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—To lay the land, in seamen's language, is to cause the land apparently to sink or appear lower by sailing from it, the distance diminishing the elevation. — To lay the venue, in law, to state or allege a certain place as the venue. Lay(lā), vii. 1. To bringforth or produce eggs. Hens will greedily eat the herb which will make thein lay the better. Afartformer. 2. To contrive; to form a scheme. [Rare.] Scarce are their consorts cold, ere they are laying for a second match. Ea. Hall. 3. In betting, to wager; to bet; to stake money on; as, to lay on Sunbeam.—To la about one, to strike on all sides; to act wit vigour. — To lay at, t to strike or to endeavour to strike.

The sword of him that layeth at him cannot hold. ob xli. 26.

—To lay in for, to make overtures for; to engage or secure the possession of. I have laid in for these. aryden. --To lay on, (a) to strike; to beat; to deal blows incessantly and with vehemence. (b) To act with vehemence. To lay out, (a) to purpose; to intend; as, he lays out to make a journey. (b) To take measures. I made strict inquiry wherever I came, and laid cut for intelligence of all places. JP'oodward. —To lay upon,t to importune. . [To lay is sometimes used, even by good writers, for to lie, but probably no person would venture to defend this usage. See under LIE.] Lay (lā), n. 1. That which lies or is laid; a row; a stratum; a layer; one rank in a series reckoned upward; as, a lay of wood. A viol should have a lay of wire-strings below. or cost. Different days of black and white marble. Addison. 2. A bet; a wager; an obligation. They bound themselves by a sacred lay and oath. Asooland. My fortunes, against any lay worth naming, this

crack of your love shall grow stronger than it was before. Shak.

3.t Station; rank. Welcome unto thee, renowned Turk,

Not for thy lay, but for thy worth in arms. Soliman and Perseda (1599).

4. The direction or lie in which the different strands of a rope are twisted.—5. Share of profit; specifically, the proportion of the proceeds of a whaling voyage, generally b ined for by the men when engaging; as, he agreed for four pounds a month and a certain lay [United States.] Lay (lā), n. "[See LEA..] A meadow; a lea. A tuft of daisies on a flowery lay. Dryden. Lay (lā), n. [O. Fr. lai, lais, Pr. lay, lais, a song, a piece of poetry, from the Celtic. Comp. W. Zais, a sound, note, tone, voice; Gael laoidh, laoi, a verse, hymn, sacred poem; the same root §o to be found in A. Sax ledth, Icel. ljóth, O.H.G. lićd, G. lied, a lay or song; Goth liuthon, to sing..] A song; as, a loud or soft lay; immortal lays. The lyric poems of the old French minstrels or trouvères were termed lais (lays), but the title appears in modern usage to be peculiarly appropriate to ballads, to narrative poems, or serious subjects of moderate length, in simple style and light metre. “The Lay of the Last Minstrel." Sir W. Scott. [Used chiefly in poetry.] Lay (lā), a. . [Fr., lai, L. laicus, a layman; Gr. laikos, from laos, people..] 1. Pertaining to the laity or people, as distinct from the clergy; not clerical; as, a lay person; a lay preacher.—2. Pertaining to the laity or general mass of people as distinguished from those who are professionally or specially devoted to any pursuit; as, a lay student of law.—3.t Uneducated; unlearned; ignorant. —Lay brother, a person received into a convent of monks, under the three vows, but notinholy orders.--Layclerk, in the English

Ch. a person not in orders who leads the

#. le in their responses.—Lay fee, lands eld in fee of a lay lord, as distinguished from those lands which belong to the church. —Lay investiture, investiture with the tem

ralities of a benefice as distinguished }. investiture with the spiritualities.— —Lay lord (naut.), a civil member of the

admiralty board.—Lay sister, one received

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charterer of a vessel for shipping or unshipping cargo. Lay-down (lā'doun), a., A term applied to a style of shirt collars which fold down over the necktie. Layen,t pl. of lay. Chaucer. o: (lä’ér), n. [From lay, the verb.] 1. One who or that which lays.-2. A stratum; a bed; a body spread over another; a coat; as, a layer of clay, sand, or paint.—3. A shoot or twig of a plant, not detached from the stock, partly laid under ground for growth or propagation.—4. In masonry and bricko: , the same as Course (which see).oody layers, the rings of wood which surround the pithin exogenous trees, one being produced for every succession of leaves which the tree puts forth. See ExoGEN. Layer (lā’ér), v.t. In gardening, to propagate by bending the shoot of a living stem into the soil, the shoot striking root while being fed by the parent plant. The figure shows the branch to be layered bent down and kept in the ground by a hooked eg, the young rootets, and a stick supporting the extremity of the shoot in an upright position. Layerboard, Layerboarding (lā’ér-börd, lā’ér-bórd-ing), n. The boarding for sustaining the lead of gutters. Layering (lā’ér-ing), n. The operation of propagating plants by layers. See LAYER,v.t. Layer-out (lā’ér-out), n. One who expends money; a steward. Layer-up (lā’ér-up), n. One who reposits for future use; a treasurer. “Old age, that ill layer-up of beauty." Shak. Layes, f m. pl. , Laws. Spenser. Lay-figure (lā'fig-tir), n. A figure used by painters, made of wood or cork, in imitation of the human body. It can be placed in any position or attitude, and serves when clothed as a model for draperies, &c. Often used figuratively as applied to a person in real life who is represented as a mere puppet



in the hands of others, or to a character in fiction wanting in individuality. Called also Layman. La (lā'ing), n. 1. The act of one who lays; the act of depositing or dropping, as eggs by a hen; the number of eggs laid.— 2. #. arch. the first coat on lath of plasterers' two-coat work, the surface whereof is roughed by sweeping it with a broom.— Laying on of hands. See IMPOSITION, 1. Layland (lā’land), n. Land lying untilled; also pasture-land. See LAY, LEA. Layman (lā'man), n. [Lay, a., and man.]

1. A man who is not a clergyman; one of

the laity or people distinct from the clergy; sometimes applied also to a man not professionally or specially devoted to some particular pursuit; as, a layman in medicine or botany. Being a layman, I ought not to have concerned myself with speculations which belong to the profession. ryden. 2. Same as Lay-figure. You are to have a layman almost as big as the life for every figure in particular, besides the natural figure before you. Dryden. Lay-race (lā'rås), n... [Lay for lathe, and race.) In weaving, that part of the lay or lathe on which the shuttle travels from one side to the other of the web. Lay-sermon (lä'sér-mon), n. A sermon preached or written by a layman; a sermon on secular subjects. Layship t (lä'ship), n. The condition of being a layman. Milton.

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Laystall (lāostal), n. [Lay, v.t., and stall.] 1. A heap of dung, or a place where dung is laid. “The common laystall of a city.’ Drayton.—2. A place where milch-cows are kept. Simmonds. Lazar(lā'zār), n. [O. Fr. lazare, from Lazarus (Luke xvi. 20); Sp. lazaro.] A leper; any person infected with nauseous and pestilential disease. ‘The lazar in his rags." Tennyson. Lazaret (laz'a-ret), n. Same as Lazaretto. Lazaretto (laz-a-ret’tö), n. [Sp. lazareto, It. lazzeretto, Fr. lazaret, from Lazarus. See LAZAR.] 1. A hospital or pest-house for the reception of diseased persons, particularly for those affected with contagious distempers. At seaports the name is often given to a vessel used for this purpose.—2. The name given to a building or vessel where ships' crews, passengers, and goods are placed during quarantine. —3. In some large merchant ships, a place where provisions and stores for the voyage are laid up. Lazar-house (lā'zār-hous), m. A lazaretto; also, a hospital for quarantine. A lazar-house it seemed, wherein were laid Numbers of all diseased. Milton. Lazarite, Lazarist (lazar-it, laz'ar-ist), n. A member of a religious order in the Roman Catholic Church, established about 1620, and deriving its name from the priory of St. Lazarus, which was placed at the disposal of the society in 1632. The primary object was to dispense religious instruction and assistance among the poorer inhabitants of the rural districts of France; but foreign missions are what now chiefly engage its attention. Lazarlike, Lazarly (lā'zār-lik, lá'zār-li), a. Like a lazar; full of sores; leprous. A most instant tetter bark'd about, Most lazarčiče, with vile and loathsome crust, All my smooth body. .5/tax.

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life. Lazily (lā'zi-li), adv. In a lazy manner; sluggishly. Whether he lazily and listlessly dreams away his time. Locke. Laziness (lā'zi-nes), n. The state or quality of being lazy: (a) indisposition to action or exertion; indolence; sluggishness; habitual sloth. Ilariness travels so slowly, that poverty soon overtakes him. Pranklin. (b) Slowness; as, laziness of motion. Lazuli (laz'il-li). [Sp. and Pg. azul, blue. See AZURE, a.] Lapis lazuli or ultramarine, a mineral of afine azure-blue colour, usually occurring amorphous, or in rounded masses of a moderate size. It is often marked by ellow spots or veins of sulphide of iron, and is much valued for ornamental work. It is distinguished from lazulite by the intenseness of its colour. Lazuli is a silicate of sodium, calcium, and aluminium, with a sulphur compound of sodium. Lazulite (laz'il-lit), n. Blue-spar, a phosphate of aluminium, magnesium, and iron. A mineral of a light or indigo blue colour, crystallizing in oblique four-sided prisms. Called also Lazulite, Mineral Turquoise. o (làozi), a. [Probably the same word as Goth. lasius, weak, infirm, and allied to A. Sax. leas, lapse, false, weak, laessa, E. less, or to E. late, Icel. latr, Dan. lad, slow, lazy, O. H.G. laz, slow, dull; G. lass, tired, weary; Goth lats, sluggish.] 1. Disinclined to action or exertion; naturally or habitually slothful; sluggish; indolent; averse to labour; heavy in motion. Wicked condemned men will ever live like rogues, and not fall to work, but be lazy and spend victuals. roarrors. 2. Slow; moving slowly or apparently with labour; as, a lazy stream. “The night-owl's lazy flight. Shak-3.t Vicious. ...B. Jonson. —Lazy weight, scant weight. Halliwell.— Idle, y. See IDLE.--SYN. Slothful, sluggish, slow, dilatory, indolent, idle, inactive. Lazy-bed (lā’zi-bed), n. A bed for growing potatoes, in which the potatoes are laid on





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first pair moves the whole system, and causes the last pair to advance considerably, while at the same time its extremities aproach one another. They are so named ecause they enable a person to lift an ob{..." at some distance without rising from is chair, couch, &c. Lazzaroni (läts-à-rö'né), m. pl. sing. Lazzarone (läts-à-ró'nā). [It., from Lazarus in the parable, or from the hospital of St. Lazarus, the wretched clothing of which institution they often retained after leaving it...] A name given to the poorer classes at Naples who earn their subsistence as messengers, porters, and occasional servants, or by fishing, but have no fixed habitation, and spend the most of their time in idling. Lea, Lay (lé, la), n., [O. or Prov. E. and Sc. lay, ley, A. Sax. ledh, untilled land, pasture; Dan. dialect lei, fallow; D. leeg, empty, fallow.] A meadow or grassy plain; land under grass or pasturage. The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea. Gray.

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hauling up the leach of a sail. -tub. See LETCH-TUB.

(lèch'i). See LETchy. Lead (led), n. [A. Sax. lead, lood, the metal lead; allied to D. lood, Sw. and Dan. lod, G. loth, a weight, a plummet, the lead for taking soundings; Icel, ledda, a sounding line.] Sym. Pb. At wb. 207. 1. A metal of a bluishgray colour: when recently cut it has a strong metallic lustre, but soon tarnishes by exposure to the air owing to the formation of a coating of carbonate of lead. Its specific gravity is about 11:38. It is soft, flexible, and inelastic. It is both malleable and ductile, possessing the former property to a considerable extent, but in tenacity it is inferior to all ductile metals. It fuses at about 612°, and when slowly cooled forms octonedral crystals. There are four oxides of lead:— (1.) The suboxide ..''} of a grayish-blue colour. (2.) The protoxide or yellow oxide (PbO), called also massicot. Litharge is this oxide in the form of small spangles from having undergone fusion. (3.) The red oxide by 0), the well-known pigment called redad or minium. (4.) The dioxide or brown oxide (PbO2), obtained by putting red-lead in chlorine water or in dilute nitric acid. Of the salts formed by the action of acids on lead or on the protoxide, the carbonate or white-lead and the acetate or sugar of lead are the most important. The protoxide is also employed for glazing earthenware and porcelain. Carbonate of lead is the basis of white oil paint, and of a number of other colours. The extract of lead is a subacetate, and is used as a test and precipitant. The salts of lead are poisonous, but the carbonate is by far the most virulent poison. The lead of commerce, which commonly contains silver, iron, and copper, is extracted from the native sulphide, the galena of mineralogists. The other ores of importance are the selenide, native minium, plomb gomme, white-lead, vitreous lead, phosphate of lead, chloride or horn lead,

arsenate of lead. See WHITE-LEAD.—Blacklead. See GRAPHITE. – 2. A plummet or mass of lead used in sounding at sea.—To heave the lead, to throw it into the sea for the purpose of taking soundings, –3. In printing, a thin plate of metal used to give space between lines. – 4. A small stick of black-lead or plumbago used in pencils.5. pl. A flat roof covered with lead. “The tempest crackles on the leads.’ Tennyson. Lead (led), a. Made or composed of lead; consisting more or less of lead; produced by lead. –Lead poisoning, poisoning by the introduction of various preparations of lead, as sugar of lead, white-lead, &c., into the body. The disease, if not arrested at an early stage, takes the following forms, each of which may exist alone, or may be complicated with one or more of the others, or may follow the others, there being no definite order of succession: lead colic or painters' colic, lead rheumatism, lead palsy, and disease of the brain. Lead (led), v. t. 1. To cover with lead; to fit with lead. —2. In printing, to widen the #. between lines by inserting a lead or in plate of type-metal. Lead (léd), v. t. pret & pp. led; ppr. leading. [A. Sax. laedan; comp. D. leiden, Icel. leitha, Dan, lede, to lead. The A. Sax. laedan is a causative of lithan, to go or pass (by sea).] 1. To guide by the hand; as, to lead a child. They . . . thrust him out of the city, and led him unto the brow of the hill. Luke iv. 29. 2. To guide or conduct by showing the way; to direct; as, the Israelites were led by a |. of cloud by day and by a pillar of fire y night. He leadeth me beside the still waters. Ps, xxiii. 2.

3. To conduct, as a chief or commander, implying authority; to direct and govern; as, a general leads his troops to battle and to victory. Christ took not upon him flesh and blood, that he might conquer and rule nations, lead atue, o, crazor. 4. To precede; to introduce by going first. As Hesperus that leads the sun his way. Fairfax.

5. To hold the first place in rank or dignity among; as, the violins were led by so-andso. —6. To show the method of attaining an object; to direct, as in an investigation; as, self-examination may lead us to a knowledge of ourselves. Human testimony is not so proper to lead us into the knowledge of the essence of things, as to acquaint us with the existence of things. J} atts. 7. In card-playing, to commence a round or trick with; as, he leads hearts; he led the ace of trumps.-8. To draw; to entice; to allure; as, the love of pleasure leads men into vices which degrade and impoverish them.–9. To induce; to prevail on; to influence. He was driven by the necessities of the times more than led by his own disposition to any rigour of actions. Eikon Basi'ike. 10. To pass; to spend; as, to lead a life of gaiety, or a solitary life. That we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty. 1 Tim. ii. 2. 11. To cause to pass; to cause to spend; to cause to endure: in a bad sense. You remember the . . . life he led his wife and daughter. Dickens. –To lead apes in hell. See under APE-To lead astray, to guide in a wrong way or into error; to seduce from truth or rectitude.— To lead captive, to carry into captivity.— To lead one a dance or a fine dance, to cause one more exertion or trouble than necessary or expected.—To lead the dance, to be the first to open the proceedings; to start an enterprise.—To lead the way, to go before and show the way. Lead (léd), v. i. 1. To go before and show the way. I will lead on softly. Gen. xxxiii. 14. 2. To have precedence or pre-eminence; as, to lead in an orchestra: said of the principal first violin.—3. To have a position of authority as commander or director. —4. To conduct; to bring; to draw; to induce; as, gaming leads to other vices; this road leads to the church; your argument leads to this result. That law was, it has been seen, rather led to by the general current of the reasoning of Inathematicians than discovered by any one. As he well. 5. In card-playing, to play the first card of a round or trick. —To lead off or out, to begin. Lead (léd), n. 1. Precedence; a going be

; guidance; as, let the general take the act. I lost the run, and had to see Harriet Tristram go. away with the best lead to a fast thing. Trollope. 2. The right of playing the first card in a round or trick; the suit or card so played. All you have got to mind is to return your partner's dead. 14 ovte Medvizie. i. A lane or navigable opening in a field of ce. Under the lee of an iceberg in a comparatively open lead. same. 4. In mining, a lode (which see) –5. In engin, the average distance of travel requisite to remove the earth of an excavation to form an embankment. It is equivalent to the removal of the whole quantity of the material from the centre of gravity of the excavation to the centre of gravity of the embankment—6. A lade (which see).-7. In a steam-engine, the width of opening of a steam-port. Lead (led'arm-ing), n. A lump of tallow pressed into the lower end of the sounding-lead, for the purpose of ascertaining the nature of the bottom. Lead-ash (led 'ash), n. The slag of lead. Leaded (led'ed), p. and a. 1. Separated by thin plates of lead, as lines in printing.— 2. Covered with lead; fitted with lead; set in lead; as, leaded windows, Leaden (led’n), a. 1. Made of lead ; as, a leaden ball.–2. Indisposed to action; slugish; inert. If he be leaden, icy-cold, unwilling, Be thou so too. cy lling Sox &. 3. Heavy; dull; gloomy; as, ‘Leaden thoughts.' Shak. —4. Stupid; absurd. Fulke,

15S0. Leaden-hearted (led'n-hărt-ed), a. Stupid; destitute of feeling. O leaden-hearted man, to be in love with death : Thomson. Leaden-heeled (led 'n-hèld), a. Moving slowly. “Comforts are leaden-heeled.' Ford. Leaden-paced (led ‘n-past), a. Slow in movement; slow in coming. By dull and leaden-paced inheritance. 5. Baillie. Leaden-stepp (ledon-step-ing), a. Moving slowly, ‘The lazy, leaden-stepping hours." Milton. Leader (led’ér), n. 1. One that leads or conducts; one that goes or does anything first; a guide; a conductor.—2. A chief; a commander; a captain.-3. The chief of a |...} or faction, or of a o organized ody or a profession; as, the leader of the Whigs or of the Tories; a leader of the Jacobins; the leader of the House of Commons; the leader of the bar.—4. A performer who leads a band or choir in music; specifically, in an orchestra, the player on the principal first violin.-5. A leading article in a news- . #. ; i.e. an editor's own political or other isquisition.—6. One of the leading or front horses in a team of four or more, as distinguished from a wheeler, or horse placed next the carriage. With for wheelers two bays and for leaders two grays. A'. H. Bar/tama. 7. The principal wheel in any kind of machinery.—8. In mining, a small or insignificant vein which leads to or indicates the proximity of a larger one. —9. pl. In printing, a row of dots, hyphens, and the like, in an index, table of contents, or the like, to lead the eye from any word to the words or figures at the end of the line. — Chief, Commander, Leader, Head. See under CHIEF. Leadership (lédér-ship), n. The office of a leader; guidance. Lead-glance (led 'glans), n. Lead-ore; galena (which see).

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-gray, Lead grã), a. Coloured like lead; as, a leadengray sky. (lèd'ing), p. and a. 1. Guiding;

conducting; preceding; drawing ; alluring ; as, a leading article among shopkeepers, that is, something sold very cheap to attract custom.–2. Chief; principal; capital; most influential; as, a leading motive; a leading man in a party; a leading article (in a newspaper) –3. Showing the way by going first; constituting a precedent.

He left his mother a countess by patent, which was a new leading example. Jyotton. ––Leading note, in music, the seventh or last note of the ascending major scale: so called from its tendency to rise or lead up





to the tonic.—Leading question. See under QUESTION.— Leading wind (mawt.), a free or fair wind, in distinction from a scant

wind. (led'ing), n. Lead-work; the leads, as of a house; articles of lead collectively. Lea -hose (léd'ing-höz), n. The hose from which the water of a fire-engine is discharged. Holingly (lèd'ing-li), adv. manner; by leading. -staff (léd'ing-staf), n. staff or baton of a field-marshal. Their leading-staff of steel they wield, As inarshals of the mortal field. Sir JP. Scott. Leading- (lèd'ing-stringz), m. pl. Strings by which children are supported when beginning to walk. was he ever able to walk without leading-strings, or swim without bladders? Swi/?. –To be in leading-strings, to be in a state of infancy or dependence; to be a mere puppet in the hands of others. Leading-wheel (léd'ing-whel), n. In locomotives, one of the wheels which are placed before the driving-wheels. Leadless (led 'les), a. Having no lead; not charged with a bullet. Little's leaders pistol met his eye. Byron. Leadmant (léd'man), n. One who begins or leads a dance. B. Jonson. Lead-mill (led'mil), n. A circular plate of lead used by lapidaries for roughing or grinding. Lead-mine (led'min), n. A mine containing lead or lead-ore. Lead-pencil (led'pen-sil), n. An instrument for drawing or making lines, usually made by inclosing a slip of plumbago or graphite (which is commonly called black-lead) in a casing of wood. Lead-plant (led'plant), n. A low-growing leguminous plant of the genus Amorpha (A. canescens), supposed to indicate the presence of lead. It is a native of the north-western states of America. Lead-screw |...} n. In mech, the main screw of a lathe, which gives the feed-motion to the slide-rest. (ledz’man), n. Naut. the man who heaves the lead. Lead-spar 4.o. n. A mineral, the carbonate of lead or cerusite. Lead-work (led'wérk), n. 1. The part of a building or other structure in which lead is the principal material used.—2. A place where lead is extracted from the ore. Leadwort (led'wért), n. [So named because the teeth acquire a lead colour by chewing its root-1 The English name of Plumbago, a genus of plants. See PLUMBAGO. Leady (led'i), a. Pertaining to or resembling lead in any of its properties. His ruddy lips (were) wan, and his eyen leady and hollow. Sir T. Elyot. Leaf (léf), n. pl. Leaves (lévz) [A. Sax. leaf; comp. O.Sax, lof, Goth, lawfs, Icel. lauf, Dan lar, D. loof, G. laub, a leaf; allied to Lith lapas, a leaf.] 1. In bot, the green deciduous part of a plant, usually shooting from the sides of the stem and branches, but sometimes from the root, by which the sap is supposed to be elaborated or fitted for the nourishment of the plant by being exposed to air and light on its extensive surface. When fully developed the leaf generally consists of two parts, an expanded part, called the blade or limb, and a stalk supporting that part, called the petiole or leaf-stalk. Frequently, however, the petiole is wanting, in which case the leaf is said to be sessile. Leaves are produced by an expansion of the bark at a node of the stem, and generally consist of vascular tissue in the veins or ribs, with cellular tissue or parenchyma filling up the interstices, and an epidermis overall. Some leaves, however, as those of the mosses, are entirely cellular. See extract. A plant is composed of the axis and its appendages: the axis appearing above ground as the stem and branches, below $o as the root; the appendazes being entirely above ground, and essentially feater; all organs which are not formed of the axis being modified leaves. The proof of this consists very much in the gradual transition of one organ into another, manifest in some plants, although not in others; as of leater into bricts, one of the most frequently gradual transitions; of leaves into sepals, as seen in the leaf-like sepals of many roses; of sepals into petals, as seen in the petal-like sepals of lilies, crocuses, &c.; and even of stamens into - en exemplified in the common houseleek. Chambers's Ency. 2. Something resembling a leaf in any of its properties, as (a) the part of a book or folded

In a leading

Milit, the

sheet containing two pages. (b) A side, division, or part of a flat body, the parts of which move on hinges, as folding-doors, windowshutters, a fire-screen, &c.; the part of a table which can be raised or lowered at pleasure. c) A very thin Fo of metal; as, gold-leaf. d) A portion of fat lying in a separate fold or layer (e) A tooth of a pinion, especially when the pinion is small. (f) In arch. an ornament resembling or made in imitation of the leaves of certain plants or trees. @ The brim of a hat, especially of a soft a

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or states for their mutual aid or defence; a national contract or compact. A league may be offensive or defensive, or both; it is offensive when the contracting parties agree to unite in attacking a common enemy; deJensive, when the parties agree to act in concert in defending each other against an enemy.--Solemn League and Covenant. See under Coven ANT. —Anti-cornlaw League. See ANTI-CORNLAW LEAGUE. – SYN. Alliance, confederacy, coalition, combination, compact. League (lég), v. i. pret & pp. leagued; ppr. leaguing. To unite, as princes or states, in a league or confederacy; to combine for mutual support; to confederate. Where fraud and falsehood invade society, the band presently breaks, and men are put to a loss where to league and to fasten their dependeo, outs/o. League (lég), n. [Sp. legata, Pg. legoa, legua, Fr. lieue, #. L. L. leuca, leuga, soft that from Gael. leac, a flag, a flat stone; W. llech, a tablet, a flat stone..] 1. Originally, a stone erected on the public roads, at certain distances, in the manner of the modern milestones. Hence—2. A measure of length varying in different countries. The English land league is 3 statute miles, and the nautical league 3 equatorial miles, or 3:457.875 statute miles. The Italian league is reckoned as equal to 4 miles, each of 5000 feet. The Spanish league varies very much according to the locality. On the modern Spanish roads the league is estimated at 7416 English yards. The Portufo league is equal to 3-84 English miles. the old French measures the length of the league was different in every district, but the three principal leagues were the legal or posting league, equal to rather less than # English miles; the marine league, somewhat more than 34 English miles; and the astronomical league, equal to about 2} English miles. The metric league is reckoned as equal to 4 kilometres or 4374

yards. League-long (lég'long), n. The length of a league. ‘League-long of rolling and breathing and brightening heather.’ Swinburne. Leaguer (lég'ér), m. One who unites in a league; a confederate. “Royalists and leaguers.' Bacon. Leaguer (légér), n. [D. leger, G. lager, a bed, a couch, a camp; allied to lair, lie, lay. See BELEAGUER.] 1. Investment of a town or fort by an army; siege. [Rare.] I'll tell you, gentlemen, it was the first, but the best leaguer that ever I beheld with these eyes. B. 9onson. 2. The camp of a besieging army; a camp. ‘Your sutler's wife in the leaguer." B. Jonson. I have it in charge to go to the camp or leaguer of our army, Sir J.P. Scott.

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See the verb.] 1. A crack, crevice, fissure, or hole in a vessel, that admits water, or permits a fluid to escape.—2. The oozing or passing of water or other fluid or liquor through a crack, fissure, or aperture in a vessel, either into it, as into a ship, or out of it, as out of a cask; as, a considerable quantity was lost by the leak of the liquor. –To spring a leak, to open or crack so as to let in water; to begin to let in water. Leak (lék), p. i. [A. Sax. leccan, to wet, to moisten ; Icel. leka, to leak, to drip or dribble, Dan. laekke, D. lekken, to leak; allied to G. lechzen, to open in cracks through dryness, and also to E. lack. See the noun.] 1. To let water or other liquor into or otit of a vessel, through a hole or crevice in the vessel; as, a ship leaks, when she admits water through her seams or an aperture in her bottom or sides, into the hull; a pail or a cask leaks, when it admits liquor to pass out through a hole or crevice.—2. To ooze or pass, as water or other fluid, through a crack, fissure, or aperture in a vessel. The water, which will of: by degrees leak into several parts, may be emptied out again. JPilkins. 3. To void water or urine. Shak. —To leak out, to find vent; to find publicity in a clandestine or irregular way; to escape from confinement or secrecy; as, the story leaked

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Leamer (lém'èr), n. A dog led by a leam. Lean (lén), v.i.' [A. Sax hlinian, hlynian; O. Sax. hlimon, O.H.G. hlinen, G. lehmen, D. leunen, to lean. Cog. with Gr. klinô, to make to bend, and L. clino, inclino, to bend, to incline. 1 1. To deviate or move from a straight or perpendicular position or line; to be in a position thus deviating; as, the column leans to the north or to the east; it leans to the right or left.—2. To incline in feeling, inclination, or opinion; to tend toward; to conform, as in conduct; as, he leans toward Popery. They delight rather to lean to their old customs. Spenser. 3. To depend, as for support, comfort, and the like; to trust: usually with against, on, or upon; as, to lean against a wall; to lean on one's arm. Trust in the Lord with all thine heart; and lean not unto thine own understanding. row. iii. 5. 4. To bend; to be in a bending posture. His arms rested carelessly on his knees as he leant forward. Bickens. Lean (lén), v. t. To cause to lean; to incline; to support or rest. See, how she leans her cheek upon her hand!

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or learn; Icel. laera, to teach, to learn; Goth. laisjan, to teach ; allied to A. Sax. lesan, Icel. lesa, to gather.] 1. To gain or acquire knowledge of or skill in; as, we learn the use of letters, the meaning of words, and the principles of science. One lesson from one book we learned. Tennyson.

2. To communicate knowledge to; to teach. Hast thou not learned me how To make perfumes? Shać. [Learn is hardly used by good writers in this sense now.] Learn (lérn), v. i. To gain or receive knowledge, information, or intelligence; to receive instruction; to take pattern; to be taught; as, to learn to read Greek or speak French; to learn to play the flute. Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart. Mat. xi. 29. Learnable (léru'a-bl), a. Capable of being learned. Learned (lérned), a. 1. Possessing knowledge acquired from books, as distinguished from practical knowledge or natural shrewdness; having a great store of information obtained by study; as, a learned man. Men of much reading are greatly learned, but may be little knowing. Locke. 2. Well acquainted with arts; having much experience; skilful: often with in; ...; in martial arts. .Not learned, save in gracious household ways. Tennyson. 3. Containing or indicative of learning; as, a learned treatise or publication.—4. t Derived from or characteristic of great knowledge or experience; wise; prudent. How learned a thing it is to beware oo: humblest

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Learnedness (lèrn'ed-nes), n. The state of being learned; erudition. ‘The learnedmess of the age." Lawd.

Learner (lérn'er), n. A person who learns; one who is taught; a scholar; a pupil.

Learning (lérn'ing), n. 1. Acquired knowledge or ideas in any branch of science or literature; more especially knowledge acquired by the study of literary productions; erudition; as, a man of learning.—2. Skill in anything good or bad.—Literature, Learning, Erudition. See under LITERATURE.

(lér’i), n. [Prov. E. lear, G. leer,

empty.) In mining, an empty place or old working.

Loose (lès'a-bl), a. That may be leased.

Lease (lés), n. [Norm. lees, leez, a lease; L. L. lessa, from Fr. laisser, to leave, to let out— It lasciare, to leave, from L. laarare, to slacken, to relax, from laarus, loose, lax, from a root seen also in languid.) 1. A demise, conveyance, or letting of lands, tenements, or hereditaments to another for life, for a term of years, or at will, for a specified rent or compensation.—2. The written contract for such letting.—3. Any tenure by grant or permission.—4. The time for which such a tenure holds good.

Thou to give the world increase, Shortened hast thy own life's lease. Milton.

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Leaser (léz'èr), n. A gleaner; a gatherer after reapers. I looked tipon all who were born here as only in the condition of leasers and gleaners. '...}. Leash (lésh), n. [Fr. laisse, O. Fr. lesse, a thong to keep dogs together; from L. L. laza, a loose cord, from L. lazus, loose. J 1. A thong of leather, or long line by which a falconer holds his hawk or a courser his dog. Een like a fawning §eyhound in the leash, To let him slip at will. Sha&. 2. Among sportsmen, a brace and a half; three creatures of any kind, especially greyhounds, foxes, bucks, and hares; hence, the number three in general. You shall see dame Errour so play her parte with a Irash of lovers, a male and two females. A'iche. I... kept my chambers a learh of days. B. Jonson. 3. A band tying or fastening anything. The ravished soul being shown such game would break those leashes that tie her to the body. Boyle.

Leash (lésh), v. t. To bind; to hold by a string.

And at his heels, Aleath'at in like hounds, should famine, sword, and fire Crouch for employment. Shak. (léz'ing), n. [A. Sax. led sung, from leisian, to lie, from leds, false. Allied to lose, loose, loss.) Falsehood; lies. Thou shalt destroy them that speak leasing: the Lord will abhor the bloody and deceitful man. Ps. v. 6. —Leasing making, or verbal sedition, in Scots law, a crime punishable by fine and imprisonment, consisting in slanderous and untrue speeches, to the disdain, reproach, and contempt of the king, his council and proceedings, or to the dishonour, hurt, or prejudice of his highness, his parents, and progenitors. Leasow (lé'só), n. [A. Sax. lopswe.] A pasture. Least (lést), a. [A. Sax. laest, loosast, laosest, superl of lapssa, less (which see).] Smallest; little beyond others, either in size, degree, value, worth, importance, or the like; as, the least insect; the least mercy. Least is often used without the noun to which it refers. “I am the least of the apostles." 1 Cor. xv. 9. of two evils I have chose the learf. arror.

—At least, at the least, to say no more; not to demand or affirm more than is barely sufficient; at the lowest degree; as, if he has not incurred a penalty, he at least deserves censure. He who tempts, though vain, at least asperses The tempted with dishonour. Milton. Least (lést), adv. In the smallest or lowest degree; in a degree below all others; as, to reward those who least deserve it. Least t (lést), conj. Lest. Spenser. Leastways, Leastwise (lèst'waz, lèst'wiz), adv. [Least, and wise, guise, manner.] At least; however. Dickens.—At leastways, or at leastwise, at least. Fuller. Leasyt (lé'zi), a... [A. Sax leas, false, counterfeit.) Counterfeit; fallacious; misleading; vague. He newer leaveth, while the sense itself be left both loose and leary. Aschamt. Leat (lét), n. [A. Sax. laedan, to lead. See LADE. J A trench to conduct water to or from a mill or mine. Leather (lefh’ér), n. [A. Sax. lether, L.G. ledder, lier, Icel. lethr, Dan. laeder, laer, G. and D. leder, D. also leer. The root meaning is not known. Similar forms are found in W. llethr, Armor. lear, ler—leather.] 1. The skin of an animal dressed and prepared for use by tanning, tawing, or other processes.—2. Dressed hides collectively.— 3. Skin: used ironically or ludicrously. His body, active as his mind, Returning sound in limb and wind Except some leather lost behind. Swift. Leather (lefh'èr), a. Consisting of leather; as, a leather glove. Leather (leth'ér), v.t. To furnish with leather; to apply leather to; hence, to beat or thrash as with a thong of leather. [Vul

gar. 1 Leather-back (le?H'êr-bak), n. A marine tortoise of the genus Sphargis (S. coriacea), so called from its carapace being covered with a leather-like skin. It is a common species in the Mediterranean, and has been occasionally taken on our own coasts. Leather-cloth (leth'êr-kloth), n. The name given to various fabrics made so as to resemble leather, and possess some of its qualities without being so costly. These are for the most part formed by varnishing some textile material, as unbleached cotton, linen, woollen, alpaca, &c., with various

coatings of some resinous substance, as caoutchouc, linoleum, &c., and, if required, by painting or embossing it. Leather-coat (le:FH'êr-köt), n. An apple or potato with a tough coat or rind. Leather-dresser (let H'êr-dres'ér), n. One who dresses leather; one who prepares hides for use. Leatherette (leth-or-et'), n. A kind of imitation leather used in bookbinding. Leather-flower (leth’ér-flou-er), m. A North American climbing plant of the genus Clematis (C. viorma), so named from its purplish sepals being thick and leathery. Leather-head (leth'ér-hed), n. An Australian bird, the Tropidorhynchus corniculatws, a species of honey-eater. So called from its head being devoid of feathers and presenting a leathery appearance. Called also Friar-bird (which see). Leather-jack (le'FH'êr-jak), n., A jug made of leather; a black-jack (which see). Leather-mouthed (leth 'er-mouTHà ), a. Having a mouth like leather; smooth and without teeth. By leather-rotouthed fish, I mean such as have their teeth in their throat, as the chub. If a tort. Leathern (leth'êrn), a. Made of leather; consisting of leather; as, a leathern purse. “A leathern girdle." Mat. iii. 4. Leather-winged (leth'êr-wingd), a. Having wings like leather, as the bat. Leather-wood (leth’ér-wud), n. Dirca lustris, nat. order Thymelaceae, a muchranched bush of the United States, with small yellow flowers, very flexible jointed branches, and a tough, leathery, fibrous bark, which is used by the Indians for thongs. The twigs are used for baskets, &c. Called also Moose-wood and Wicopy. Leathery (let Hér-i), a , Pertaining to or resembling leather; tough. Leave (lév), n., [A. Sax. leif, geleaf, leófa, leave, permission; lofan, lofan, to permit; O.E. leve, to permit, and to believe—the -lieve in believe: D. -lof in oorlof, Icel. leusi, permission; leusa, to permit; lof, praise, permission; lofa, to permit; G. erlauben, to permit, glauben, to believe. Allied to E. love, lief, G. lob, praise; L. libet, it is pleasing.) 1. Liberty granted by which restraint or illegality is removed; permission; allowance; license. Get Meaze to work In the world—'tis the best you get at all. E. B. Browning. 2. The act of departing; a formal parting of friends or acquaintances; farewell; adieu: used chiefly in the phrase to take leave. Acts xviii. 18. ‘Take last leave of all I loved.' Tennyson. —Leave, Liberty, License. Leave implies that there is a choice in the matter; that the permission granted may be used or not; leave is employed on familiar occasions. Liberty is given in more important matters, indicating complete freedom and that all obstacles are completely removed from the path. License, lit. the state of being permitted by law, implies that permission is granted by public authority: it frequently carries a much stronger meaning than liberty, implying that advantage to the very utmost may be taken of the permission even to the verge of abuse. No friend has leave to bear away the dead. Dryden. I am for the full liberty of diversion (for chio orce. License they mean, when they call otherty. Milton. Leave (lév), v.t, pret. & pp. left; ppr. leaving. [A. Sax. loofan, to leave, to cause to remain, from lifan, to remain; Icel. leisa, O. Fris. leva, O.H.G. lipan, to leave, whence belipan, Mod. G. bleiben, not to leave, to remain. See LIVE.] 1. To withdraw or depart from ; to quit for a longer or shorter time indefinitely, or for perpetuity; as, we leave home for a day or a year. Therefore shall a man learne his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife. Gen. ii. 24. 2. To forsake; to desert; to abandon; to relinquish; to resign; to renounce. We have left all, and have followed thee. Mark x. 28. As the heresies that men do fear?” Are hated most of those they did deceive. Shak. 3. To suffer to remain; not to take or remove. Let no man leave of it till the morning. Ex. xvi. 19. 4. To have remaining at death. There be of them that have left a name behind them. Ecclus. xliv, 8. 5. To commit or trust to, as a deposit; as, I left the papers in the care of the consul.6. To bequeath; to give by will; as, the de

ceased has left his lands to his sons, but he has left a legacy to his only daughter. To: peace which made thy prosperous reign to shine, That peace thou leav'rt to thy imperial line, That peace, O happy shade, be ever thine.

Drydent. 7. To permit or allow. Whether Esau were a vassal, I leave the reader to judge. Locke. 8. To refer; to commit for decision; as, to leave a question to an umpire.—9. To cease or desist from; to forbear. Let us return; lest my father leave caring for the asses, and take thought for us. 1 Sam. ix. 5. –To be left to one's self, to be left alone; to be permitted to follow one's own opinions or desires.—To leave off, (a) to desist from; to forbear; as, to leave off work at six o'clock. (b) To cease wearing; as, to leave off a gar* (c) To give up or cease to associate with. He began to leave off some of his old acquaintance. Arbuthnot. —To leave out, to omit; as, to leave out a word or name in writing.—SYN. To quit, depart from, forsake, abandon, relinquish, commit, intrust, give, bequeath, permit, allow, desist, forbear. Leave (lév), v.i. To give over; to cease; to desist. He searched, and began at the eldest, and left at the youngest. Gen. xliv. 12. —To leave off, to cease; to desist; to stop.

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Leaved (lévd), a. 1. Furnished with foliage or leaves.—2. Having a leaf, or made with leaves or folds; as, a two-leaved gate.

Leaveless (lév'les), a. Destitute of leaves.

Leaveless, a. Without leave or permission. Chaucer.

Leaven o m. [Fr. levain, from lever, L. levo, to raise.] 1. Any substance that produces or is designed to produce fermentation, as in dough ; especially, a mass of sour dough, which, mixed with a larger quantity of dough or paste, produces fermentation in it and renders it light; yeast; barm.–2. Anything that resembles leaven in its effects, as by causing a general change, especially a change for the worse.

Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the

Sadducees. Mat. xvi. 6.

Leaven (lev'n), v. t. , 1. To excite fermentation in ; to raise and make light, as dough or paste.

A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump.

Cor. v. 6. 2. To taint; to imbue. With these and the like deceivable doctrines he 1eavens all his prayer. fartort. Leavening (lev'n-ing), n. 1. The act of making light by means of leaven; the act of exciting fermentation in anything.—2. That which leavens or makes light. Leavenous (lev'n-us), a. Containing leaven; tainted. “Unsincere and leavenous doctrine." Milton. Leaver (lév'èr), n. One who leaves or relinquishes; one who forsakes. Leave-taking (lév'tāk-ing), n. Taking of leave; parting compliments. Low at leave-taking, with his brandish'd plume

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