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NUMBER

280

NUMISMATOGRAPHY

division of a book published in parts; a part of a periodical; as, the current number of Blackwood.—5. pl. A succession of metrical syllables; poetical measure; poetry; verse. I lisped in numbers, for the numbers came. Pope.

6. In gram. that distinctive form which a word assumes according as it is spoken of or expresses one individual or several individuals. The form which denotes one or an individual is the singular number; the form that is set apart for two individuals (as in Greek and Sanskrit) is the dual number; while that which refers indifferently to two or more individuals or units constitutes the plural number. Hence we say a noun, an adjective, a pronoun, or a verb is in the singular or the plural number.— 7. In phren, one of the perceptive faculties, whose alleged organ is situated a little to the side of the outer angle of the eye, and whose function is to give a talent for calculation in general.—Cardinal, cubic, even, golden, imperfect, irrational, odd, ordinal, perfect, prime, rational, &c., numbers. See under the adjectives.—Number one, self. No man should have more than two attachments,

the first, to number one, and the second to the ladies. Dickerts.

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He was numbered with the transgressors. Is, liii. 12. 3. To equal in number. "Weep, o to death and captivity led, Oh, weep! but thy tears cannot number the dead. Campbell. 4. To put a number or numbers on; to give the number of; to assign the place of in a numbered series; as, to number a row of houses, or a collection of books.-5. To possess to the number of. It was believed that the Emperor Nicholas numbered almost a million of men under arms. At no lake. 6. To amount to; to reach the number of; as, the force under the command of Caesar numbered 45,000 men.—SYN. To count, enumerate, calculate, tell. numberer (num'bér-ér), n. One that num

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Numbering-machine (num’bér-ing-mashěn'), n. A machine for impressing consecutive numbers on account-books, coupons, railway tickets, bank-notes, &c. One of the principal forms of the apparatus consists of disks or wheels decimally numbered on their peripheries, the whole mounted on one axle upon which they turn freely, acting upon each other in serial order. The first wheel of the series containing the units is moved one figure between each impact, and when the units are exhausted the tens come into action, and act in coincidence with the units; so on of the hundreds, thousands, &c. E. H. Knight. Numberless (numbér-les), a. That cannot be counted; innumerable. I forgive all; There cannot be those numberlers offences 'Gainst me that I cannot take peace with. Shak. Numberoust (num'bér-us), a. Numerous. Worcester. Numbers (numbérz), n. The title of the fourth book of the Pentateuch: so called because it begins with an account of the numbering of the Israelites in the beginning of the second year after they left Egypt. Numb-fish (num'fish), n. The torpedo, a fish of the ray family, and popularly so called from the numbing effects of the electric shocks it can give. See TORPEDO. Numbles (numblz), n. pl. [Fr. nombles, numbles, from L. lumbulus, a dim. of lumbus, a loin. Comp. humbles, umbles.] The entrails of a deer. Numbler, liver, kidneys, &c. . . . The word was variously written nomises, numbler, and very commonly umbles or humbler. Old cookery books gave receipts for 'umble pie," whence came the saying that a man is made ‘to cat humble pie'—to content himself with inferior meat while another may dine from the haunch. The outworther, with the skin, head, chine, and shoulders, used to be the keeper's perquisites. Morloy.

Numbness (num'nes), m. The state of being numb; that state of a living body in which it has not the power of feeling or motion, as when paralytic or chilled by cold; torpidity; torpor. Cold numbness straight bereaves Her corse of sense. Sir J. Denham.

Numenius (nü-mê'ni-us), n. (Gr. noumémios, a kind of curlew, from neos, new, and mén, the moon, perhaps from its crescentshaped beak.] The genus to which the curlews are referred. They belong to the o family; they have an arcuated beak, slender and round throughout; the tip of the upper mandible extends beyond the end of the lower one, and projects a little downwards in front of it. The toes are almated at the base. See CURLEW. umerable (nū’mér-a-bl), a... [L. numerabilis...] Capable of being numbered or counted. ‘So numerous in islands that they are scarce numerable.” Sir T. Herbert. Numeral (nú'mér-al), a. [L. numeralis, from numerus, a number.) 1. Pertaining to number; consisting of number. “The dependence of a long train of numeral progressions.” Locke.—2. Expressing number; representing number; as, numeral letters or characters, such as V or 5 for five. Numeralo n. 1. A figure or character to express a number; as, the Arabic numerals, 1, 2, 3, &c., or the Roman numerals, I, W, X, L, C, &c.—2. In gram. a word expressing a number, as one, two, three, &c. Numerally (nū'mér-al-li), adv. In a numi. manner; according to number; in numer. Numerary (nū'mér-a-ri), a. certain number. A supernumerary canon, when he obtains a prebend, becomes a niemierary canon. o

Numerate (nū’mér-āt), v. t. and i. pret & pp. numerated; ppr. mumerating. [L. notmero, numeratum, to number. See NUMBER.] To count; to reckon; to read according to the rules of numeration. Numeration (nū-mér-ā'shon), n. [L. mumeratio. See NUMERATE.] 1. The act or art of numbering. Numeration is but still the adding of one unit more, and giving to the whole a new name % §: -crore. 2. In arith. notation; the art of expressing in characters any number proposed in words, or of expressing in words any number proposed in characters; the act or art of writing or reading numbers. See NoTATION. Numerator (nū’mér-āt-ér), n. [L.] 1. One that numbers.-2. In arith. the number in vulgar fractions which shows how many parts of a unit are taken. Thus when a unit is divided into 9 parts, and we take 5, we express it thus, #, that is, five-ninths— 5 being the numerator and 9 the denominator. Numeric (nü-mer'ik), a. Same as Numerical. “The same numeric crew.’ Hudibras. Numerical (nü-mer'ik-al), a. [Fr. numérique, from L. numerus, number.) 1. Belonging to number; denoting number; consisting in numbers not letters; as, numerical characters; a numerical equation; a numerical value. —2. The same in number; hence, identically the same; identical. [Rare.] would to God that all my fellow brethren which with me bemoan the loss of their books, with me might rejoice for the recovery thereof, though not the same numerical volumes. Æuller. In alg. numerical, as opposed to literal, apF. to an expression in which numbers ave the place of letters; thus a numerical equation is one in which all the quantities except the unknown are expressed in numbers. As opposed to algebraical it . to the magnitude of a quantity considered independently of its sign. Thus, the mumerical value of –10 is said to be greater * that of -5, though it is algebraically ess. Numerically (nü-merik-al-li), adv. 1. In a numerical manner; in numbers; with re#. to numerical quantity; as, parts of a thing numerically expressed; an algebraic expression numerically greater than another.—2. Individually; as, a thing is numerically the same, or numerically different. Numeristt (nū’mér-ist), n. One that deals in numbers. We cannot assign a . fatality unto each which is concordant unto the doctrine of the numer1st. stro T. Broovie.

Belonging to a

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2. Consisting of poetic numbers; rhythmical; melodious; musical. ‘Numerous verse more tuneable than needed lute or harp to add more sweetness." Milton. Numerously (nū’mér-us-li), adv. 1. In or with great numbers; as, a meeting numerously attended. — 2. t Harmoniously; musically. See NUMEROUS. Numerousness (nū’mér-us-nes), n. 1. The quality of being numerous or many; the quality of consisting of a great number of individuals; as, the numerousness of an army or of an assembly. L. Addison. 2.f The quality of consisting of poetic numbers; melodiousness; musicalness. That which will distinguish his style is the numerourness of his verse. Dryders. Numida (nū'mi-da), n. [From Numidia. See NUMIDIAN.] A genus of gallinaceous birds, including the guinea-fowls. The N. meleagris is the common guinea-hen, originally from Africa. See GUINEA-FOWL. Numidian (nü-mid'i-an), a. Of or pertaining to Numidia, the central tract of country on the north coast of Africa which forms the largest part of the territory now called Algeria. — Numidian crane, a grallatorial bird of the genus Anthropoides,the A. Virgo. It is a native of many parts of Asia and Africa, and is remarkable for the grace and symmetry of its form, and the elegance of its deportment. It measures 3 feet 3 inches in length, its beak is 2} inches long, and the general colour of the plumage is bluey. It is also termed the Demoiselle. umidian (nü-mid'i-an), n. A native or inhabitant of Numidia. Numismatic (nü-mis-mat'ik), a. [L. numisma, money, coin, from Gr. nomisma, coin, lit. what is sanctioned by law, from nomizö, to sanction, to establish by law, from nomas, law or custom.] to: to coins or medals. Numismatical (nü-mis-mat'ik-al), a. Same as Numismatic. Numismatics (nū-mis-mat’iks), n. [See NUMISMATIC.] The science of coins and medals. The word coin is in modern times applied to those pieces of metal struck for the purpose of circulation as money; while the word medal signifies pieces of metal similar to coins i,j}: for circulation as money, but struck and distributed in commemoration of some person or event. Ancient coins,

- however, are C. R; often termed medals. The

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parts of a coin or medal are, the obverse or Jace,containing enerally the ead, bust, or figure of the sovereign or person in whose honour the medal was struck, or some emblematic figure relating to him; and the reverse, containing various figures or words. The words around the border form the legend, those in the middle or field the inscription. The lower part of the coin, separated by a line from the figures or the inscription, is the basis or ezergue, and contains the date, the place where the coin was struck, &c. Numismatist(nü-mis'mat-ist), n. Oneversed in numismatics; a numismatologist. n tography (nü-mis'ma-tog"ra-fi), m. . [Gr. nomisma, a coin, and graphâ, to write, to describe. J The science which NUMISMLATOLOGIST NUT-PECKER

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NURSE-POND

treats of coins and medals in their relation to history; numismatics. Numismatologist (nū-mis'ma-tol"o-jist), n. One versed in n tology. Numismatol (nū-mis'ma-tol"o-ji), n. Same as Numismatography. Nummary (num'a-ri), a. [L. nummus, a coin...] Relating to money. Arbuthnot. Nummular (num'u-lér),a. [L. nummularius, from nummus, a coin.) 1. Pertaining to coin or money.—2. Having the character or form of a coin. Sir T. Watson. Numm (num'il-la-ri), a. [See above.] Pertaining to coin or ". resembling a coin. In med, a term applied to the sputa or expectorations in phthisis, when they flatten at the bottom of the vessel like a No. of money. ummuline (num'ti-lin), a. Resembling a nummulite in structural features. H. A. Nicho Nummulite (o). n. [L. nummus, money, and Gr. lithos, a stone..] A name common to the members of an extensive class of fossil polythalamous foraminifera, having externally somewhat the appearance of a piece of money (hence their name) without any apparent opening, and internally a spiral cavity, divided by partitions into numerous chambers, communicating with each other by means of small openings. They vary in size from less than oth inch to 14 inch in diameter. Nummulites occupy an important place in the history of fossil shells, on account of theo: extent to which they are accumulated in the later members of the secondary, and in many of the tertiary strata. They are often piled on each other nearly in as close contact as the grains in a heap of corn. They occur so abundantly in some parts of the miocene formation that the name of nummulitic limestone is given to the strata so characterized. The pyramids of t are eonstructed of stone composed of nummulites. Nummulitic (num-ii-lit'ik), a. Pertaining to nummulites; containing nummulites; composed of nummulites. Numpst ...}} n. [Contr. from num for nu ..] A dolt; a blockhea Take heart, numps there is not a word of the stocks, Bp. Parker. Numskull (num'skul), n. [Num or Numb and skull. See NUMB.] A dunce; a dolt; a stupid fellow. “They have talked like mum." Arbuthnot. Numskulled (num'skuld), a. Dull in intellect; stupid; doltish. Swift. Nun (nun), n. [A. Sax. nunne, a nun; like Dan. nunne, Sw. nunna, G. nonne, Fr. nonne, from Eccles. L. (fifth century) nonna, a nun, nonnus, a monk, L. Gr. nonna, nonmos, supposed to be from Coptic or Egypt, name nanu, good, beautifu Monasteries an convents first arose in Egypt. 1 1. A woman devoted to a religious life, and who lives in a cloister or nunnery, secluded from the world, under a vow of perpetual chastity.— 2. A name sometimes given to the bird otherwise called the smew.—3. The blue titmouse.—4. A kind of pigeon of a white colour having its head almost covered with a veil of feathers. Nun-buoy (nun'boi or nun'bwoi), n. A buoy large in the middle and tapering toward each end. See BUOY. Nunc dimittis (nungk di-mitotis), n., [L.] The name given to the canticle of Simeon (Luke ii. *... from the first two words in the Latin version. Nuncheon (nun'shun), n. [Perhaps a form of luncheon (which see), but it has been plausibly derived from noon and shun. “Richardson notes that it is spelled noon-shun in Browne's Pastorals, which must suggest as plausible, if nothing more, that the “nuntion' was originally the labourer's slight meal, to which he withdrew for the shunning of the heat of noon: above all when in Lancashire we find noon-scape, and in Norfolk moon-miss, for the time when labourers rest after dinner." Trench.) 1. A meal eaten about noon, or a portion of food taken between meals. Laying by their swords and truncheons, They took their breakfasts or their nuncheons. udibrar. 2. A supply or piece of food such as might serve for a luncheon. Halliwell. Nunciate # (nun'shi-āt), n. [See NUNCI0.] One who announces: a messenger; a nuncio. Nunciature (nun'shi-āt-ūr), n. The office of a nuncio. Clarendon. Nuncio (nun'shi-Ö), n. [Sp. nuncio, It. nun

zio, from L. nuncius, a messenger, O.L. mountius, contr. for movemtius, from novus, new, lit. one who brings news.] 1. An ambassador of the first rank (not a cardinal) representing the pope at the court of a sovereign entitled to that distinction. A papal ambassador of the first rank, who is at the same time a cardinal, is styled a legate. (See LEGATE.). Since the time of the Council of Trent the nuncios have acted as judges of appeal from the decisions of the respective o: in those countries which are subject to the decretals and discipline of the Council of Trent. In other Catholic kingdoms and states holding themselves independent of the court of Rome in matters of discipline, the nuncio has merely a diplomatic character like the minister of any other foreign power.—2. A messenger; one who brings intelligence. Shak. Nunclet (nung'kl), n. A contraction for Mine Uncle. This was the licensed appellation given by a fool to his master or superior. “How now, nuncle?” Shak. Note: (nunskü-pât), v. t. [L. nuncupo, to call by name, to nominate, to vow in public—momen, name, and capio, to take.] 1. To vow publicly and solemnly. The Gentiles nuncupated vows to them (idols).

Pr. Westfield. 2. To dedicate; to inscribe. You should, on my advice, have nuncupated this handsome monument of your skill and dexterity to some great one. Zoveyn. 3. To declare orally (a will or testament). Barrow. Nuncupation f (nun-kü-pâ'shon), n. The act of nuncupating or of naming or dedicating. Chaucer. Nuncupative (nun-kü'pāt-iv), a. . [From L. nuncupo, to declare.] 1. to Pertaining to naming, nominating, vowing, or dedicating. Fotherby.—2. In law, oral; not written. . A nuncupative will, one made by the verbal declaration of the testator, and depending merely on oral testimony for proof, though afterwards reduced to writing. Nuncupative wills are now abolished, but with a proviso, that any soldier in actual military service, or mariner or seaman at sea, may dispose of his personal estate by an oral testament, before a sufficient number of witnesses. In Scots law, a muncupative legacy is good to the extent of £100 Scots, or £8, 6s. 8d. ster; If it exceed that sum it will be effectual to that extent, if the legatee choose so to restrict it, but ineffectual as to the rest. A nuncupative or verbal nomination of an executor is ineffectual. Nuncupatory (nun-kü'pa-to-ri), a. Nuncu

Nii; oral. Swift.

win. Nundinary (nun'din-al, nun'din-a-ri), a. [L. mundinalis, from mundinae, a fair or market; originally one held every ninth day, from movem, nine, and dies, a day, every nine days.] Pertaining to a fair or to a market day.—Numdunal letter, amon the ancient Romans, one of the eight firs letters of the alphabet, which were repeated successively from the first to the last day of the year. One of these always expressed o market-days, which returned every nine

ayS.

Honal (nun’din-al), n. A nundinal etter.

Nundinate? (nun'din-āt), v.i. To buy and sell at fairs. Cockeram.

Nundination f (nun-di-nā’shon), n. Traffic

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Nunnation (nun-nā’shon), n. In Arabic gram., from the name of N, the pronunciation of n at the end of words.

Nunnery (nun'êr-i), n. [From nun.) A house in which nuns reside; a cloister in which females, under a vow of chastity and devoted to religion, reside during life. unnishness (nun'ish-nes), n. The habits or manners of nuns. Worcester.

Nup,f n. , Same as Nupson.

Rußhar (nū'sár), n., LAr. nufar, a waterlily.] A genus of plants of the nat. order Nymphaeaceae; the yellow water-lily. The species are natives of northern climates. Two of them are British, N. lutea or yellow water-lily, and N. pumila, least yellow water-lily. The first has golden yellow flowers having a strong smell resembli some kinds of wine. It grows in rivers an pools, and is one of the most beautiful of our native Alano N. pumila grows in lakes in Scotland. N. adrena is the common North American species.

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3. The state of being nursed; as, to put a child to nurse. “Put out her £1000 at nurse.’ Lord Lytton. Can wedlock know so great a curse As putting husbands out to ourse. Cleaveland. 4. In hort. a shrub or tree which protects a oung plant. See DRY-NURSE, WET-NURSE. urse (nérs), v. t. pret. & pp. nursed; ppr. nursing. 1. To feed and tend generally in infancy; to suckle; to nourish at the breast. O, that woman that cannot make her fault her husband's occasion, let her never nurse her child herself, for she will breed it like a fool. shak.

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The Niseans in their dark abode Nursed secretly with milk the thriving god. adtront. 3. To tend in sickness or infirmity; to take care of; as, to nurse an invalid or an aged rson. “Certainly not,” said John, “she shall never help to wurse me." Dickens. 4. To promote growth or vigour in; as, to nurse a feeble animal or plant. “To nurse the saplings tall.' . Milton. “He found his father nursing a bright fire.” T. Hughes. 5. Fig. to foment; to encourage; to foster. “Have nursed this woe." Shak. By what hands has vice been turred into so uncontrolled a dominion? Ilocke. 6. To manage with care and economy, with a view to increase; as, to nurse our national resources.—7. To caress; to fondle; to dandle. (She) hung upon her father, and nursed his cheek against hers as if he were some poor dull child in pain. I)ickens. The doctor turned himself to the hearth-rug, and putting one leg over the other, he began to store it. Trollere. Nurse-child (nérs'child), n. A child that is nursed; a nursling. Sir J. Davies. Nurse-maid (nérs' mid), n. A maid-servant employed in nursing children. Nurse-name (nérs'nām), n. A nickname. Camden. Nurse-pond (nérs' pond), n. A pond for young fish. “A nurse-pond or feeding-pond." Iz. Walton.

INURSER

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nurser (nérs’ér), n. One who nurses; a nurse; one who promotes or encourages. Shak. Nursery (nérsér-i), n. 1.4 The act of nursing; tender care and attendance. I loved her most, and thought to set my rest On her kind nursery. shao. 2. That which is the object of a nurse's care. She went forth among her fruits and flowers,

To visit how they prosperod, bud and bloom Her nursery. ...silton. Ajolly dame, no doubt; as appears by the well battling of the plump boy her nursery. Fuller. 3. A place or apartment in a house set apart for children. “One they knew—raw from the nursery." Tennyson. The eldest of them at three years old, I the swathing-clothes the other, from their nursery Were stol'n. 4. A place where trees are raised from seed or otherwise in order to be transplanted; a place where vegetables, flowering plants, and trees are raised from seed or otherwise propagated (as by budding or grafting) in order to be sold. Your oursery of stocks ought to be in a more barren ground than the ground is whereunto you remove them. Bacon. 5. The place where anything is fostered and the growth promoted. “To see fair Padua, nursery of arts." Shak. – 6. That which forms and educates. This keeping of cows is of itself a very idle life, and a fit oursery for a thief. openser. —Nursery gardener, a nursery-man. Nursery-governess (nérs'êr-i-gu-vern-es), m. A governess for young children. Nursery-man (nérsér-i-man), n. One who owns a nursery of plants; one employed in the cultivation of a nursery. Nursing-bottle (nérsing-bot-I), n. A bottle fitted with a tube and teat to enable an infant to draw milk from it by the natural action of sucking. n (nérsoling), n. (Nurse, and dim. term. -ling..] One who or that which is nursed; an infant; a child; a fondling. ‘I was his nursling once." Milton. Nurstlet (nérst), v.t. Same as Noursle. Nurture (nér'tūr), n. [Fr. nourriture, from mourrir, to nourish. See Nourish..] 1. The act of nursing or nourishing.—2. Education; training; discipline; good-breeding. Yet am I inland bred And know some nurture. Shao. 3. That which nourishes; food; diet. Milton. Nurture (nértúr), v.it pret. & pp. nurtured; ppr. nurturing. 1. To feed; to nourish. They suppose mother earth to be a great animal, and to have nurtured up her young offspring with a conscious tenderness. Bentley. 2. To educate; to bring or train up. He was nurtured where he had been born in his first rudiments till the years often. JP'otton. Nussierite (nus'i-er-it), n. A native arseniophosphate of lead, from Nussières, department of the Rhone, France. Nustlet (nus'1), wit. Same as Nurstle, Noursle. Nut o m. [A. Sax. hnut, hmyt, Icel. hnot, O.H.G. hnuz, Dan mod, G. muss, Gael. cmudh..] 1. The fruit of certain trees and shrubs which have the seed inclosed in a bony, woody, or leathery io not opening whenri Among the best known and most valuable nuts are the hazel-nut, the Brazil-nut (the fruit of the Bertholtetia earcelsa), the walnut, chestnut, and cocoa-nut, all of which are edible. Other nuts are used in medicine, andfordurposes connected with the arts. Specifically-2. In bot a bony ricarp containing a single seed, to which t is not closely attached. Thestrawberryhasafleshy succulent torus,covered

with small outs. . . . . .This form of the pericarpmust not be confounded with the fruit usually called a nut. hension.

3. In mach, a small cylinder or other body, with teethorprojections corresponding with the teeth orgrooves of a wheel-4. The pro

ection near the eye of an anchor.—5. A small

lock of metal or wood, with an internal or femalescrew, used for agreat variety of purposes, but most commonly put upon the end of ascrew-bolt to keep it firmly in its place. In this way beams of wood or metal are joined together and held by compression, the bolt between the head and the nut being atie. SeeSQREw.–6. Infirearms, the tumbler of a gun-lock. —Azle-nut, a block or nut

screwed on to the ends of the spindles or arms of carriage axles to hold the wheels on

the spindles.—A muttocrack, a difficult problem to solve; a puzzle to be explained. No wonder that to others the out of such a character was hard to craco. Lord Lytton. Nut (nut), v.i. To gather nuts. A. W. went to angle with will. Staine of Merton College to wheatley-bridge, and nutted in Shotover by the way. -1. Wood. Nutant (nū’tant), a... [L. mutans, mutantis, ppr. of nuto, to nod.I. In bot drooping or nodding: applied to stems, &c., when bent towards the end near the flower, as in the narcissus, Scilla mutans, &c. Nutation (notă'shon), n. (L. mutatio, a nodding, from nuto, freq. from nuo, to nod.) 1. A nodding. So from the midmost the mutation spreads, Round and more round, o'er all the sea of heads.

Pope. 2. In astron, a small subordinate gyratory movement of the earth's axis, in virtue of which, if it subsisted alone, the pole would describe among the stars, in a period of about nineteen years, a minute ellipsis, having its longer axis directed towards the pole of the ecliptic, and the shorter, of course, at right angles to it. The consequence of this real motion of the pole is an apparent approach and recess of all the stars in the heavens to the pole in the same period; and the same cause will give rise to a small alternate advance and recess of the equinoctial points, by which, in the same period, both the longitudes and right ascensions of the stars will be also alternately increased or diminished. This nutation, however, is combined with another motion, viz. the precession of the equinoxes, and in virtue of the two motions the path which the o describesisneitheranellipsis nor a circle, but a gently undulated ring: and these undulations constitute each of them a nutation of the earth's axis. Both these motions and their combined effect arise from the sameFol cause, viz. the action of the sun and moon upon the earth. See PRECESSION.—3. In pathol. a constant nodding or oscillation of the head, by which it moves involuntarily in one or more directions. Dunglison. Nut-bone (nutobón), n. In farriery, a sesamoid bone at the posterior side of the pastern-joint. Goodrich. Nut- er (nutbrāk-er), n. A name of the nut-cracker and of the nut-hatch. Nut-brown o Brown as a nut long kept and dried. “The spicy, nut-brown ale." Milton. Nut-cracker (nutskrak-er), n. 1. An instrument for cracking hard-shelled nuts—2. The name of an insessorial bird rarely seen in Britain. It is fool. referred to the crow family, and so placed as to approximate either to the woodpeckers or starlings. Nucifraga caryocataetes, or European nutcracker, is about the size of the jackdaw, but with a longer tail. It combines to a considerable extent the habits of the woodkers and those of the omnivorous birds. t has received the name of nut-cracker from its feeding upon nuts. The N. hemispila is found in the Himalaya Mountains; and the N. columbiana, noted for the diversified beauty of its plumage, frequents rivers and sea-shores in America. Called sometimes Nut-breaker. Nut-fastening (nutsfas-n-ing), n. See NUTLock. Nut-gall (nut'gal), n. An excrescence of the oak. See GALL. Nut-hatch (nut'hach), n. [The hatch is probably a softened form of hack. The

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habits, frequenting woods and feeding on insects chiefly. It also eats the kernel of the hazel-nut, o the shell with great dexterity. The female lays her eggs in holes of trees, and hisses like a snake when disturbed. Called also Nut-breaker, Nutjobber, and Nut-pecker.

Ratnet. (nū’t o: m. IGr-moutheted, I admonish or put in mind.]. A fossil lizard from the Purbeck beds of the upper oolite, so called from its affinities to the monitors of India.

Nut-hook (nutshök), n. 1. A pole with a hook at the end to pull down boughs for gathering the nuts.

She's the king's nut-hook, that when any filbert is

ripe, pulls down the bravestboughs to his }:

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Nut-lock (nut'lok), n. A device for fastening a bolt nut in place and preventing its becoming loose by the jarring or tremulous motion of the machinery. Called also Nutfastening, Jam-nut. Nutm (nutmeg), m. [0. E. motemugge, the first part being nut, the second from 0. Fr. muguette, from L. muscus, musk, in O. Fr. the nutmeg being called noir mu*::: the scented nut...] The kernel of he fruit of Myristica moschata or fragrams. (See MYRISTICA.) This fruit is a nearly

Nutmeg (Myristica marchata).

spherical drupe of the size and somewhat of the shape of a small pear. The fleshy is of a yellowish colour without, almost white within, and 4 or 5 lines in thickness, and opens into two nearly equal longitudinal valves, presenting to view the nut surrounded by its arillus. o MACE) The nut drops out, and the arillus withers. Thenutisoval, the shell very hard and darkbrown. This immediately envelops the kernel, which is the nutmeg as commonly sold in the shops. The tree producing this fruit growsprincipally in the islands of Banda, in the East Indies, and has been introduced into Sumatra, India, Brazil, and the West Indies. It reaches the height of 20 or 30 feet, producing numerous branches. The colour of the bark of the trunk is a reddish-brown; that of the young branches a bright green. The nutmeg is an aromatic, very grateful to the taste and smell, and much used in cookery. — Nutmeg butter, a solid oil extracted from the nutmeg by expression.— Nutmeg grater, a device in various forms for grating nutmegs. * Rough as nutmeg grater.” Aaron Hill.—Nutmeg oil, a transparent oil, having a specific gravity 948, an odour of nutmeg, and a burning, aromatic taste, got from the seeds of M. fragrams by distillation with water. Nutmegged (nutmegd), a. Seasoned with nutmeg. Nutmeggy (nut” meg-i), a. Having the appearance or character of a nutmeg. Again and again I met with the o liver, so marked. sur-7---attan. Nutmeg-tree (nutmeg-tré), m. Myristica fragrams or moschata. NUTMEG. Nut-oil (nut’oil), n. An oil professedly obtained from walnuts, which is thought to be superior to the best linseed-oil for delicate pigments. When deprived of its ourse it is pale, transparent, and limpid

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Besides the teeth, the tongue of this animal is a second argument to overthrow this airy outrication.

Jerr 7T. arozzote. Nutrient (nū’tri-ent), a. ... [L. nutrio, to nourish.) Nourishing; nutritive; nutritious. Nutrient (nū’ tri-ent), n. Any substance which nourishes; a nutritious substance. Nutriment (nū’ tri-ment), n. [L. nutrionentum, from nutrio, to nourish..] 1. That which nourishes; that which promotes the growth or repairs the natural waste of animal bodies, or that which promotes the growth of vegetables; food; aliment. The stomach returns what it has received instrength and nutriment diffused into all the parts of o: o y. owtn. 2. Fig. that which promotes development or improvement; pabulum. “The nutriment that feeds the mind.” Swift. Nutrimental (nū-tri-men'tal), a. Having the qualities of food; nutritious; nourishing; alimental By virtue of this oil vegetables are nutrimental. -- romatozoof. Nutritial+ (nū-tri'shal), a. Connected with or pertaining to nutrition. “Had nutritial rights." Chapman. Nutrition (nú-tri'shon), n. [L. nutritio, from nutrio, to nourish..] 1. The act or process by which organisms, whether vegetable or animal, are able to absorb into their system their proper food, thus roof their growth or repairing the waste of their tissues; the function by which the nutritive matter already elaborated by the various organic actions loses its own nature, and assumes that of the different living tissues —a process by which the various parts of an organism either increase in size from additions made to already formed parts, or by which the various parts are maintained in the same general conditions of form, size, and composition, which they have already by development and growth attained. It involves and comprehends all those acts and processes which are devoted to the repair of bodily waste, and to the maintenance of the wth and vigour of all living tissues. 2. That which nourishes; nutriment. Fixed like a plant on his peculiar spot, To draw nutrition, propagate, of: Pope. Nutritious (nū-tri'shus), a. Containing or serving as nutriment; capable of promoting i. or repairing the waste of organic es; nourishing; as, nutritious substances; nutritious food. O may'st thou often see Thy furrows whiten’d by the woolly rain Autritions. #. Philips. The nutritiour juice itself resembles the white of an egg in all its qualities. Arbuthnot. Nutritiously (nū-tri'shus-li), adv. In a nutritious manner; nourishingly. Nutritiousness (nū-tri'shus-nes), n. The quality of being nutritious. Nutritive(nū’tri-tiv), a. 1. Having the quality of nourishing; nutritious. It cannot be very savoury, wholesome, or nutritive. er. Taylor. 2. Of, concerned in, or pertainsng to nutrition. “The nutritive functions.” jo. Nutritively (nū'tri-tiv-li), adv. In a nutritive manner; nutritiously; nourishingly. Nutritiveness (nū’tri-tiv-nes), n. Quality of being nutritive. Nutriture t (nū'tri-tūr), n. The quality of nourishing. Never make a meal of flesh alone; have some other meat with it of less nutriture. PIarvey. Nut-shell (nut'shel), n. The hard shell of a nut; the covering of the kernel or the pericarp: sometimes used proverbially for a thing of little value. A fox had me by the back, and a thousand pound to a nut-shell, I had never got off again. Sir R. L'Estrange. —To be or lie in a nutshell, to be in small compass; to admit of very brief or simple determination or statement.

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Nycthemeron (nik-them'ê-ron), n. (Gr. myr, myktos, night, and homera, day.] The whole natural day, or day and night, consisting of twenty-four hours. Nyctibius (nik-tib’i-us), n. [Gr. myktos, night, and bios, life.] A genus of birds indigenous to South America, belonging to the family Caprimulgidae, or, as they are now more commonly placed, to the Coraciadae. Nycticebidae, Nycticebinae (nik-ti-sé'bi-dé, nik-ti-sé' bi-né), m. pl. [Gr, nya, nyktos, night, kêbos, an ape, and eidos, likeness.] A sub-family of o: including the Loris. The tail is absent or rudimentary, the ears short and rounded, the eyes large and placed close together. They are nocturnal, slow in their motions, live mostly on trees, and feed on birds, fruit, and insects. They are natives of the eastern portion of the Old World, as Java, Ceylon, &c. Nycticebus (nik-ti-sé'bus), n. The kukang or slow-paced loris, the typical animal of Nycticebidae. See KUKANG. Nycticorax (nik-ti-kö'raks), n. (Gr. myktos, night, and koraz, a crow or raven.] The night-heron, a genus of birds of the heron tribe. See NIGHT-HERON. Nyctinomus of...) m. (Gr. onyz, myktos, night, and momos, a habitation.) A genus of bats with very large outer ears and extensive wings. , N. #. is of a reddish colour, and about 3inches in length. It inhabits the tombs and vaults of the large ruins in Egypt. Nyctipithecus (nik'ti-pi-thé"kus), n. . [Gr. myz, myktos, night, and pithekos, a monkey.] A genus of American monkeys of the family Cebidae, of which one species is the wellknown douroucouli. They appear to represent the lemur tribe in America. eir habits are nocturnal and their movements R; (nik-ti l y ura (nik-ti-sa’ra), m.pl. A group of nocturnal lizards belonging to the sub-order Pachyglossae. Nyctophilus (nik-tof'il-us), n. (Gr. myr, §". night, and philed, to love..] A genus of bats of the family Vespertilionidae, subfamily Rhinolophinae. Nyet (ni), v.i. [See NIGH.] To advance; to approach; to draw near. Spenser. Nye (ni), n. [Contr. from nide.) A brood of No. ylgau (nil'ga), n. [Hind. and Per. nil-gau —nil, blue, and gau, acow, ox.] The Portaz picta or tragocamelus, a species of antelope as large as or larger than a stag, inhabiting the forests of Northern India, Persia, &c. The horns are short and bent forward; there is a beard under the middle of the neck; the hair is grayish blue; there are strongly marked rings on all the feet, just above the hoofs. The female has no horns. The nylgau is much hunted as one of the noblest beasts of the chase. Spelled also Neelghau, Nilghau. Nymt (nim), v.t. See NIM. Nymph (nimf), n. (L. nympha, Gr. nymphé, a nymph.) 1. In myth. one of a numerous class of inferior divinities, imagined as beautiful maidens, not immortal, but always young, who were considered as tutelary spirits not only of certain localities, but also of certain races and families. They occur generally in connection with some other divinity of higher rank, and they were believed to be possessed of the gift of prophecy and of poetical o Those who presided over rivers, brooks, and springs were called Naiads; those over mountains, Oreads: those over woods and trees, Dryads and Hamadryads; those over the sea, Nereids. 2. In poetry, a young and attractive woman; a maiden; a damsel. Nymph, in thy orisons Be all my sins remembered. 3. Same as Nympha. Nympha (nim'fa), n., The pupa, chrysalis, or aurelia of an insect; the second state of an insect, passing to its perfect form. Nymphae (nim'fé), m. pl. In anat, the labia minora, two semicircular glandular membranes situated within the labia majora of the vulva. Nymphaea (nim-fé'a), n. [L. nympha, a water-nymph.] A genus of aquatic plants, nat. order Nymphaeaceae, of which it is the type. The N. alba, or white water-lily, grows in pools, lakes, and slow rivers in Britain, and in respect of beauty is considered the queen of British flowers. The stems are said to be better than oak-galls for dyei. o, and they are employed for tanning eather.

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O is the fifteenth letter and the fourth vowel in the English alphabet. The shape of this letter seems to have been taken from the circular configuration of the lips in uttering the sound. The sound that was originally represented by this letter was no doubt a pure vowel sound, such as that in mortal, which is also the sound it generally has in the continental tongues. This was not one of the original Aryan vowel sounds (these being a, i, and w sounded as in Latin or Italian), but arose from the modification of an original a or w. (See A.) This sound is produced by protruding the lips with a rounded opening, and o is therefore called the labial vowel, i. (3) being the palatal, and a (ii) the guttural. In English O has seven distinct sounds and shades of sound: (1) as in nôte, which, as commonly pronounced in the South of England, is really a diphthongal sound, being composed of a long 5 sound terminating in a slight oo #. in proof) sound. This is the sound eard in go, blow, rove, &c.; also in the digraphs oa (boat, groan, &c.); oe (woe, goes); ow o 2) The similar short sound without the final oo sound, commonly heard in unaccented syllables where oforms the whole syllable, or terminates it, as in tobacco. (3) The sound of o in not, as in cost, gone, top; also in the digraph out (hough). (4). The same sound lengthened o the influence of a following r, as in mortal; also in the digraph ow (brought, sought). (5) The sound of 0 in move; as in do, tomb, prove; also in the digraphs oo (woo, room), ou (through, wound). . (6) The same sound but shorter (the sound of u in bull); as in wolf, woman; also in the digraphs oo (book, wood), ou (could). (7) The sound of w in tub; as in comfort, won, come, done, love; also in the digraphs oe (does), oo (blood), ow country, enough). The 5 sound in genuine nglish words commonly represents A. Sax. d; thus A. Sax. g6, 4c, stan, nd = E. go, oak, stone, no: 00 in commonly represents A. Sax. 0; thus A. Sax. f6t, blód, to = foot, blood, too, &c.—O is the usual character for a cypher or nought; it was also sometimes used by the ancients for 11, and with a dash over it, O, for 11,000.-In old music, O was a mark of triple time (tempus perfectum), from the notion that the ternary, or number 3, is the most perfect of numbers, and properly expressed by a circle, the most go; figure. ,t n. pl. Oes (Öz). 1. Anything circular or resembling the letter of as, a round spot of any kind; a spangle, &c. “Fiery oes and eyes of light.” Shak. ‘Oes or spangs.’ Bacon.

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Or may we cram Within this wooden osthetheatre] the very casques That did affright the air at Agincourt? Johak.

2. The arithmetical cipher. “Now thou art an O without a figure.” Shak.

O', $op. An abbreviation of Ofor On. “Some god o' the island.” Shak. ‘Still you keep o' the windy side of the law.”

O, interj. 1. An exclamation used in earnest or solemn address, appeal, or invocation, and prefixed to the noun of address. In practice authors do not always preserve a distinction between this particle and oh, a particle of emotion prefixed to a sentence or clause expressing sentiment or passion. As regards punctuation, when Ois, or should be, the word, the mark of exclamation, if employed at all, is placed after the noun of address; as, “Hear, O Israel!" but when oh is the proper word, the mark is placed immediately after it; thus, oh!—Oh, dear! and Oh, dear me / exclamations expressive of surprise, uneasiness, or exhaustion, fear, pain, and the like. They are regarded as corruptions of Fr. O Diew / or It. O Dio 1 O God! and It. O Dio mios O my God!–2. Used as a noun.

Why should you fall into so deep an of Shak.

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In this third song great threat'nings are,
And tending all to nymphish war. Drayton.

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eminence among trees, and has not unjustly been .#. the “monarch of the woods.” In the traditions of Europe and a great part of Asia the oak appears as a most important element in religious and civil ceremonies. It was held sacred by the Greeks and Romans, and no less so by the ancient Gauls and Britons. The species of oak are very numerous, generally natives of the more temperate parts of the northern hemisphere. They have alternate simple leaves, which are entire in some, but in the greater number variously lobed and sinuated or cut; evergreen in some, but more generally deciduous. The common oak attains a height of from 50 to 100 or even 150 feet, with a diameter of trunk of from 4 to 8 feet. Noble specimens of oak-trees, and some of them historically, celebrated, exist in almost all #. of Britain; but are much more frequent

England than in Scotland. The oak subserves a greater number of useful purposes than almost any other kind of forest tree, the wood being hard, tough, tolerably exible, strong without being too heavy, not readily penetrated by water, and bearing alternations of wet and dry better than most otherwoods. For more than a thousand years British ships were mainly built of common oak (Q. robur). The American white oak (Q. alba) and the live-oak (Q. virens) were also much used for the same purpose. The bark of the oak-tree is very valuable, and is preferred to all other substances for the #. of tanning. Gallic acid exists abundantly in the oak. The leaves of Q. falcata are employed, on account of their astringency, externally in cases of gangrene; and the same o principle which pervades all the species has caused them to be employed as febrifuges, tonics, and stomachics. Cork is the bark of Q.suber, or cork oak. (See CORK.) Galls are the produce of Q. infectoria. (See GALL.) The name oakis sometimes popularly applied to timber of very different genera; thus African teak is often called African oak; while in Australia

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