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He slept no more than doth a nightingale, Chancer.

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No. n. A species of goatsucker (Chordeiles virginianus), family Caprimulgidae, a bird universally known in the United States. It is 9} inches in length, and 23 in extent of wing; the upper parts are of a very deep blackish-brown, thickly sprinkled with minute spots and streaks of a pale cream colour on the back and head. It is a bird of strong and vigorous flight, and its prey consists of beetles and other # insects. Night-heron (nit'he-run), n. A species of Nycticorax, a genus of Grallatores, or wading birds, belonging to the family Ardeidae (herons and cranes). The species occur in Europe, Asia, Africa, and America. The common night-heron is the N. Gardeni or etz?" It is about 20 inches in length and has three long narrow feathers proceeding from the nape of the neck, and hanging backwards. Night-house (nit' hous), n. A tavern or public-house permitted to be open during the night. The coach-stands in the larger thoroughfares are deserted; the night-houses are closed. Bickents. Nightingale (nit'in-gāl), n. [A.Sax.nihtegale, lit. the night-singer, from niht, night, galan, to sing; O.Sax.nahtigala, D.nachtegaal, Dan. mattergal, G. machtigall, all corresponding compounds. The n medial is an intrusive element, as in passenger, messenger.] A small dentirostral passerine bird of the genus Luscinia (L. philomela), and family Luscinidae or Turdidae, and nearly allied to the water

ouzels; often called in poetry Philomela or Philomel. The nightingale sings at night, and its famed chant is the love-song of the male,” which ceases when the female has hatched her brood. It is a native of many parts of Europe and Asia, and of the north of Africa. It is migratory, extending its summer migrations as far north as the south of Sweden. In England, where it apabout the middle of April, it seems to e rather a local bird, some parts appearing

Nightingale (Luscinta philomela).

to be quite unsuited to its habits; the northern counties are seldom visited, and in Scotland and Ireland it is unknown. It feeds on caterpillars and other larvae, frequents hedges and thickets, and builds its nest on the ground or near it, laying four or five eggs of a blue colour. The young are hatched in June, and are prepared to accompany their parents in their southward migration in August. It is solitary in its habits, never associating in flocks like most of the Smaller birds. Nightingale (nit'in-gāl), n. [From Florence ightingale.] A sort of flannel scarf, with sleeves, for persons confined to bed. Largely used by the sick and wounded in the Franco-German war, 1870–71. Nightisht (nitish), a Pertaining to night, or attached to the night. Turberville. Night-jar (nitsjär), n. [Jar or churr is from the sound of its voice..] One of the British names of the Caprimulgus jo. or goat-sucker: known also as the Night-churr, Churn-owl, Fern-owl. Night-lamp (nit' lamp), n. . A lamp to be kept burning during the night. Nightless (nit'les), a. Having no night; as, the nightless period in the arctic regions. Night-light (nit'lit), n. A short, thick candle or taper for burning at night in the bedroom, and which for safety is often placed in a dish of water. Night-long (nit'long), a. Lasting a night. Sleep, kinsman thou to death and trance And madness, thou hast forged at last A night-long Present of the Past In which we went thro' summer France.

Tennyson. Nightly (nitoli), a. , 1. Done by night; happening in the night, or appearing in the night; as, nightly sports; nightly dews. May the stars and shining moon attend Your nightly sports. Dryden. 2. Done every night; as, the watch goes his % round. —3.f Used in the night. * Nightly linen.” Shak. Nightly (nit'li), adv. 1..? By night. Chain me with roaring bears Or shut me nightly in a charnel-house. 2. Every night. And nightly to the list'ning earth Repeats the story of her birth. Addison. Night-magistrate (nit'maj-is-trät), n. A constable of the night; the head of * watchhouse. Night-man (nit'man), n. One who removes filth from privies in towns in the night. Nightmare o n. [Night, and A.Sax. mara, incubus, nightmare.] 1. A kind of hag or female fiend formerly supposed to cause nightmare; an incubus. Hark! the death-owl loud doth sin To the nightmares as they go. &auren. 2. A state of oppression or feeling of suffocation which sometimes comes on during sleep, and is accompanied by a feeling of intense anxiety, fear, or horror, the sufferer feeling an enormous weight on his breast, and imagining that he is pursued by a phantom, monster, or wild beast, or threatened by some other danger from which he can make no exertion to escape. The sufferer wakens after a short time in a state of great terror, the body often covered with sweat. The proximate cause of nightmare is said to

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be irregularity of the circulation in the chest or brain, and the disorder is generally due to repletion and indigestion, but sometimes to the fact of the sufferer lying in an awkward position in bed. —3. Any overpowering, oppressive, or stupefying influence. Night-piece (nit'pës), m. 1. A picture representing some night scene, or so painted as to show to the best advantage by artificial light. —2. A piece of literary composition descriptive of a scene by night. His (Parnell's) might-piece on Death was indirectly preferred by Goldsmith to Gray's celebrated Elegy. Robert Carrothers.

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Night-season (nit'sé-Zn), n. The time of night. Ps. xxii. 2. Nightshade (nit'shād), n., [A. Sax. nihtscada, lit. the shade or shadow of night; so also D. machtschade, G. machtschatten, the nightshade.] 1.f The darkness of night. ‘The dark nightshade.' Phaer.—2. The English name of various species of plants, chiefly of the genus Solanum. The woody nightshade (S. Dulcamara), and .." i #: garden nightshade (S. ni#. - are ritish plants, the first growing in hedges and among bushes, and the latter in gardens, fields, and waste places. The root and leaves of S. Dulcamara are narcotic, and have been applied to various medicinal uses. The berries, if not absolutely poisonous, are suspicious. S. nigrum is fetid and narcotic, and has also been employed medicinally. (See SoLANUM.) Deadly nightshade is Atropa Belladonna; the American nightshade is of the genus Phytolacca; the bastard nightshade of the genus Rivina;the enchanter's nightshade of the genus Circaea; the Malabar nightshade of the genus Basella; and the three-leaved nightshade of the genus Trillium. Night-shirt (nit'shërt), n. A plain loose shirt for sleeping in. Night-shoot (nit'shöt), n. A place for casting night-soil. Night-side (nit'sid), n. The side or aspect presented by night; the dark, mysterious, ominous, or gloomy side. “The night-side of nature.” Mrs. Crowe. Night-sight. See DAYBLINDNESS. Not (nit’snap), n. A night thief. Beau. & Fl. Night-soil (nit’soil), n. [From its being generally removed in the night.] The contents of privies, &c., employed as a manure. This is found to be a very powerful manure. and very liable to decompose. Its value in this ct depends on the salts and ammonia of the faeces, and also in a great measure on the ammoniacal and other salts of the urine. Night-spell (nit’spel), n. A night-charm; a charm or spell against accidents at night; a charm against the nightmare. Chaucer.

Woody Nightshade (Solanum Pulcamara).

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Niññāni). [L.] Nothing.—Nihil album, a name formerly given to the flowers or white oxide of zinc.—The word is also used in sundry law phrases. Nihil capiat per breve (= that he take ..", by his writ), the judgment given against the plaintiff in an action, either in bar thereof or in abatement of the writ.—Nihil or nil dicit (=he says nothing). A judgment by nihil dicit is when the defendant makes no answer.— Nihil habutt in tenementis (= he had nothing in the tenement or holding), a plea to be made in an action of debt only, brought by a lessor against a lessee for years, or at will without deed.—Nihil or mildebet (=he owes nothing), a plea denying a debt. ihilism (nihil-izm), m. [From L. nihil, nothing, from me, not, and hilum, a little thing, a trifle.] 1. Nothingness; nihility.— 2. In metaph. the denial of all existence or the knowledge of all existence.

Nihilism is scepticism carried to the denial of all

existence. Fleming. 3. The doctrines or principles of the Russian secret society of Nihilists.

Nihilist (nihil-ist), n. One who holds the doctrine or principles of nihilism; a member of a Russian secret society, the adherents of which mostly acknowledge materialism as their philosophical creed, but are chiefly characterized by their social and political aims. Their leading idea is that no considerable advance can be made by mankind without an entire reconstitution of society, beginning with a sudden economical reform, or rather revolution, the chief features of

which must consist in the carrying out of the principle of common property in land, and of communistic principles generally. They hesitate at no crime which they suppose may in any way further their cause, and the assassination of men in power is one of their approved weapons, as witness * assassination of the Emperor Alexander Nihilistic (ni-hil-ist'ik), a. Relating to the doctrine of nihilism; characterized by nihilism; as, nihilistic views. Nihility (ni-hil’i-ti), m. [See NIHILISM.] A state of being nothing; nothingness. Nikarr, Nikker, n. See HNIKARR. Nil (nil), n. [L.] Nothing; as, his liabilities were over £5000 and his assets nil. In commerce this term is often used in accounts or in book-keeping to cancel the entry to which it refers. Nilghau (nil'ga), n. Same as Nylghaw. Nillt (nil), v. t. pret. milled or mould. [A. Sax. millan, that is, me, not, and willan, to will; comp. L. nolo—me, not, and volo, to wish.] Not to will; to refuse; to reject. Certes, said he, I mill thine offer'd grace. Spenser. Nillt (nil), v.i. Not to will; to will not; to be unwillling. And will you, mill you, I will marry you. Shak. Nill (nil), n. 1. The shining sparks of brass in trying and melting the ore. Bailey.— 2. Scales of hot iron from the forge. E. H.

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You have a nimble wit. Shak. You have dancing shoes With nimble soles. Shak,

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The Nimbus as variously represented in Sacred and Legendary Art.—1, God the Father. 2 and 3,

Christ. 4, Charleimagne. 5, Emperor Henry II. sacred personages; as also to a disc or circle sometimes depicted round the heads of emperors and other great men. The nimbus of God the Father is represented as of a triangular form, with rays diverging from it all round, or in the form shown in the cut; the nimbus of Christ contains a cross more or less enriched; that of the Virgin Mary consists of a circlet of small stars, and that of angels and saints is a circle of small rays. When the nimbus is depicted of a square form it indicates that the person was alive at the time of delineation. Nimbus is frequently confounded with Aureola and Glory. See AUREOLA, GLORY..—2. A species of cloud which produces rain. See CLOUD. Nimiety (nim-i'e-ti), n. [L. mimietas, from mimius, too much..] The state of being too much; redundancy; excess. [Rare.] There is a mimiety, a too muchness, in all Germans. Coleridge.

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Th’ unhappy wags which let their cattle stray,
At nine-holes on the heath while they together play.

Drayton. Nine-killer (nin'kil-er), n. The popular name of the red-backed shrike or butcherbird of Britain (Lanius collurio), and the northern butcher-bird (Lanius septentrionalis) of America. The name nine-killer is derived from the popular belief that the bird catches and impales nine of the animals on which it feeds before it begins its meal. Nine-pence (nin'pens), n. A silver coin of the value of 9d., no longer current. Nine-pins (nin’pinz), n. pl. A game with nine pins or pieces of wood set on end, at which a bowl is rolled for throwing them down. Called also American Bowls. Nineteen (nin'tén), a. [A. Sax. nigontyne, i.e. nine, ten..] Nine and ten. Nineteen (nin'tén), n. The sum of nine and ten, or one less than twenty. Nineteenth (nin'ténth), a. The ordinal of nineteen. Nineteenth (nin'ténth), n. A nineteenth part; the quotient of a unit divided by nineteen. Ninetieth (nin'ti-eth), a. The ordinal of ninety. Ninetieth (ninti-eth), n. A ninetieth part; the quotient of a unit divided by ninety. Ninety (nin'ti), n. [A. Sax. § nigontig —nigon, nine, and tig, ten. See HUNDRED.) Nine times ten. Ninety (nin'ti), a. Nine times ten; as, ninety years. Ninety-knot, (nin'ti-not), n. A popular name of the plant Polygonum aviculare. Nine-worthinessf (nin'wer-thi-nes), n. A mock title applied to a person as if he was one of, or to be ranked along with, the celebrated nine worthies. See under NINE.

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at Florence, known by the name of Niobe and her Children. Niobean (ni-Öbé'an), a. Of or pertaining to Niobe; resembling Niobe. Tennyson. Niobite (ni'obit), n. One of a sectof Monophysite heretics founded by one Stephanus, surd Niobes, an Alexandrian rhetorician or sophist, who found it inconsistent with Monophysitism to say that our Lord's divinity and humanity, although united in one nature, yet retained unaltered the attributes o to their proper essence. Rev. Orby Shipley. Niobium (ni-ö'bi-um), n. [From Niobe..] A rare metal discovered in 1801 in a black mineral called columbite from North America. It is obtained by reducing the double fluoride of niobium and potassium with sodium; and forms a black powder insoluble in nitric acid, but readily soluble in a mixture of nitric and hydrofluoric acids. Sym. Nb. At. wit. 98. Called also Columbium. Nip (nip), v.t. pret & pp. nipped or nipt; ppr. nipping. [A word not found in A. Sax., but which is evidently connected with a number of words in the other Teutonic languages, generally having an initial guttural; comp. Dan, nippe, to twitch, nippetang, tweezers o knibe, to nip, to pinch; D. knippen, to nip, to clip, to snap, mijpen, to pinch, to nip, mijptang, pincers; ##". to cut short, to curtail, kneif, nippers, pincers; G. kneipen, kneifen, to pinch, to nip, knippen, to fillip.] 1. To catch or inclose and compress sharply and tightly between two surfaces or points, as of the fingers; to pinch. May this hard earth cleave to the Nadir hell, IXown, down, and close again, and nip me flat, If I be such a traitress. extroyson. 2. To cut, bite, or pinch off the end or point; to pinch off with the ends of the fingers or }. to sever smartly.—3. To blast, as by rost; to destroy; to check the growth or vigour of ‘Nipt to death by him that was a God.' Tennyson.-4. To benumb; to chill; to affect with a sharp tingling sensation. “When blood is mipt and ways befoul.” Shak. 5. To bite; to vex. And sharp remorse his heart did prick and oria. penser. 6. t. To satirize keenly; to taunt sarcastically. But the right gentle mind would bite his lip To hear § javel so good men wrip. Spenser. 7. To steal. [Old cant.]–To nip in the bud, to kill or destroy in the first stage of growth; to cut off before development.—To nip in the blossom, t same sense. Marvell.–To nip the cable (mawt.), is to tie or secure it with a seizing. Nip (nip), n. 1. A pinch with the points of the fingers, nails, teeth, or with something sharp. I am sharply taunted, yea, sometimes with pinches, zoos, and bobs. Ascha 2. A cutting, É. or twitching off.3. A blast; a killing of the ends of plants; destruction by frost.—4. A biting sarcasm; a taunt.—5. A thief. [Old cant.] They allot such countries to this band of foists, such townes to those, and such a city to so many rtips. Joecker".

6. Naut. (a) a short turn in a rope. (b) The

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Niobe.—Antique, Florence.

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ipper (nip'ér), n. 1. One who or that which nips.-2. A foretooth of a horse. The nippers are four in number, two in the upper and two in the lower jaw.—3.t A satirist. “Ready backbiters, sore nippers, and spiteful reporters privily of good men.” Ascham.— 4. In rope-making, a machine formed of two steel plates, with a semi-oval hole in each, which enlarges or contracts as the tarring of the yarn requires.—5. Naut. (a) a hammock with so little bedding as to be unfit for stowing in the nettings. , (b) pl. See NIPPERS, 2-6. A young, thief; a pickpocket.—7. A boy who waits on a gang of navvies, to fetch them water, carry their tools to the smithy, &c.; a boy who goes about with and assists a costermonger. No. (nip'ér), v.t. Naut, to fasten two s of a rope together, in order to prevent tfrom rendering.—Nippering the cable, fastening the nippers to the cable. See NIPPERS, 2. Nipperkin (nip'êr-kin), n. A small cup. Nipper-men (nip'êr-men), n. Naut. persons ...?. to bind the nippers about the cable and messenger. Nip (nip'érz), n. 1. Small pincers.2. Naut. certain lengths of the best ropeyarn, fastened together, and employed to secure the cable to the messenger when drawing up the anchor.

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Nipple (nip'l), n. [A. Sax. nypele; probably connected with nip, a sip, L.G. nippen, Dan. nippe, to sip.] 1. The spongy protuberance by which milk is drawn from the breasts of females; a pap; a teat—2. The orifice at which any animal liquor is separated. Derham.–3. Anything that projects like a nipple, as that part of a percussionlock over which the cap is io Nipple (nip'1), v.t. To furnish with a nipple or nipples; to cover with nipple-like protuberances. Nipple-shield (nip'l-shëld), n. A defence for the nipple, worn by women. Nipplewort (nip'l-wért), n. A plant of the genus Lapsana (L. communis), nat. order Compositae, growing commonly as a weed by the sides of ditches and in waste places. See LAPSANA. Nipter ( "...} m. [Gr. nipter, a basin, washing vessel, from miptó, to wash.] Eccles. the ceremony of washing the feet practised in the Greek and some other churches on Good Friday, in imitation of the act of our Saviour. In monasteries the abbot and twelve monks took part in the ceremony. Nirles (nérlz), n. A popular name of a variety of the skin disease herpes; herpes Phlyctaenodes, or miliary herpes of Bateman. No. (nir-vā'na), n. (Skr. nir, out, and vina, blown; lit. blown out..] According to the teaching of Buddhism, the condition of one who has attained to the highest state to which a sentient being can reach, and has accordingly become free from desire for material or immaterial existence, from pride and self-righteousness and ignorance. One who has attained this condition will at death pass entirely out of existence. What then is Nirvana, which means simply going out, extinction; it being quite clear, from what has gone before, that this cannot be the extinction of a soul? It is the extinction of that sinful, grasping condition of mind and heart, which would otherwise, according to the great mystery of Karma, be the cause of renewed individual existence. that extinction is to be brought about by, and runs parallel with, the growth of §. opposite condition of mind and heart; and it is complete when that opposite condition of mind and heart is reached. Nix-roarra is therefore the same thing as a sinless, calm state of mind: and if translated at all, may best, perhaps, be rendered NIS

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263

NITRO-HYDROCHLORIC

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For nothing can endure where order nir. Sir P. Sidney. Nisan (ni'zan), n. A month of the Jewish calendar, the first month of the sacred year and seventh of the civil year, answering nearly to our March. It was originally called Abib, but began to be called Nisan after the captivity. Nis (niz'be-ri), n. Same as Naseberry. Nisey # (ni'si), n. [From mice, foolish..] A fool; a simpleton. Hudibras Redivivus, 1707. Nisi (ni'si). . [L.] Unless.-Decree nisi, in law, see under DECREE. Nisi prius (ni'si pri’us), n. [L]. A law phrase meaning ‘unless before,' and occurring originally in a writ by which the sheriff of a county was commanded to bring the men impannelled as jurors in a civil action to the court at Westminster on a certain day, ‘unless before" that day the justices came thither (that is, to the county in question) to hold the assizes, which they were always sure to do. Whence the writ, as well as the commission, received the name of nisi prius. The judges of assize, by virtue of their commission of nisi privs, try the civil causes thus appointed in their several circuits, being said to sit at nisi privs, and the courts in which these actions are tried being called courts of misi prius, or nisi prius courts. A trial at nisi prius Inay be defined in general as a trial, before a judge and jury, of a civil action that has been brought in one of the superior courts. — Nisi prius record, a document containing the pleadings that have taken place in a civil action for the use of the judge who is to try the case. Nislée, a. Erroneous form of Nyllée. N’iste.t. For Ne Wiste. Knew not.—N’isten, for Ne Wisten, pl. knew not. Chaucer. Nisus (ni'zus), n. [L., from nitor, to strive.] An effort; a conatus; stress. Nit (nit), n. [A. Sax. hnifu; cog. D. meet, Icel. gnit, nitr, Dan. 9mid, Sw, gnet, a nit.] The egg of a louse or other small insect. Nitella (ni-tel’a), n. [L. niteo, to shine; lit. shining plants.) A genus of fresh-water algae, nat. order Characeae. Four species have been described as inhabiting Great Britain. They are found in pools and rivulets. Nitency (ni'ten-si), n. [L. niteo, to shine.] Brightness; lustre. [Rare.] Nitency (ni'ten-si), n. [L. mitor, to strive.] Endeavour; effort; tendency. [Rare.] These zones will have a strong nitency to % wider open. loyde.

Nong (ni FH" ing), m. and a. A batanar. Nitid (ni' tid), a. [L. mitidus. J 1. Bright; lustrous; shining. [Rare.] We restore old pieces of dirty gold to a clean and *itid yellow. Boyle. 2. Gay; spruce; fine: applied to persons. [Rare. H3. In bot. having a smooth, even, polished surface, as many seeds. Nitidous (ni’ tid-us), a. In bot having a smooth and polished surface; nitid. Nititelae s". n. pl. [L. niteo, to shine, and tela, a web.] A group of spiders of the family Errantes or prowlers, so called from the silken webs they throw out from their nests for the entanglement of their prey. Nitr-, Nitro-. A prefix employed in chemistry to indicate the presence of the radical nitryl (NO2) in certain compounds; as, nitraniline, nitranisic acid, nitro-benzamide, nitro-benzoic acid. Nitramidin (ni-tram'i-din), n. An explosive substance produced by the action of strong nitric acid upon starch. Nitran (nitran), n. Graham's name for the radical NO2, which must be supposed to exist in the nitrates, when they are regarded as formed on the type of the chlorides, as nitric acid (NO, H). Watts. Nitraria (ni-trä'ri-a), m. [L. nitrum, nitre.] A genus of plants of the nat. order Zygophyllaceae, natives of the salt plains in Central Asia and Northern Africa. They are generally thorny shrubs with fleshy leaves and solitary or clustered white flowers. The fruit is fleshy externally, bony internally, one-celled, one-seeded by abortion, and opening at the top by six valves of unequal size. They owe their generic name to the fact that they were first discovered near some Siberian nitre

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works. N. tridentata has been supposed to be the true lotus tree of the ancients. Nitrate (mi'trät), n. A salt of nitric acid. The nitrates are generally soluble in water, and easily decomposed by heat. They are much employed as oxidizing agents, and may be prepared by the action of nitric acid on metals or on metallic oxides.—Nitrate of potash, nitre. See NITRE. – Nitrate of silver. When silver is oxidized and dissolved by nitric acid diluted with two or three times its weight of water it forms a solution which yields transparent tabular crystals on cooling, which are called nitrate of silver. When fused the nitrate is of a black colour, and may be cast into small sticks in a mould; these sticks form the lapis infernalis or lunar caustic employed by surgeons as a cautery. It is sometimes employed forgiving a black colour to the hair, and is the basis of the indelible ink for marking linen. Its solution is always kept in the laboratory as a test for chlorine and hydrochloric acid. Called also Argentic Nitrate.—Nitrate of soda, a salt analogous in its chemical properties to nitrate of potash or nitre. It commonly crystallizes in obtuse rhombohedrons. It is found plentifully in Peru, and is imported into England from America. It is used as a manure and as a source of nitric o Called also Sodic Nitrate and Cubic İitre. Nitratin, Nitratine (nitra-tin), n. Native nitrate of sodium, occurring in transparent crystals in large beds on the northern frontier of Chili, where it rests on marl. It is used as a manure, and also in the production of nitric acid. Nitre (ni'tér), n. [Fr. nitre, L. nitrum, Gr. witron, from Heb. noter, nitre, natron, from metar, to produce effervescence.] (KN 03.) A salt, called also saltpetre, and in the nomenclature of chemistry nitrate of potassium or potassic nitrate. It is generated spontaneously in the soil, and crystallizes upon its surface in several parts of the world, and especially in the East Indies, whence the greater part of the nitre used in Great Britain is derived. In some parts of the Continent it is prepared artificially from a mixture of common mould or porous calcareous earth with animal and vegetable remains containing nitrogen. It is a colourless salt, with a saline taste, and crystallizes in six-sided prisms. It is chiefly employed in chemistry as an oxidizing agent and in the formation of nitric acid. Its chief use in the arts is in the making of gunpowder. It also enters into the composition of fluxes, and is extensively employed in metallurgy; it is used in the art of dyeing, and is much employed in the preservation of meat and animal matters in general. In medicine it is prescribed as cooling, febrifuge, and diuretic.--Cubic nitre. Same as Nitrate of Soda which see under NITRATE). itriary (ni’tri-a-ri), n. An artificial bed of animal matter for the formation of nitre; a place where nitre is refined. Nitric (nitrik), a. An adjective used in the nomenclature of the oxygen compounds of nitrogen. See NITRous.-Nitric acid (HN O3), a most important acid, prepared by distising a mixture of sulphuric acid and nitre. It is a most powerful oxidizing agent, and is decomposed by almost all the metals. When pure it is a colourless liquid, but is usually yellowish, owing to a small admixture of oxides of nitrogen. Its smell is very strong and disagreeable; and it is so acrid that it cannot be safely tasted without being much diluted. It acts with great energy on most combustible substances, simple or compound, and upon most of the metals. It exists in combination with the bases potash, soda, lime, magnesia, in both the vegetable and mineral kingdoms. It is employed in etching on steel or copper; as a solvent of tin to fo. with that metal a mordant for some of the finest dyes; in metallurgy and assaying; also in medicine, in a diluted state, as a tonic and as a substitute for mercurial preparations in syphilis and affections of the liver; and also in form of vapour to destroy contagion. In the arts it is known by the name of Aqua fortis.-Nitric oxide (N2O2 or NO), a gaseous compound of nitrogen and oxygen, produced by the action of dilute nitric acid upon copper. Nitride (ni'trid), n. A compound of nitrogen with any other element or radical, particularly a compound of nitrogen with phoshorus, boron, silicon, and the metals. itriferous (ni-trif'ér-us), a. [L. nitrum,

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Nitrite (nitrit), n. A salt of nitrous acid. —Nitrite of amyl. See AMYL. Nitro-aerial (ni'trö-à-é"ri-al), a. Consisting of or containing nitre and air. Ray. Nitro-benzol, Nitro-benzole (ni-trö-ben'zól), n. (C6H5NO2.) A liquid prepared by adding benzol drop by drop to fuming nitric acid. It closely resembles oil of bitter almonds in flavour, and though it has taken a prominent place amongst the narcotic poisons, it is largely employed, as a substitute for that oil, in the manufacture of confectionery and in the preparation of perfumery. It is important as a source of aniline in the manufacture of dyes. It is known also as Essence of Mirbane, a fancy name given to it by M. Collas of Paris. See ANILine. Nitro-calcite (ni-trö-kal'sit), n. Native nitrate of lime. It occurs as a pulverulent efflorescence on old walls and limestone rocks, has a sharp bitter taste, and is of a grayish-white colour. This is said to be the form in which the so-called nitre for the most part occurs. Nitro-compound (ni-trö-kom'pound), n. A compound of carbon which is formed from another by the substitution of the monatomic radical NO2 for hydrogen. Nitrogen (mi'trö-jen), n. (Gr. nitron, nitre, and genmad, to produce.] Sym. N. ; equivalent, 14; sp. gr. 0-9713. That element which is the basis of nitric acid, and the principal ingredient of atmospheric air. It is an important elementary principle; it constitutes about four-fifths of common air, the rest being principally oxygen. In its pure state it is remarkable for its negative qualities; that is to say, for the difficulty with which it enters into combination with other matters. It is neither combustible nor a supporter of combustion; it is neither acid nor alkaline; possesses neither taste nor smell. It is most readily obtained from atmospheric air, but it may also be obtained from animal matters. There are five known compounds of nitrogen and oxygen, viz. nitrous oxide, N2O; nitric oxide, N2O2; nitrogen trioxide, N2O3; nitrogen tetroxide, N2O4; nitrogen pentoxide, N2O5. Nitrogeneous (ni-trö-jé'né-us), a. Same as Nitrogenous. Smart. Nitrogenize (nitrö-jen-iz), v.t. To impregnate or imbue with nitrogen. Hoblyn. Nitrogenized (nitroj'en-izd), a Containing nitrogen.—Nitrogenized foods, nutritive substances containing nitrogen. They have been termed by Liebig the plastic elements of nutrition. Non-nitrogenized foods are such as contain no nitrogen. According to Liebig their function is to promote the process of respiration, and hence he terms them elements of respiration. This classifcation of food compounds is not now much used. Nitrogen Monoxide (ni'trö-jen mon-oks"id), n. Same as Nitrous Ozide. Nitrogenous (ni-troj'em-us), a. Pertaining to or containing nitrogen. Nitro-glucose (ni-trö-glu'kös), n. ...An organic substance produced by acting on finely powdered cane-sugar with nitro-sulphuric acid. In photography it is added in very small quantities to collodion, with the view of increasing the density of the negative and rendering the film less sensitive to light. o Nitro-glycerin (ni-trö; 3.

patente 1866.

glis'ér-in), m. Hs NaO.) A compound produced by the action of a mixture of strong nitric and sulphuric acids on glycerine at low temperatures. It is a light, yellow, oily liquid, of sp. gr. 1:6, is a most powerful explosive agent, detonating when struck. It has caused several serious accidents, and was first used in bombs dropped from balloons in the Franco-German war, 1870–71.

Nitro-hydrochloric (nitrö-hi-drö-klór”ik), a. Applied to an acid composed of a mixture of concentrated nitric and hydrochloric NITROLEUM

264

NOBLE

acids, used for effecting the solution of many substances, more especially of the noble metals. Called also Nitro-muriatic Acid and Aqua-regia. Nitroleum (mi-tro'li-um). Same as Nitrolycerin. E. H. Knight. Nitro. esite (ni-trö-mag'nes-it), n. A native io nitrate of magnesia found with nitro-calcite, which it resembles in colour and other characters. See NITROCALCITE. Brande. Nitrometer (ni-trom'et-ér), n. [Gr. nitron, nitre, and metron, a measure.] An instrument for ascertaining the quality or value of nitre. Nitro-muriatic (nitrö-mü-ri-at'ik), a. The older term for Nitro-hydrochloric. Nitro-naphthalene (nitro-naptha-lèn), n. A derivative from naphthalene produced by nitric acid. There are three of these nitroo arising from 1, 2, or 3 atoms of hydrogen being replaced by a corresponding quantity of nitryl. Nitro-sulphuric (niströ-sul-fú"rik), a. Applied to a mixture of nitric oxide and sulphuric acid. The term is also applied to an acid resulting from the mixture of one part of nitre with eight or ten parts of sulphuric acid, which is said to be a useful agent for separating the silver from the copper of old lated goods. Nitrous (nitrus), a. In chem. an adjective used in the nomenclature of the oxygen compounds of nitrogen to express a compound which contains less oxygen than another, to the name of which the adjective nitric is prefixed ; thus we have nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (N2O2); nitrous acid (H, NO2), nitric acid (HNO3), &c.—Nitrous acid (HNO3), an acid produced by decomposing nitrites; it very readily becomes oxidized to nitric acid. – Nitrous ether (C2Hs NO2), a derivative of alcohol in which hydroxyl (OH) is replaced by the group NO2 —Spirit of nitrous ether, used in medicine, is a mixture of nitrous ether with about four times its volume of rectified spirit.— Nitrous oxide gas (N2O), a combination of nitrogen and oxygen, formerly called the dephlogisticated nitrous gas. Under ordinary conditions of temperature and pressure this substance is gaseous; it has a sweet taste and a faint agreeable odour. When inhaled it produces unconsciousness and insensibility to pain; hence it is used as an anaesthetic during short surgical operations. When breathed diluted with air an exhilarating or intoxicating effect is produced, under the influence of which the experimenter is irresistibly impelled to do all kinds of silly and extravagant acts; hence the old name of laughing-gas. Called also Nitrogen Monoxide. Nitrum - flammans (ni'trum-flam'anz), n. [L.] Nitrate of ammonium, so named from o, property of exploding when heated to 500".

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East Indies, the title of the ruler of Hyderabad in the Deccan, derived from Nizamul-mulk (Regulator of the state), a name adopted by Azof Jah in 1719, and since that time adopted by his successors. Nizey, t n. Same as Nisey. No (no), adv. [A. Sax. na, né, nay, no, from the negative particle me, n-, and 4, ever; this negative particle is very widely spread; comp. o me, Goth. mi, O.G. mi, O. Slav. Bohem. and Rus. me, Armor, and Gael. na, L. me, Zend. na, Skr. na. See NAY.] 1. A word of denial or refusal, expressing a negative; the negative categorematic particle, equivalent to may, and opposed to yes or yea, the affirmative categorematic particles. A fine distinction formerly existed between mo and may, which has now disappeared: mo answered questions negatively framed: as, ‘Will he not come? No.' Nay answered those not including a negative; as, ‘Will he come 2 Nay.' It is often used in a way to strengthen negation or refusal, with emphasis: (a) when repeated; as, ‘No, no, do not ask me.” (b) When it follows another negative. ‘There is none righteous, wo, not one." Rom. iii. 10, (c) When it follows an affirmative proposition. ‘To whom we gave place by subjection, no, not for an hour." Gal. ii. 5, (d) When it reiterates and introduces an amplification of a previous negation. The devil himself could not pronounce a title

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(e) When it is prefixed to a negative sentence.

Ac, not the bow which so adorns the skies.

So glorious is, or boasts so many dyes. J4'aller. 2. Not: in this sense only as the correlative of whether or if, and now usually replaced by not. Exod. xvi. 4.

To be resolved

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No (nū), n. 1. A denial; the word of denial. Henceforth my wooing mind shall be exprest In russet yeas and honest kersey micer. Shak. 2. A negative vote, or a person who votes in the negative; as, the moes have it. No (nū),a. [From none, O.E. non, A. Sax. nán, by loss of n; comp, a from A. Sax, an It stands in the same relation to none as my and thy to mine and thine.] Not any; not one; none. ‘Thou shalt worship no other God.” Ex. xxxiv. 14. By heaven! it is a splendid sight to see, For one who hath no friend, rio brother there. Ayron. It is an adjective in such a phrase as to where by considering the other word to be a substantive; but the usual mode is to consider both words as an adverbial phrase. Smart. No end, an indefinitely great number or quantity. I have heard no end of stories about that filly.

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Dryden. 2. The state of being of noble birth or rank; that distinction of rank in civil society, or that eminence or dignity which a man derives from antiquity of family, descent from noble ancestors, or from title conferred by the sovereign, and which raises him above the condition of the mass of the people. When I took up Boccace unawares, I fell on the same argument of preferring virtue to rebizuoy of blood and titles, in the story of Sigismunda. Joryden. 3. The persons collectively who are of noble rank; those who enjoy rank above commoners; the peerage; as, the English mobility; French, {...". mobility. In Great Britain, nobility is extended to five ranks, those of duke, marquis, earl, viscount, and baron. These titles can only be conferred by the sovereign, and that by patent, in virtue of which they become hereditary. Life peerages also are occasionally conferred. Those of the nobility who are peers of England, of Great Britain, or of the United Kingdom, have a hereditary seat in the House of Lords, while the Scottish peers select sixteen of their number to represent their order, and the Irish peers elect twenty-eight representatives for the same purpose. Members of the nobility are free from arrest or imprisonment in civil matters. For felony, treason, or misprision of treason, they can only be tried by their peers, when the noble members of the peerage are summoned, and the accused is acquitted or condemned by the voice of the majority, given not on oath, but “on honour.” A peer, however, when examined as a witness in civil or criminal cases, or in arliament, must be sworn. oble (nū’bl), a. [Fr. noble, from L. nobilis, well-known, famous, high-born, noble. Nobilis is for gnobilis, from root of gnosco, mosco, movi, to know, seen also in E. know..] 1. High in excellence or worth : (a) applied to persons or the mind; great or lofty in character, or in the nature of one's achievements; magnanimous; above everything mean, degrading, or dishonourable; as, a noble mind. “Noblest of men.” Shak. Statues, with winding ivy crown'd, belon To nočier poets for a nobler song. dent. (b) Applied to things: (1) proceeding from or characteristic or indicative of greatness of mind; as, noble courage; noble sentiments; noble thoughts. “And what transcends them all, a noble action." Rogers. (2) Of the best kind; choice. Yet I had planted thee a noble vine. Jer. ii. 21.

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