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dered interesting as belonging to a place mentioned ed. The pier is supposed to be of Roman workby the prophets,— Jer. xlvi. 25; Ezek. xxx. 15, manship, and in some parts is in good preservation. 16,—but more particularly as illustrative of “the Karnac is situated on the same side of the river, wisdom of the Egyptians" about the time of Moses, a little more than a mile from Luxor, and further as there can be little doubt that some of the monu- from the water. The approaches to the temple ments we shall notice are of an age not much are lined with rows of sphinxes, about twelve feet more recent.

distant from each other: they are of sandstone, I was up betimes on the morning of Feb. 23, and so far crumbled into ruin that it is difficult to and mounted the most elevated station I could make out their original form. The propylon to find, that I might see the sun rise upon the plain the temple of Isis is one of the most magnificent of Thebes, but was disappointed, as the atmo- I have seen. Some of the stones in the passage sphere was obscured by vapors. It seems a strange leading to the top of the pronaos contain hieroplace to choose for the erection of a metropolis, glyphics, turned upside down, from which it would when looking at the map, but all wonder vanishes appear that they belonged to some former temple, upon a personal inspection of the site. The out of the ruins of which this was either built of Nile divides itself into two branches a little higher repaired. There are four columns on each side, up, and these again uniting, spread their waters and five interior apartments. into an imposing breadth, and then form a noble The four propylons that present themselves at bend in the centre of a valley bounded by two a little distance, conduct to a larger temple, that ranges of hills. At the confluence of these far surpasses all the others in extent and granbranches, close to the water, on the eastern bank, deur. I must here cease to particularise either stands the ruins of Luxor. The propylon, or en- columns, or temples, so numerous are they that trance gateway, is 200 feet in width, and on one only to name them would be tedious. We enterside of the entrance is a square obelisk, said to be ed towards the northern end, which is compara80 feet high, composed of one piece of granite, and tively modern, and the figures are less free in their covered with hieroglyphics cut deeply into the execution. The pillars in the centre are of one stone. Its fellow, that stood on the opposite of stone, forty feet high, and probably supported busts the entrance, has been taken away by the French, or statues, as upon the top of one of them a pedeto be erected in some public spot in Paris. There stal still appears. Near them is a gigantic figure are also two colossal statues, mutilated, with coni- in granite. Upon the wall are sculptured the cal head-dresses, cut out of one block of granite, figures of boats, one of which is upwards of fifty of differently colored strata. The facade of the feet long. The French have cut in another part propylon is covered with sculpture. On one side the latitudes and longitudes of the principal places is cut the figure of a gigantic warrior, and near in Egypt; but I am told they are not correct. The him are groups of his puny enemies, some in the pillars in the interior court are many of them eleact of battle, and others dying or dead. On the ven feet in diameter. One of thein has fallen other side he is seated upon a throne, and is re- against another pillar, but is prevented from comceiving the homage of his routed foes, and the ing to pieces by the immense weight of the frieze, congratulations of his friends. The early sun which still retains its place. The ribs in one of shone fuull upon the wall at the time we were look- the upper windows of the western wall, are still ing at it, so that we were able to trace the differ- perfect, and have so light an appearance, that at ent circumstances of the history with ease. The first I took them to be of wood. It is a delightful ascent to the top of the propylon is more like a thought that the gods, to whom these matchless climb in a stone quarry than among materials structures were erected, have not now a single brought together by human hands: and it must be worshipper, and that even a later generation of remembered that every stone of this and of every deities has shared a similar fate. Osiris and Apis, other temple has been brought from a considerable Jupiter and Venus, and Woden and Friga, are alike distance. The top is as usual covered with the forgotten. The mind seems to require some thought names of visiters. The interior of the edifice is of this description to relieve it from the majesty of occupied by the dwellings of the natives; and I the scene, when the reflection comes that it is pureobserved a mosque, and a school near it, in which ly heathen. The most imposing view is from one an old man was teaching about a dozen noisy of the transepts in the principal court, and when the scholars. Several pillars with sculptured capitals setting sun sheds its latest rays upon these remains are daubed over with mud, and others are seen in of departed greatness, and shows them in that “dim the walls of the houses. The principal court is religious light,” which is the favorite shade among supported by seven pillars on each side, which, all ruins, there are few places upon earth where with the frieze, are all its remains. Further on purer strains can be heard of that music which, there are other capitals of a similar description, amidst scenes like these, strikes with such force but smaller dimensions, which appear to have be- upon the soul, when all earthly sounds are silent. longed to the cloisters of a square entered from Still there is a danger lest the imagination should the temple. We had to pass through several na be led away by some pleasing and profitless fiction, tive houses before we could conclude the examina- though the granite obelisks, the mutilated statues, tion, and strange to say, the people made no ob- the sculptured walls, the massy columns, and the jection, and asked for no present. The houses quarries of hewn stone that lie scattered in confunear the river are built over columns and smaller sion around, throw in a chord of graver tone, and apartments of the temple. They were occupied tell us we are passing to the grave. When proby the French during the time they were employ- ceeding to look at some other wonder, column after ed in taking down the obelisk. There are four column presents itself on every side, of the most gi, granite figures near them, all more or less mutilat- ! ganic proportions, as if the hand that had upreared

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them could never be satisfied with the manifesta- appears as if it had received a wrench from the tion of the resources it could command. The inte-hand of some mighty destroyer, who had strength rior of the temple is a forest of columns. There at once to shake it through every stone. On the are two obelisks, each made of a single block of western side of it are represented the stirring granite, upwards of seventy feet high. The hiero- scenes of a battle in the usual spirited style, with glyphics are nearly as perfect as when first cut.- a walled town and all the horrors of a siege. BeFurther on, we can only glance for a moment at the tween this and the temple are the remains of a different apartments and figures that present them- statue, from which the edifice derives its name, selves. Upon one of the walls are cut the figures measuring upwards of twenty feet across the chest, of the gifts that were presented to the temple, and all the other parts in proportion. There are with an account of the number and value of each. statues composed of separate stones joined to the Some of the vessels are not improbably of the very columns in the same space, that have suffered same shape and description as the chargers, bowls, from the hand of man, in common with the other and spoons, presented unto the Lord by the princes parts of the fabric. Upon the walls of the temple of Israel, at the dedication of the tabernacle in the there are other battle scenes. It consists of sevewilderness. The next temple is in better preserva- ral apartments, and is much larger than that at tion. The ceiling is painted an azure blue, studded Gornou. The whole is about 600 feet long, 200 with stars. The figure of an old saint, painted feet broad, and contains upwards of 150 columns. upon one of the columns, greeted us at our en. It was from this place that the statue was taken trance; and I looked round with no common emo- now in the British Museum, and improperly called tion, as it is evident that this erection was used in the Younger Memnon. former times as a place of Christian worsbip. The The temple of Medinet Abou, about a quarter worshippers, “where are they?" Echo answers of a mile distant, is in better preservation. It is not with an uncertain where?" Those who wor- built upon a plan somewhat different to that which shipped in sincerity are, no doubt, with the throng is usually followed. The columns at the western in a more magnificent temple, where there is no end are only excelled by those at Karnac, and the need of the setting sun to give it beauty, neither of court must have been a delightful place of retirethe moon to shine in it, "for the Lord is with them ment for the priests in the days of its magnificence. an everlasting light.” The names of several bi- The hieroglyphics are cut very deep into the wall, shops are written upon one of the pillars, in Greek; and some of the colors are as bright and fresh as if and this rude scrawl, it has been conjectured, is the just laid on by the painter. In all the other temrecord of some ecclesiastical council held in the tem- ples I visited, the figures have been mutilated by ple. Still further on, there are many other statues, the iconoclasts: in this temple there are whole columns, walls, apartments, and temples ; but after groups of figures quite perfect. They appear to seeing so much, the eye was for once satisfied, and owe their preservation to the modern buildings by we were not sorry to find ourselves at the extremi- which they have been covered, and which were ty of the sacred enclosure. The whole length is probably Roman, as those still near them are, from said to be nearly two thousand feet. There is a their form, supposed to be of that age. This character about these ruins that belongs to no other would prove, if the position be correct, that the muI saw in Egypt. There are no native habitations tilations are not the work of Cambyses, as is genenear them, and but few remains of those little mud rally imagined, but either of the early Christians or dwellings with which the men of later times have the Mahomedans. It has been a task of incredible been contented. They are alone in their simplici- difficulty to deface so many thousands of idolatrous ty, and the broken fragments around all belong to emblems, and the zeal of the parties cannot but be their own former grandeur. I could scarcely bring admired, whatever a mere love of art may say of myself to believe that their age is to be numbered their task. On the northern exterior wall is repreby thousands of years. They appear as if the sented another battle scene, in which the antagowork of yesterday. Looking at the more perfect nists of the larger figure are upon the water in parts, I could fancy that the workmen were only boats. Some are swimming for their lives, some absent on some holiday occasion; and, looking at falling overboard, and others are employed in resthe more ruinous, I could suppose that an earth- cuing their perishing companions. The style in quake, the tremulous motion of which was only which these sculptures are designed much resemnow subsiding, had just passed in its fury as the bles that of the prints in the common historical messenger of God, and hurled from their founda- works published about 200 years ago; but they tions these impious structures.

are worthy of examination, as the garments, weaThe principal temples on the western side of pons, and so forth, are no doubt exact representathe river are those of Gornou, Northern and South- tions of those used at the date of the erection of ern Dair, the Memnonium and Medinet Abou. the temples. On the same side are several figures

The temple at Gornou, not far from the river, is of lions. remarkable for its simplicity, and were it not for Not far distant is the humble chapel of a few the sacred character of the hieroglyphics with families of Coptic Christians. The temples of which it is covered, might be supposed to have Dair are of inferior interest.

There are many been a grand hall used by the monarch on state other remains of walls, statues, and apartments, occasions. It has seven perfect columns in front, in different parts; but it is an exaggeration of and one broken. In the interior there are three travellers, that the whole plain is covered with columns on each side, and the roof is nearly per- ruins from one chain of mountains to the other. fect. There are several other apartments, some The objects which almost surpass all others in of them nearly filled with rubbish.

interest are the two statues in the centre of the The propylon of the Memnonium is in ruins, and plain. They are sitting upon a kind of throne, with the hands resting upon the knees, and are bereft of his companions and crowns, before the looking towards the east. They are about fifty throne of the Eternal Judge. The scene must feet high. Both of them have small statues at- have been mournfully grand, when the funeral tached to their lower extremities. The figure procession disturbed the usual stillness, and the towards the south appears as if cut out of a single cries of the mourners re-echoed among the rocks, block of granite, but of this I cannot be positive, as they passed with the royal corpse to the habias what I take to be injuries may be joints in the tation it was destined to occupy, hollowed down stones : it is the most perfect. The other is the deep in the earth. It needs only to refer to celebrated vocal statue of Memnon. It is covered Scripture to realise something of its power. When with inscriptions principally in the Greek charac- Joseph, who was only less than monarch, went up ter, but many of them are now illegible. One is from Egypt to bury his father in the cave before said to record the names of several of the maids Mamre, he was attended by all the servants of of honor in the suite of the Empress Sabina, con- Pharaoh, the elders of his house, and all the elders. sort of Hadrian, when she visited these antiqui- of the land of Egypt, and all the house of Joseph, ties. It creates a singular sensation to come so and his brethren, and his father's house .. and closely into contact with these ancient great ones, there went up with him both chariots and horseas to be employed in looking with the same inte-' men, and it was a very great company,

And rest at the same object, after a lapse of 1600 years. they came to the threshing-floor of Atad, which Another inscription laments the injury done to the is beyond Jordan, and there they mourned with a statue by Cambyses. Some record that they have very great and sore lamentation.” Gen. l. 7–10. heard the sound, and others write in the present the entrances to the tombs are not distinguished tense, that they are listening to it at the very time. above ground by any erection. The same plan The upper part is much broken, and an attempt is pursued in nearly all

. A passage, about eight has been made to repair it with separate stones. feet high, and as many broad, leads down into the These were probably once covered with cement, heart of the mountain by a gradual descent. The 80 that the fracture was not to be distinguished; sides are covered with hieroglyphics, some in relief but this has fallen off, and they have now a very and others painted. There are breaks and steps clumsy appearance. The statue was vocal after at convenient distances. After proceeding a little its fracture, as well as in its perfect state. It is way, there are square apartments on each side of said to have emitted sounds, particularly at the the passage, covered with paintings. Then comes rising of the sun, like that heard at the breaking a room of larger dimensions, containing a stone of the string of a harp. I cannot bring myself to sarcophagus. The roof is supported by square think it possible that it ever possessed such a pro- pillars, and the painted figures are larger than life. perty, and attribute the whole to the artifices of From this place branch off different passages, that the priests. The geographer Strabo heard the lead to other rooms, and from each of these rooms sound, but was unable to tell whether it proceeded there are again passages that lead in the same from the statue or from the people near it. These way to other apartments of a similar description. statues afford an excellent test for measuring the In some of the rooms there are niches for mumrise of the river, as they are surrounded by water mies, and shelves all round. The contents have during the inundation; and, it is wonderful, con- all long since been carried away. The paintings sidering their immense weight, that they have not are not all devoted to mythology. There are long ago sunk deep into the earth.

articles of furniture, such as chairs, couches, I was disappointed in the tombs of the kings.- thrones, and vases, many of them of the patterns I remember being greatly interested some years most admired in the present day: there are also ago with the plates of two harpers, in the travels the different operations of agriculture, ploughing, of Bruce. They are taken from the tombs, are sowing, and reaping ; pots of flowers, instruments in beautiful perspective, and the countenances of of music, and weapons of war. I observed several the figures have a placid expression that I have serpents with wings and feet. There are nuseldom seen equalled. I took these as a speci- merous pictures of the gods, and of the various men, and supposed that the other paintings would ceremonies of sacrifice. In the drawings from be something like them. The tombs are situated the tomb opened by Belzoni, Dr. Young discovernear the summit of the mountains, and the road ed the names of Necho, king of Egypt, and of leading to them is in excellent keeping with the Psammis, his son. Pharaoh Necho conquered purpose to which it has been appropriated. It is Jerusalem and Babylon, and it has been thought a deep ravine, with rocks and loose stones, and that there is reference to this fact in one of the appears as if shunned by every thing that has life: historical paintings in the same tomb. The subnot even the goat, with all its love of the high ject is a military procession, and the Jews and peak and giddy precipice, ever ventures upon these Persians may be easily distinguished by their form barren hills; it knows too well that there is no and dress. This tomb has suffered the least from grass upon which to browse, no young leaves to time, and shows the colors as fresh as when just crop from the tender branch: all is nakedness and completed. Some of the apartments are unfinishdesolation. It winds round the deserted sides of ed, from which cause we can discover the manner the mountain : in silence, as if to teach men to in which the artist proceeded. The figure was think; in ruggedness, as if to remind them that first roughly pencilled out with red chalk, a bolder in their passage to the grave they must expect to hand then drew the perfect form, and the colors meet with crosses, and difficulties, and pain; and were afterwards laid on. There is no shading or in sterility, as if to tell them that whatever honors perspective, and I could see little of that expression the monarch might have previously received, he in the countenances that has thrown some trawas now to stand in all the nakedness of truth, vellers into perfect raptures. Some of the passa.

ges have been traced upwards of 300 yards, and ers his last bright ray. The two statues of Memmay probably extend to a much greater distance. non were sitting in silence, as if too gigantic in It is to be feared that in a comparatively little their imaginings to be attracted by any scene in time these remains of antiquity will be destroyed, this lower world, as they were far away in their as the natives break off large pieces of the rock, colossal proportions from any thing that pertains to sell them to travellers ; and there are many to man. From this plain the monarch might once unsightly gaps already in the walls, caused by this summon to his standard, through each of the gates unwarrantable traffic.

of the city 20,()0 fighting men, and 200 chariots; The most ancient of the existing temples is said now scarcely :. single habitation is to be seen.by the interpreters of the hieroglyphics to have “Where are they, where are thy wise men ? been erected about the year 1778, B.C.; and, in Why are thy valiant men swept away;" asks the turning over our Bibles, to search for the contem- prophet; and the same prophet answers, “ They porary sacred history, we find that about that time stood not, because the Lord did drive them." Jer. Jacob was wooing his beloved Rachel, at the well xlvi. 15. of Haran. The city is mentioned by Homer as " the hundred-gated.” I had an opportunity of seeing the sun set from a situation in the western range of mountaine, that commands a view of the ON-NOPH, OR MEMPHIS. whole plain. As I was proceeding towards the place, the people came running out of their sepul. These cities both stood in the neighborhood of the chres with curiosities to dispose of, that they had pyramids, and the whole of the valley on both found among the ruins. These people live in sides of the river may be considered as sacred tombs, sleep in coffins, and gain their food by sell ground. The prince whose daughter Asenath was ing the bones and flesh of men. One old fellow given to Joseph in marriage, was priest of On. brought out the dark mummy of a man, without It is called Beth-shemesh by Jeremiah, and is any covering; but it was too disgusting an object translated Heliopolis by the LXX., by which name to look upon : the skin and form were quite per- it was known to the Greeks, both of which signify fect. The desiccating qualities of the place are “the house, or city, of the sun.” On the opposite wonderful. An Italian died here some time since, bank of the Nile stood the ancient city of Noph, and his body soon became so dry, that it was sold called also Memphis, by the prophet Isaiah. There to a certain traveller as an ancient m ny; but are few places mentioned in ancient history whose on being brought to Alexandria, the features were site has been laid down with more minuteness of recognised by some of his friends. The ground circumstance, yet the learned are very far from is perforated with mummy pits, like the cells of a being agreed as to the exact spot where Memphis honeycomb, and it required some little care in stood. The controversy may have arisen from guiding the animal on which I rode among them, the vast extent it occupied, which may possibly jest we should both fall in and be buried alive. I have been so great as to bring places at a consihad no wish to be exhibited some years hence as derable distance from each other, within the limits a genuine Egyptian mummy, and to be addressed of the ancient metropolis. The name is still reby some poet as having shaken hands with Pha- tained in an Egyptian village ; for when I asked a raoh, or seen the departure of the Israelites.- native, whom I hired as an attendant, the place of Higher up the mountains are the tombs of more his residence, he replied Memf, and afterwards respectable persons, now inhabited by the people. pointed out to me the place, within sight of the They are excavated in rows, one above the other, pyramids. Memphis was the capital of Egypt and in the evening the flocks are brought up to previously to the time of the Ptolemies, who transthem by steep paths, after feeding upon the rich ferred to Alexandria the seat of empire. It conpasture in the plain. I dined in one of the tombs tinued to retain a part of its former magnificence with an English gentleman, who has been located until the Fatimite caliphs became masters of Egypt, in this strange habitation several years. By the and built near the same place, but on the eastern time we reached this place, the sun had set to us, bank of the river, El Kahirah," the victorous,” but was shining upon the plain through a pass in the present Grand Cairo. the mountains. I never at any time saw so many The remains of On are nearly reduced to one birds as were now returning from a distance to single obelisk, and as the description of Memphis their resting places for the night. It seemed as would consist of little more than mere conjecture, if the spirits of the millions of the dead who had the objects most worthy of attention as illustrative breathed their last in the valley had suddenly be of the present history of these places, are Grand come embodied, and were hovering in dark masses Cairo and the pyramids. The notices given of the above their deserted city. There was the majes- present capital of Egypt will be considered as additic Nile in the centre of the expanse, its banks tionally interesting if brought into contrast with covered with a mantle of the loveliest green, from the account given of Thebes, the former capital of the midst of which arose the white walls of a tem- the same country. ple in every quarter to which the attention was Grand Cairo consists of two towns, distinguishdirected. The temples of Karnac were nearly ed by the names of Old and New, though the lathidden by a grove of dates. The columns of ter is only modern, in comparison with the former. Luxor showed themselves in splendor, and wor- Besides these two places there is Boulac, the rivershippers might have been imagined as standing port of the city, and fast rising into importance. among them, wing to the fancied Lord of The whole population of Cairo is stated at 00 Heaven, as he might seem for a moment to veil souls, from a recent census. his majesty before them, or shed upon their pray- New Cairo is by far the most extensive of the three places. It is entered, when coming from pregnable, but the stone of the fortifications is too the river, a distance of about two miles, by a sub- soft to resist the effects of cannon. It contains a stantial gateway, and after passing an extensive telegraph that communicates with Alexandria. barrack on the left, the road opens upon a square, The divan of the governor is very splendid. An the only one in the city, called the Esbequieh. It erection of marble has been commenced by the is in turn a lake, a morass, and a corn-field, as it pacha, in memory of his favorite son Touissan. communicates with the Nile by a canal he There are now no remains of the places formerly streets are so narrow that I could frequently touch shown as the halls of Joseph and his steward, exthe houses on both sides by stretching out my cept a few pillars. Joseph's well is 272 feet deep, arms. The place seems as if built on purpose to and passage, several feet wide, winds round it, favor the ravages of disease, and on passing cut in the rock, with openings towards the well at through its dark, dirty, narrow streets, the name certain intervals for the admission of light. The it has received of " the city of the plague,” struck water is drawn up by two wheels, one at the top me as being particularly appropriate. The halls and the other some distance down, turned by oxen of merchandise are protected by chains at the en- in the usual manner. The water is brackish, trance, and have an imposing appearance. I from the sand through which it filters, but it might wandered from street to street, through turnings be used in case of necessity, and would be the only and windings innumerable, lingering at places supply for the garrison during a siege. The place where any thing of interest was exposed for sale, where the Mamelukes were massacred has been and scarcely any article can be mentioned, either much altered since this deed was perpetrated, one for use or ornament, that is common among Euro- of the darkest of modern times. We had some peans or Turks, of whatever degree, that cannot difficulty in making out the spot, as the Turks are be purchased in some quarter or other of this ex- wishful to bury all traces of the transaction in obtensive mart. The dresses of the Turkish ladies livion. I almost shuddered as I trod the stones were the most splendid articles I noticed. Except where so many brave men were murdered in cold in the Frank quarter there are no shops : you blood. Near this place is an extensive manufacmust stand in the street to make the bargain, tory of arms. We passed through all the work, though sometimes the salesman will invite yon to shops and foundries, and were everywhere treated mount up, and take part of the mat upon which he with great attention. The army is supplied from is sitting. Narrow as the streets are, the crowds hence with swords, pistols, guns, and cannon. that pass through them are incredible. I gene- The overseers are principally Englishmen. The rally rode a donkey, and the boy with me kept walls of the citadel command the finest view of continually calling to the people to mind their feet; the city, particularly of the mosque of Sultan Has. but in spite of all our endeavors to give warning, san. It appears scarcely possible that so large a my awkward boots were always getting entangled population can be crowded into so small a space among some of the manifold habiliments in which as the city occupies. the women are enveloped, and I either turned them

There is an asylum for lunatics attached to one half round before I could get free, or made a rend of the mosques. It contained at the time of my that brought down upon my poor head many an visit twelve men and thirteen women. The men ungracious wish. But I was made to suffer in my have separate cells that look into an open court, to turn: first a Turk upon horseback gave my knee the bars of which they are chained. One was a stroke with his great stirrip, then à cames came continually passing himself from side to side of the with a load so large that there was no possibility of grating, as I have seen hyænas, when under con. getting past without a crush against the wall

, and finement, and called out incessantly, “ Francisco, before I had well had time to exclaim against the Francisco.” Others were sitting in moody silence. want of manners in the animal, my feet were graz- The description of the women's apartment I reed against the projecting boards of a bazaar. ceived from the keeper, deterred me from visiting Soldiers are stationed in all directions, and fre- it. quently add to the confusion by their efforts to pre- The slave market is an open square, with rooms serve order. The mosques, of which there are on each side, and apartments above for the more about 300, would some of them have a magnificent valuable females. T'he rooms were most of them appearance if they could be seen from a little dis- closed, but they were all thrown open on our aptance, but they are now buried among houses and proach, and the poor creatures were shown as if common buildings. I had a peep into some of they had been so many horses or cattle. They them through the windows: the space between set up a loud laugh, but though there was laughter each arch of the principal aisle appears to be par- upon the lip, it came not from the heart. I stood titioned from the rest, and to be a place of worship some time in the gallery, looking at the different perfect in itself, so that the effect is lost that would groups, and felt for them sincere pity. There be produced by a view of the undivided whole. was something peculiarly forbidding about the They have sometimes buildings attached to them countenances of the old fellows who appeared to with brass lattices, erected with considerable be the principal proprietors. The greater part of taste, at which water is distributed to passengers the slaves then in the market were Berberries, by persons appointed for the purpose. The houses and nearly all children. Their hair grows in are five or six stories high: the lower part built ringlets, and has been compared to a natural wig; with stones of a large size, and many of them hav- These were all merrily warming themselves round ing arched entrances, the ribs of which are chastely a fire, and it is possible might be really destitute ornamented.

of all painful thought on their situation. It shall The citadel has of late received great attention, be a glory unto Britain, more durable than that of and every effort has been made to render it im- her conquests, that slavery has ceased throughout

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