page 433_-445,

& The French Revolution : 1789-1800.-1. Democratic spirit.-II. Louis XVI.--IU. Financial

Jifbculties.-IV. The States-General.-V. Revolutionary state of Paris.-VI. Great political
changes.- VII. Famine and mobs.--VIII. New Constitution.-IX. Marshalling of parties.--
X. The Emigrant Nobility:-X1. Attempted escape of the Royal Family:-X11. 'War de.
clured against Austria.- XIII. Massacre of the joth of August.- XIV. Massacre of Sep-
tember. --XV. Trial and execution of Louis XVI.-XVI. Fall of the Girondisis.-XVII.
The Reign of Terror.-XVIII Triumph of Infidelity.-XIX. Fall of the Dantonists-XX.
War against Europe.-XXI. Insurrection of La Vendee.-XXII. Insurrection in the south
of France.--XXN1. Fall of Robespierre, and end of the reign of Terror.--XXIV. The Eng.
lish victorious at sea, and the French on land.--XXV. Second partition of Poland.-XXVI.
Third partition of Poland --1795. XXVII. Dissolution of the coalition against I'rance.-

XXVIII. New Constitution.—XXIX. Insurrection in Paris.--1796. XXX. Invasion of Ger-

many.-XXXI. The Army of Italy.-XXXII. Disturbances in England.--1797. XXXIII.

Napoleon's Austrian Campaign.--*XXIV. Treaty of Campo Formio.-XXXV. Establish-

ment of Military Despotisin in France.-1798. XXXVI. Proparations for the invasion of

England.-XXXVII. Expedition to Egypt. - XXXVIII. Battle of the Pyramids - XXXIX.

Balile of the Nile.-1799. XL. Syrian Expedition.-XLI. Siege of Acre.-XLII. Battle of

Mount Tabor.-XLIII. Battle of Aboukir.-XLIV. Overthrow of the Directory.-XLV. Na-

poleon First Consul...

Page 445–475.

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SECTION I.-THE WARS OF NAPOLEON: 1800—1815.

1. Events or the year 1800, War with Austria.-II. Events of 1801.--III. Events of 1802, the year

of peace.--IV. Renewal of the war, 1803.–V. Ever is of 1804. Napoleon Emperor.-V1. 1805,
Coalition against France. Battle of Austerlitz.-VII. 1804, Louis Napoleon king of Holland.
Confederation of the Rhine. Baules of Jena and Auerstadt.--VIII. 1807, Treaty of Tilsit. -
IX. 1808, Events in Spain. Beginning of the Peninsular War.--X. 1809. War with Austria.
Battle of Wagram. Napoleon's divorce from Josephine.-XI. 1810, Busco and Torres
Vedras.-XII. 1811, Badajoz and Albuera. - XIII. 1812, Russian Campaign. Smolensko-
Borodino -Moscow. American War.-XIV. 1813, General coalition against Napoleon.
Lutzen-Bautzen-Leipsic.-XV. 1814, Capitulation of Paris. Abdication of Napoleon.-
XVI. 1815, Napoleon's return from Elba. Battle of Waterloo..

Page 4754503.

SECTION II.-FROM THE FALL OF NAPOLEON TO THE PRESENT TIME.

1. The Period of Peace : 1815-1820).-1. Treaties of 1815.–11. England.-III. France.....

Page 506-512

2. Revolutions in Spain, Portugal, Naples, Piedmont, Greece, France, Belgium, and Pa

land: 1820-1831.

Page 512—550.

3. English Reforms. French Revolution of 1818. Revolution in the German States, Prussin,

and Austria. Revolution in Italy. Hungarian War. Usurpation of Louis Napoleon :

1831-1859..

Page 550-562.

GENERAL GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL VIEWS, ILLUSTRATED

BY THE FOLLOWING MAPS.

1. Ancient Greece...

564 10. Ancient Rome...

582

2. Athens and its Harborg.

566 11. Chart of the World..

584

3. Islands of the Ægean Sea..

568 12. Battle Grounds of Napoleon, &c.

586

4. Asia Minor...

570

13. France, Spain, and Portugal..

588

5. Persian Empire.

572 14. Switzerland, Denmark, &c...

5:20)

6. Palestine..

574 15. Netherlands, (Holland and Belgium).. 592

7. I'urkey in Europe.

576 16. Great Britain and Ireland...

594

8. Ancient Italy..

578 17. Central Europe..

546

9. Roman Empire...

580 18. United States of America............ 593

NOTE. For the "Index to the Geographical and Historical Notes" see end of the volume.

PART I.

ANCIENT HISTORY.

CHAPTER I.

THE EARLY AGES OF THE WORLD, PRIOR TO THE COMMENCE

MENT OF GRECIAN HISTORY.

ANALYSIS. 1. Tux CREATION. The earth a chaotic mass. Creation of light. Separation
of land and water.—2. Vegetable life. The heavenly bodies. Animal life.—. God's blessing
on his works. Creation of man. Dominion given to him. Institution of the sabbath.—4. An-
TEDILUVIAN History. The subjects treated of.-5. The earth immediately after the deluge.
The inheritance given to Noah and his children.-6. The building of Babel. (Euphrates. Geo-
graphical and historical account of the surrounding country.] Confusion of tongues, and dis
persion of the human family.-7. Supposed directions taken by Noah and his sons.—8. EGYPT-
IAN History. Mis' raim, the founder of the Egyptian nation. (Egypt.] The government
established by bim. Subverted by Menes, 2400 B. C.-9. Accounts given by Herod'otus, José-
phus, and others. (Memphis and Thebes. Description of.] Traditions relating to Ménes.
His great celebrity. [The Nile.]—10. Egyptian history from Menes to Abraham. The erection
of the Egyptian pyramids. (Description of them.] Evidences of Egyptian civilization during
the time of Abrabam.–11. The Shepherd Kings in Lower Egypt. Their final expulsion, 1900
B.C. Joseph, governor of Egypt. [Goshen.] Commencement of Grecian history.-12. Asia-
Tic HISTORY. (Assyria. Nineveh.] Ashur and Nimrod. (Babylon.) The worship of Nim
rod.-13. Conflicting accounts of Ninus. Assyria and Babylon during his reign, and that of his
successor.–14. Account of Semir’amis. Her conquests, &c. (Indus R.) The history of Assy-
ria subsequent to the reign of Semir' amis.

1. THE CREA

TION,

1. The history of the world which we inhabit commences with
the first act of creation, when, in the language of Moses,
the earliest sacred historian, “ God created the heavens
and the earth." We are told that the earth was “with-
out form, and void” shapeless, chaotic mass, shrouded in a man.
tle of darkness. But “God said, let there be light; and there was
light.” At the command of the same infinite power the waters rolled
together into their appointed places, forming seas and oceans; and
the dry land appeared.

2. Then the mysteries of vegetable life began to start into being;
beautiful shrubs and flowers adorned the fields, lofty trees waved in
the forests, and herbs and grasses covered the ground with verdure.

The stars, those gems of evening, shone forth in the sky; and two greater lights were set in the firmament, to divide the day from the night, and to be “for signs, and for seasons, and for days and for years." Then the finny-tribes sported in the waters of the seas," the birds of heaven filled the air with their melody, and the carth brought forth abundantly “cattle and creeping things,” and “ (very living creature after its kind.”

3. And when the Almighty architect looked upon the objects of creation, he saw that “all were good,” and he blessed the works of his hands. Then he “created man in his own image;" in the like ness of God, “male and female created he them;" and he gave them “ dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth." This was the last great act of creation, and thus God ended the work which he had made; and having rested from his labors, he sanctified a sabbath or day of rest, ever to be kept holy, in grateful remembrance of Him who made all things, and who bestows upon man all the blessings which he enjoys. 4. The only history of the human family from the creation of

Adam to the time of the deluge, a period of more than two thousand years, is contained in the first six chap

ters of the book of Genesis, supposed to have been written by Moses more than fourteen hundred years after the food. The fall of our first parents from a state of innocence and purity, the transgression of Cain and the death of Abel, together with a genealogy of the patriarchs, and an account of the exceeding wickedness of mankind, are the principal subjects treated of in the brief history of the antediluvian world.

5. When Noah and his family came forth from the ark, after the deluge had subsided, the earth was again a barren waste; for the waters had prevailed exceedingly, so that the hill-tops and the moun. tains were covered; and every fowl, and beast, and creeping thing and every man that had been left exposed to the raging flood, had been destroyed from the earth. Noah only remained alive, and they that had been saved with him in the ark; and to him, and his three sons, whose names were Shem, Ham, and Japheth, the whole earth was now given for an inheritance.

6. About two hundred years after the flood, we find the sons of Noah and their descendants, or many of them, assembled on the

ANTEDILUVIAN HIS

TORY.

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