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the punishment of a malefactor ; and when the sentence of death had been pronounced against him, he spent the remaining days which the laws allowed him in impressing on the minds of his friends the most sublime lessons in philosophy and virtue; and when the fatal hour arrived, drank the poison with as much composure as if it had been the last draught of a cheerful banquet.
33. Cyrus has been mentioned as one of the sons of Darius No' thus, and governor of the maritime region of Asia Minor. As his ambition led him to aspire to the throne of Persia, to the exclusion of his elder brother, Artaxerxes Mnemon, he had aided Sparta in the Peloponnésian war, with the view of claiming, in return, her assist. ance against his brother, should he ever have occasion for it. When, therefore, the latter was promoted to the throne in accordance with the dying bequest of his father, Cyrus prepared for the execution of his design by raising an army of a hundred thousand Persian and barbarian troops, which he strengthened by an auxiliary force of thirteen thousand Grecians, drawn principally from the Greek cities of Asia. On the Grecian force, commanded by the Spartan Clear' chus, Cyrus placed his main reliance for success.
34. With these forces he marched from Sardis in the Spring of the year 401, and with little difficulty penetrated into the heart of the Persian empire, when he was met by Artaxerx' es, seventy miles from Babylon, at the head of nine hundred thousand men. In the battle which followed, this immense force was at first routed; but Cyrus, rashly charging the centre of the guards who surrounded his brother, was slain on the field, when the whole of his barbarian troops took to flight, leaving the Greeks almost alone in the midst of a hostile country, more than a thousand miles from any friendly territory.
35. The Persians proposed to the Grecians terms of accommo. dation, but having invited their leaders to a conference they mer. cilessly put them to death. No alternative now remained to the Greeks but to submit to the enemy, or fight their way back to their native country. Where submission was death or slavery they could not hesitate which course to pursue. They chose Xen' ophon, a young Athenian, for their leader, and under his conduct ten thousand of their number, after a march of four months, succeeded in, reaching Grecian settlements on the banks of the Eux'ine. Xen 'o. phon himself, who afterwards became the historian of his country, has Jeft an admirable narrative of the “ Retreat of the Ten Thou.
sand," written with great clearness and singular modesty. It is one of the most interesting works bequeathed us by antiquity, as the Retreat itself is the most famous military expedition on record.
36. The part which the Greek cities of Asia took in the expedition of Cyrus involved them in a war with Persia, in which they were aided by the Spartans, who, under their king Agesiláus, defeated Tisapher' nes in a great battle in the plains of Sárdis (B. C. 395); but Agesiláus was soon after recalled to aid his countrymen at home in another Peloponnesian war, which PELOPONNÉhad been fomented chiefly by the Persian king himself, in order to save his own dominions from the ravages of the Spartans. Artaxerx' es supplied Conon, an Athenian, with a fleet which defeated the Spartan navy; and Persian gold rebuilt the walls of Athens. On the other hand, Athens and her allies were defeated in the vicinity of Corinth, and on the plains of Coronéa.' (B. C. 394). Finally, after the war had continued eight years, articles of peace were arranged between Artaxerx' es and the Spartan Antal' cidas, hence called the peace of Antal' cidas, and ratified by all the parties engaged in the war, almost without opposition. (387 B. C.) The Greek cities in Asia, together with the islands Clazom'enæ? and Cy' prus, were given up to Persia, and the separate independence of all the other Greek cities was guaranteed, with the exception of the islands Im' brus, Lem' nos, and Scy'rus,' which, as of old, were to belong to Athens.
37. The terms of the peace of Antal' cidas, directed by the king of Persia, were artfully contrived by him to dissolve the power of Greece into nearly its original elements, that Persia might thereafter have less to fear from a united Greek confederacy, or the preponderating influence of any one Grecian State. It was the un. worthy jealousy of the Grecians, which the Persian knew how to stimulate, that prompted them to give up to a barbarian the free cities of Asia; and this is the darkest shade in the picture. Both Athens and Sparta lost their former allies; and though Sparta was
1. Coronča was a city of Bæótia, to the south-east of Cheronen, and two or three miles south-west from the Copaic Lake. South of Coronea was Mount Melicon. (Map No. I.)
2. The Clazom' ene here mentioned was a small island near the Lydian coast, west of Smyrna, and in what is now called the Gulf of Smyrna. (Map No. IV.)
3. Im' brus, Lem' nos, and Scy' rus, (now Imbro, Slatimene, and Scyro,) are islands of the Æ gean. The first is about ten miles west from the entrance to the Hel' lespont, and the second aboul forty miles south-west. Scy' rus is about twenty-five miles north-east from Eubæ'. (Map No. III.)
the most si ro1.zly in favor of the terms of the treaty, yet Athens was the greatest gainer, for she once more became, although a small, yet an independent and powerful State.
38. It was not long before ambition, and the resentment of past injuries, involved Sparta in new wars. She compelled Mantinéa,' which had formerly been her unwilling ally, to throw down her walls, and dismember the city into its original divisions, under the pretext that the Mantinéans had supplied one of the enemies of Sparta with corn during the preceding war, and had evaded their share of service in the Spartan army. The jealousy of Sparta was next aroused against the rising power of Olyn' thus, which had become engaged in hostilities with some rival cities; and the Spartans readily accepted an invitation of the latter to send an army to their aid. As one of the Spartan forces was marching through the Theban territories on this errand, the Spartan general fraudulently seized upon the Cadméia, or Theban citadel, although a state of peace existed between Thebes and Sparta. (B. C. 382.)
39. The political morality of the Spartans is clearly exhibited in the arguments by which Agesiláus justified this palpable breach of the treaty of Antal' cidas. He declared that the only question for the Spartan people to consider, was, whether they were gainers or losers by the transaction. The assertion made by the Athenians on a former occasion was confirmed, that, “of all States, Sparta had most glaringly shown by her conduct that in her political transactions she measured honor by inclination, and justice by expediency."
40. On the seizure of the Theban citadel the most patriotic of the citizens fled to Athens, while a faction, upheld by the Spartan qarrison, ruled the city. After the Thebans had submitted to this poke four years they rose against their tyrants and put them to leath, and being re-enforced by the exiles, and an Athenian army, soon forced the Spartan garrison to capitulate. (B. C. 379.) Pelop'. idas and Epaminon' das now appeared on the field of action, and by their abilities raised Thebes, hitherto of but little political impor
1. Mantinéa was in the eastern part of Arcadia, seventeen miles west from Argos. It wa situated in a marshy plain through which flowed the small river A' phis, whose waters found a sublerranean passage to the sea. Mantinéa is wholly indebted for its celebrity to the great battle fought in its vicinity in the year 362 between the Spartans and Thebang. (See p. 91.) The locality of the battle was about three miles southwest from the city. The ruins of tho ancient town may be seen near the wretched modern hamlet of Palaiopoli. (Map No. I.)
%. Olyn' thus was is. the south-eastern part of Macedonia, six or seven miles north-east from Potidæ' a. (Map No. I.)
ance, to the first rank 'n power among the Grecian States. Al. though Athens joined Thebes in the beginning of the contest, yet she afterwards took the side of the Spartans. At Teg' yra,' Pe. lop' idas defeated a greatly superior force, and killed the two Spartan generals; at Leuo' tra,' Epaminon' das, with a force of six thousand Thebans, defeated the Lacedæmo' nian army of more than double that number. (B. C. July 8, 371.) Epaminon' das afterwards invaded Lacónia, and appeared before the very gates of Sparta, where a hostile force had not been seen during five hundred years; and at Mantinéa he defeated the enemy in the most sanguinary contest ever fought between Grecians. (B. C. 362.) But Epaminon' das fell in the moment of victory, and the glory of Thebes perished with him. A general peace was soon after established, on the single condition that each State should retain its respective possessions.
41. Four years after the battle of Mantinéa the Grecian States again became involved in domestic hostilities, known as the Sacred War, the second in Grecian history to which that epi. vill. SECOND thet was applied.a During the preceding war, the Phó. SACRED WAR. cians,' although in alliance with Thebes by treaty, had shown such a predilection in favor of Sparta, that the animosity of the Thebans was roused against their reluctant ally, and they availed themselves of the first opportunity to show their resentment. The Phócians having taken into cultivation a portion of the plain of Del' phos, which was deemed sacred to Apollo, the Thebans caused them to be accused of sacrilege before the Amphictyon' ic council, which con demned them to pay a heavy fine. The Phócians refused obedience, and, encouraged by the Spartans, on whom a similar penalty had been imposed for their treacherous occupation of the Theban citadel, took up arms to resist the decree, and, under their leader, Philomélus, plundered the sacred treasures of Del' phos to obtain the means for carrying on the war.
1. Teg' yra was a small village of Bæótia, near the northern shore of the Copalc Lake. (Map No. I.)
2. Leuc' tra (now Lefka) was a small town of Bæotia, about ten miles south-west from Thebes, and four or five miles from the Corinthian Gulf. It is now only a heap of ruins. (Map No. I.)
3. Phócis was a small tract of country, bounded on the north by Thes' saly, east by Baotia, south by the Corinthian Gulf, and west by Lócris, Ætolia, and Dóris. (Map No. I.)
a. The first sacred war was carried on against the inhabitants of the town of Cris' sa, on tho northern shore of the Corinthian Gulf, in the time of Solon, The Crisseans were charged with extortion and violence towards the strangers who passed through their territory on their way to the Delphic sanctuary. “Cris' sa was razed to the ground, its harbor choked up, and its fruitful plain turned in!o a wilderness. '-- Thirwall, 1. 152.
42. The Thebans, Lócrians,' Thessalians, and nearly all the States of Northern Greece, leagued against the Phócians, while Athens and Sparta declared in their favor, but gave them little active as. sistance. At first the Thebans, confident in their strength, put their prisoners to death, as abettors of sacrilege; but Philomélus retaliated so severely upon some Thebans who had fallen into his power, as to prevent a repetition of the crime. After the war had continued five years, a new power was brought forward on the theatre of Grecian history, in the person of Philip, who had recently established himself on the throne of Mac' edon, and whom some of the Thessalian allies of Thebes applied to for aid against the Phócians. The interference of Philip forms an important epoch in Grecian affairs, at which we interrupt our narrative to trace the growth of the Macedónian monarchy down to the time when its history became united with that of its southern neighbors.
GRECIAN HISTORY FROM THE ESTABLISHMENT OF PHILIP ON THE THRONE OT
MAC EDON TO THE REDUCTION OF GREECE TO A ROMAN PROVINCE:
360 to 146 B. C. = 214 YEARS.
ANALYSIS. 1. Geographical account of Macedonia.—2. Early history of Macedonia. Gre cian rulers. PHILIP OF MAC'EDON.—3. Philip's residence at Thebes.-4. His usurpation of the kingdom of Mac' edon. His wars with the Mlyr’ians and other tribes. His first efforts against the Phócians.—5. Philip reduces Phocis. l'ecree of the Amphictyon' ic council against Phöcis. Growing influence of Philip.-6. The ambitious projects of Philip. (Illyr'ia. Epirus. Acarnånia.)-7. Rupture between Philip and the Athenians. (Chersonésus.] Devotion of the orator Æs' chines to Philip. [Amphis' sa.] Philip throws off the mask. [Elatéia.]—8. Thebes and Athens prepare to oppose him. Dissensions.-9. The masterly policy of Philip. The con federacy against him dissolved by the battle of Chæronéa. (Chæronéa.)-10. Philip's treatment of the Thebans and the Athenians. General congress of the Grecian States, and death of Philip.
11. ALEXANDER Succeeds Philip. He quells the revolt against him. His cruel treatment of the Thebang.–12. Servility of Athens. Preparations of Alexander for his career of Eastern conquest.–13. Results of his first campaign. (Gran' icus. Halicarnas' sus.)–14. Ho resumes his march in the spring of 333. Defeats Darius at Is' sus. (Cappadocia. Cilic' ia. Is'sus.! Results of the battle. Effect of Alexander's kindness. —15. Reduction of Palestine. (Gaza.) Expedition into Egypt. (Alexandria.) Alexander returns and crosses the Euphrates in search of Darius.—16. The opposing forces at the battle of Arbela. (Arbela. India.)—17. Results of the battle, and death of Darius.--18. Alexander's residenco at Babylon. His march beyond
1. The Lócrians proper inhabited a small territory on the northern shore of the Corinthian Gulf, west of Phócis. There were other Lócrian tribes north-east of Phócis, whose territory pordered on the Eubæ'an Gulf. (Map No. I.)