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Lettish, Lettic (let'ish, let'ik), n. The language spoken by the people of Livonia, originally a Slavonian branch of the Aryan family of tongues. Lettre-de-cachet (let-r-de-ka-shā). See CACHET. Lettuce (let'is), n. [A. Sax. lactuce, G. lattich, D. latuw, Fr. laitwe, from L. lactuca, a lettuce, from lac, lactis, milk. ) The English popular name of several species of Lactuca, some of which are used as salads. See LACTUCA. Leucadendron (lū-ka-den'dron), n. [Gr. leukos, white, and dendrom, a tree—in allusion to the white leaves.) A genus containing between forty and fifty species of trees and shrubs, with handsome silky silvery entire, mostly sessile leaves, and heads of yellowish dioecious flowers, nat. order Proteacete, natives of the Cape of Good Hope. L. argenteum is the silver-tree, the silvery leaves of which are much used in Christmas decorations. Leucin, Leucine (lū'sin), n. [Gr. leukos, white.] (C6 His NO2.) A white pulverulent substance obtained by treating muscular fibre with sulphuric acid, and afterwards with alcohol. It crystallizes in shining scales. Leuciscus (lū-sis'kus), n. (Gr. lettkiskos, the white mullet. J A genus of fishes of the family Cyprinidae. It contains numerous species, of which the roach, dace, and bleak afford familiar examples. Leucite (lū'sit), n. [Gr. leukos, white.] A mineral, so called from its whiteness, found among volcanic products in Italy, especially at Vesuvius, disseminated through the lavas in crystals or in irregular masses. It is a silicate of alumina and potassium. Leucitic (lū-sit'ik), a. Of or pertaining to, containing, or resembling leucite. Leucitoid (lū'si-toid), a. In crystal, the trapezohedron : so called as being the form of the mineral leucite. Leucobryaceae (lū’kö-bri-à"sé-è), m. pl. (Gr. leukos, white, and bryon, an alga.] A family

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white.) A variety of trachyte. Leucous (lūkus), a. White: applied specifically to albinos. Leugh, Leuch (lyuch or lyöch), pret of lawch. Laughed. [Scotch...] How graceless Ham denot at his dad, W.; inade Canaan a niger. Levant (lev'ant), a. [Fr. lerant, rising, sunrise, from lever, L. levo, to make light, to raise. In the extract below, Milton, using lerant and ponent as correlative terms, directly borrows from the It levante, east, east wind, and pomente, west, west wind.] 1. t Eastern; coming from the direction in which the sun rises. Forth rush the levant and the ponent winds, Eurus and Zephyr. Aristor. 2. In geot the name ('sunrise’) given by Professor H. Rogers to the fourth of his fifteen divisions of the palaeozoic strata in the Appalachian chain, the names of which suggest metaphorically the different natural periods of the day; it corresponds to a certain extent with our lower Silurians.—Levant and couchant, in law, see COUCHANT. Levant (lé-vant'), n. [It, lerante, the east, the east wind. See the adjective..] 1. A name given somewhat loosely to the countries, or more especially the maritime parts of the countries, lying on the eastern portion of the Mediterranean and its contiguous waters, as Turkey, Syria, Asia Minor, Greece, Egypt, &c. – 2. An easterly wind blowing up the Mediterranean; a levanter. Levant (lé-vants), v. i. (Sp. levantar, to raise, to move, to remove; letantar la casa, means to break up house ; levantar el campo, to break up camp; to decamp—from L. lecare, to raise.] To run away; to decamp. Her unfortunate affliction precluded her from all hope of let anting with a lover. Troore.

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He looketh up and dountil he hath found

The clerke's hors, there as he stood yuound

Behind the mille under a wr: ese.o. Corazocer.

Levee (lev'é), n. . [Fr. le rée, a gathering or levying, a levy, the breaking up of a meeting, an embankment, from lever, to raise. L. levo. The French word does not appear ever to have had the meaning which levee commonly has in English, lever being the proper French word for this meaning. ) 1. A morning reception held by a prince or great personage ; a morning assembly. The term is chiefly applied in this country to the stated public occasions on which the sovereign receives visits from such persons as are entitled by rank or fortune to the honour. It is distinguished from a dra tring-room in this respect, that while at the former gentlemen alone appear (with the exception of the chief ladies of the court), both ladies and gentlemen are admitted to the latter. In the United States, the term is applied to any general or miscellaneous assemblage of guests, usually in the evening ; as, the president's levee. — 2. The act or time of rising. Johnson.— 3. [Borrowed from the use of the word by the French settlers.] In America, an embankment on the margin of a river, to confine it within its natural channel; as, the levees on the banks of the Mississippi.-Levee en masse. See LEVY. Levee (lev'é), v. t. 1. To attend the levee of:

to hunt or pursue at levees. [Rare.]

Warm in pursuit, he levees all the great.

2. To embank; as, to levee a river. Level (level), n. [A. Sax. lorfel, from L. libella, a line or other appliance for testing whether a surface is level, from libra, a balance, a plummet, a level. The A. Sax. lasel no doubt merged in the O. Fr. level. livel (now niveau), also from L. libella. ] 1. An instrument by which to find or draw a straight line parallel to the plane of the horizon, and by this means to determine the true level or the difference of ascent or descent between several places, for various purposes in architecture, agriculture, enineering, hydraulics, surveying, &c. There a great variety of instruments for this purpose, differently constructed and of different materials, according to the particular purposes to which they are applied, as the carpenter's level, mason's level, gunner's level, balance level, water level, mercurial level, spirit level, surveying level, &c. All such instruments, however, may be reduced to three classes:–(1) Those in which the vertical line is determined by a suspended plumb line or balance weight, and the horizontal indicated by a line perpendicular to it. Such are the carpenter's and mason's levels. (2) Those which determine a horizontal line by the surface of a fluid at rest, as water and mercurial levels, (3) Those which point out the direction of a horizontal line by a bubble of air floating in a fluid contained in a glass tube. Such are spirit-levels, which | are by far the most convenient and accurate. All levels depend on the same principle, namely, the action of terrestrial gravity.—2. A line or surface every point of which is equally distant from the centre of the earth: called a true level.-3. A line or surface which coincides with or is parallel to the plane of the horizon: called an apparent level. —4. A surface without inequalities.—5. Rate: standard ; usual elevation: customary height; as, the ordinary level of the world.—6. Equal elevation with some

thing else; a state of equality. Providence, for the most part, sets us upon a seret. --tor fort. 7. The line of direction in which a missive gon is aimed. “The level of mine aim.” ak.

Young.

I stood it the were/ Of a full-charged confederacy, and give thanks To you that choked it. Ska.s.

LEVEL

8. Rule; plan; scheme.

Be the fair level of thy actions laid. Prior.

9. Fixed or settled position; natural posi

tion; position to which anything is entitled. “When merit shall find its level.” F. W. Robertson.—10. In mining, an excavation or cutting in a lode; a horizontal gallery in a mine; levels are generally ten, twenty, thirty fathoms below the adit, in which case they are called the ten fathoms, twenty fathoms, &c., level. Level (level), a. 1. Horizontal; coinciding with the plane of the horizon, or parallel to it; as, to be perfectly level is to be exactly horizontal. —2. Not having one part higher than another; not ascending or descending; even; flat; having no inequalities of magnitude; as, a level plain or field; level ground; a level floor or pavement. —3. Even with anything else; of the same height; on the same line or plane. Now shaves with fever wing the deep, then soars Up to the fiery concave towering high. Milton. The setting sun now beams more mildly bright, The shadows lengthening with the deve." %. eartrze.

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The setting sun . . . . Against the eastern gate of Paradise Levoča his evening rays. ...torotozi. Hence–6. To aim ; to direct; as, severe remarks levelled at the vices and follies of the age.—7. To adapt; to suit; to proportion ; as, to level observations to the capacity of children.— To level up, to raise something that is low to the level of anything higher; specifically, to raise a lower person or class to the level of a higher.—To level down, to lower to the same level or status. Level (lev'el), v.i. 1. To accord; to agree; to suit. [Rare.] Such accommodation and besort

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[The term Levellers was particularly given to a party which arose in the army of the Long Parliament about the year 1647. They professed a determination to level all ranks and establish an equality in titles and estates throughout the kingdom. They were put down by Fairfax.] Levelling (lev'el-ing), n. 1. The reduction of uneven surfaces to a level or plane. — 2. The art or operation of ascertaining the different elevations of objects on the surface of the earth; the art or practice of finding how much any assigned point on the earth's surface included in a survey is higher or lower than another assigned point. It is a branch of surveying of great importance in making roads, determining the proper lines for railways, conducting water, draining low grounds, rendering rivers navi

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gable, forming canals, and the like. ** In |

tially of a graduated pole with a came sliding

upon it so as to mark the height at any

particular distance above the ground. In levelling two of them are used together, and being set up at any required distance the surveyor, by imeans of a telescope placed between them perfectly horizontally, is enabled to compare the relative heights of the two places. Called also Levelling-pole, Levelling-rod, Station-pole, or Station-staff. Levelly (lev'el-li), adv. evenly. | Levelness (level-nes), n. The condition of being level; evenness; equality. Leven (lev'n). See LEAVEN. Levent (lev’en), n. Lightning. See LEVIN. Leven (lev’en), n. A lawn; an open space between woods. [Scotch..] Lever (lé'vér), n. [Fr. levier, from lever, L. levo, to raise.} 1. In mech, a bar of metal, wood, or other substance turning on a sup

In a level manner;

port called the fulcrum or prop, and used to overcome a certain resistance (called the weight) encountered at one part of the bar by means of a force (called the power) applied at another part. It is one of the mechanical powers, and is of three kinds, viz.: (1) When the fulcrum is between the weight and the power, as in the handspike, crowbar, &c. In this case the parts of the lever on each side of the fulcrum are called the arms, and these arms may either be equal as in the balance, or unequal as in the steelyard. (2) When the weight is between

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LEVIN

arms of an obstetrical forceps. -4. In dentistry, an instrument used in extracting the stumps of teeth.-Compound lever, a machine consisting of several simple levers

combined together and acting on each other. Lever escapement, in a watch, an escapement in which the pallets are affixed to a bar, or lever vibrating on its centre and having at one end a notch or fork which catches a pin connected with the balancewheel and drives this pin backwards and forwards so as to give the balance-wheel its reciprocal motion.— Lever watch, a watch with a lever escapement. Universal lever, a contrivance by means of which the reciprocating motion of a lever is made to communicate a continuous rotatory motion to a wheel, and a continuous rectilinear motion to anything attached by a rope to the axle of the wheel. Levert (lé'vér), a compar. of lefe, lief, or leve. [See LIEF.] More agreeable. Levert (lévér), adv. Rather; more gladly; more willingly. Shalt thou never eat nor drink, said the steward, Till my lord be come to town? I make mine avow to God, said Little John, I had sever to crack thy crown. Olaf hallad. Leverage (lé’vér-āj), n. 1. The notion of a lever; the arrangement by which lever power is gained. “The fulcrum of the !ererage.' I. Taylor. — 2. Lever power; the mechanical advantage or power gained by using a lever. Lever-board (lé'vér-bórd), n. See Louvre. Leveret (lev'êr-et), n. [Fr. levrette, dim. of 0. Fr. levre (now lierre), a hare, from L. Repus, leporis, a hare.] A hare in the first year of its age. Leverock (lev'êr-ok), m. A lark. See LARR. Lever-valve (lé'vér-valv), n. A safety-valve kept down by the pressure of an adjustable weight. In locomotives a spring is substituted for the weight, and the pressure is regulated by a screw and indicated on a brass plate. Levesell,t m. See LEVECEL. Levett (lé-vets), n. [Fr. lever, to raise, to call up...] The morning call on the trumpet by which soldiers are summoned to rise; a reveille. Come, sir, a quaint levet To waken our brave general. As earne. & F. Leveth, t t t imper, second pers. pl. Leveth me, believe me. Chaucer. Leviable (lev'i-a-bl.), a. That may be levied; that may be assessed and collected; as, sums leviable by law. viathan (lé-vi'a-than), n. (Heb. lirydthan, a term which etymologically seems to mean a long jointed monster.] 1. An aquatic animal described in the book of Job, ch. xli., and mentioned in other passages of Scripture. In Isaiah it is called the crooked serpent. It is not known what animal is intended by the writers, whether the crocodile, the whale, or a species of serpent.— 2. A fabulous sea-monster of immense size. Levier (lev'i-er), n. One who levies. Levigable (lev'i-ga-bly, a. That can be rubbed or ground down to fine powder. Levigate (lev'i-gāt), r.t. pret. and pp. levigated; ppr. levigating. . [L. laevigo, from a vis, smooth.) 1. In phar. and chem. to rub or grind to a fine inpalpable powder; to make fine, soft, and smooth. -- 2. To plane; to polish. “When use hath levigated the organs.’ Barrow. Levigate (lev'i-gāt), a. 1. Made smooth, as if by polishing.—2. Made less harsh or burdensome; alleviated. “His labours bein levigate, and made more tolerable.' Sir T. Elyot. [Rare.] Levigation (lev-i-gå'shon), n. The act or operation of grinding or rubbing a solid substance to a fine impalpable powder. Levin (lev'in), n., (0. E. levene, levening, &c., from or allied to A. Sax. lig, liar, flame, ligen, flaming, E. leme, leam, flame. The connection between levin and A. Sax. lig, ligen, is similar to that between Icel. log and Dan, lor, law, Icel. skog, Dan skov, a wood, E. laugh, and its present pronunciation los; the connection between it and lemme LEWIN-BRAND

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Oululol. Levirate, Leviratical (lé-vi'rāt, lê-vi-rat'ik-al), a. [L. levir, a husband's brother.) In Jewish antiq. (a) a term applied to the law according to which a woman whose husband died without issue was to be married to the husband's brother. Deut. xxv. 5. (b) Made in accordance with the levirate law. The first-born son of a let/iratical marriage was reckoned and registered as the son of the deceased brother. Dean Assord. Leviration (lé-vi-rä'shon), m. The act or custom among the Jews of a man's marrying the widow of a brother who died without issue. The same custom or law prevails in some parts of India. Levitation (lev-i-ta'shon), m. [From L. leritas, lightness, from levis, light. 1. The act of making light; lightness; buoyancy. The lungs also of birds, as compared with the lungs of quadrupeds, contain in them a provision distinguishingly calculated for this same purpose of iezutation. Paley, 2 Among Spiritualists, the alleged phenomenon of bodies heavier than air being by spiritual means rendered buoyant in the atmosphere. Levite (lé'vit), n. [From Levi. one of the sons of Jacob.] 1. In Jewish history, one of the tribe or family of Levi; a descendant of Levi; more particularly, one of those persons who were employed in various duties connected with the tabernacle, or afterwards with the temple, as in bringing wood and other necessaries for the sacrifices, singing and playing in connection with the services, &c. They were subordinate to the priests, the descendants of Aaron, who was also of the family of Levi –2. A priest: so used in contempt or ridicule. A young Levite . . . might be had for his board, a small garret, and ten pounds a year. Macarasily.

Levitic, Levitical (lé-vit'ik, lé-vit'ik-al), a. 1. Belonging to or connected with the Levites. – 2. Priestly, “Certain theological, or rather levitical, questions." Milton. Levitical degrees, degrees of kindred within which persons are prohibited to marry. They are set forth in Lev. xviii. 6–18.

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rite.) A canonical book of the Old Testament, the third book of Moses, containing rincipally the laws and regulations reating to the priests and Levites and to offerings; the body of the ceremonial law. Levity (lev’i-ti), n. [L. levitas, from levis, light] 1. Lightness; the want of weight in a body compared with another that is heavier; as, the ascent of a balloon in the air is owing to its levity.—2. Lightness of temper or conduct; want of due consideration; want of seriousness; disposition to trifle; inconstancy; changeableness; unsteadiness; fickleness; capriciousness; volatility; as, the levity of youth. The sevity that is fatigued and disgusted with Ætarke.

everything of which it is in possession.

Levoglucose, Laevoglucose (lé'vö-glū-kös), n. In chem. a sugar isomeric with dextroglucose, but distinguished from it by turning the plane of polarization to the left, and always occurring along with it in honey, in many fruits, and in other sacchariferous vegetable organs. The mixture of these two sugars in equal numbers of molecules constitutes fruit-sugar or inverted sugar, which itself turns the plane of polarization to the left, the specific rotatory power of levoglucose being greater than that of dextroglucose. Levogyrate (lé'vö-ji-rät), a. [L. laevus, left, and gyrus, a circle.) Causing to turn towards the left hand; as, a laevogyrate crystal, that is, one that turns the rays to the right in the polarization of light. See DExTROGYRATE, and extract below. If the analyser (a slice of quartz) has to be turned towards the right, so as to cause the colours to succeed each other in their natural order—red, orange, Yo. blue, indigo, violet—the piece of quartz is called right-handed, or dextrogyrate. If, however, the analyser has to be turned from right to left to

42 obtain the natural order of colours, the quartz is called left-ha orded or serooy rate, the two kinds of polarization o: right-handed circular polarization and left-handed circular polarization. Afaydn. Levorotatory (lé-vö-rö'ta-to-ri),a. [L.larus, left, and rota, a wheel. J Same as Levogyrate. Levulose, Laevulose (léovil-lós), n. One of the constituents of fruit-sugar or inverted sugar. Under the influence of dilute acids, or long boiling with water, cane-sugar is converted into what is called inverted sugar, a mixture of dextrose and dartoose. It is called inverted, because the lefthanded rotation of the favore is greater than the right-handed rotation of the dextrose. Adayan. Levy (ley'i), n. [Fr terée, a raising or levy. ing, a levy of troops or taxes, &c., from fever, L. levo, to raise.] 1. The act of levying or collecting, especially for public service; as, a lery of troops was then made.-2. That which is levied, as a body of troops, or the amount accruing from a tax. And king Solomon raised a 'roy out of all Israel; and the levy was thirty thousand men. 1 Ki. v. 13. And this is the reason of the levy which king Solo. mon raised; for to build the house of the Lord, and his own house, 1 Ki. ix. 15. 3. In law, the act of collecting on execution. –Levy in mass [Fr levée en masse], the act of levying for military service all the ablebodied men of a country. Levy (lev'i), v.t, pret & pp. leried; ppr. o directly from the Fr. lever.] 1. To raise; to collect; as, to levy troops; to levy taxes. Edward the First covenanted in express terms for himself and his heirs, that they would never again Aeroy any aid without the assent and good-will of the estates of the realm. A/acaulay. 2. In law, (a) to erect or construct; as, to levy a mill; to levy a ditch. (b) To take or seize on execution or by seizure or distress. –3. To raise or desist from, as a siege. Euphranor having sevued the siege from this one city, forth with led his army to Demetrias. Howland.

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LEY

Lewis, Lewisson (lū'is, lù'is-son), n. 1. The name of one kind of shears used in cropping woollen cloth. – 2. An instrument of iron used in raising *i; stones to the upper part of a building. It operates by the dovetailing of one of its ends into an opening in the stone, so formed that no vertical force can detach it. In the figure a a are two movable parts, perforated at their heads to adImit the pin or bolt c d. These are inserted by hand into the cavity formed in the stone, and between them the part b is introduced, which pushes their points out to the sides of the stone, thus filling the cavity; e is a half-ring bolt

-- a with a perforation at each end, to this the tackle above Lewis. is attached by a hook. The

fastening pin passes horizontally through all the holes, entering at the right side d, and forelocking on the other end c. Lex (leks), n. [L., from same root as E. to lie..] Law; a word used in various law phrases; as, lex loci contractus, the law of the place where the contract is made; lea: talionis, the law of retaliation, directing the punishment to be analogous to the crime, as an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, &c.; lea: non scripta, the unwritten or common law; lear scripta, the written or statute law; lear mercatoria, mercantile law. Lexical (leks' ik-al), a. Pertaining to a lexicon. Lexically (leks'i-kal-li), adr. By means of a lexicon; according to lexicography or a lexicon. By modifying a root lexically is here meant varying its signification. Sir jo. Stoddart.

Lexicographer (leks-i-kog'ra-fér), n. (See LEXICOGRAPHY.) The author or compiler of a lexicon or dictionary. Lexicographer . . . a writer of dictionaries, a harmless drudge, that busies himself in tracing the original and detailing the signification of words. Johnson. Lexico hic, Lexicographical (leks'ikö-gr oo:: ik-al). a. Pertaining to the writing or compilation of a diciora hy (leks-i-k fi) [G eks-i-kog'ra-fi), n. r. learikon, * }.}. to write.] 1. The act of writing a lexicon or dictionary, or the occupation of composing dictionaries. – 2. The principles on which dictionaries are, or should be, constructed; the art of compiling a dictionary. Lexicologist (leks-i-kol'o-jist), m. One skilled in lexicology; one who makes dictionaries or lexicons; a lexicographer. Lexicology (leks-i-kol'o-ji), n. (Gr. lexikon, a dictionary, and logos, discourse.) . The science of words, their derivation and signification; that branch of learning whic treats of the proper signification and just application of words. Lexicon (leks'i-kon), n. (Gr. learikon, from learis, a speaking, speech, a word, from legå, to say, to speak. ) A dictionary; a vocabulary or book containing an alphabetical arrangement of the words in a language, with the definition of each, or an explanation of its meaning. The term learicon was originally and is still usually applied to dictionaries of the Greek or Hebrew tongues. Lexiconist (leks'i-kon-ist), n. A writer of tonio, hical (leks-i-graf’ grap eks-l-graf’ik, o a. Pertaining to lexi

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communicate with the inside coating, and when the jar is to be charged the knob of this rod is applied to the prime conductor. As the electric fluid passes to the inside of the jar, an equal quantity passes from the outside, so that the two sides are brought into opposite states, the inside being positive and the outside negative. The jar is discharged by establishing a communication between the outside coatof... the knob. A vacuum produced in a Leyden-phial has been named the Leydentact turn. Leye, tw.t. To lay; to lay a wager. Chaucer. le + Leite,f n. [See LIGHT.] Flame. arcer. Leze Majesty (léz' maj-es-ti), n. [Fr. losemajesté, high treason, from L. laesa majestas, treason lapdo, larsum, to hurt, to injure, offend against, and majestas, majesty.] In jurisprudence, any crime committed against the sovereign power in a state; treason. The Latin "crimen loesae majestatis, denoted a charge brought against a citizen for acts of rebellion, usurpation of office, and general misdemeanours of a political character, which were comprehended under the title of offences against the majesty of the Roman people. Lherzolite (lérzó-lit), n. [From Lherz, in the Pyrenees, where it is found..] A mineral, a variety of pyroxene. When crystallized its crystals are brilliant, translucid, very small, and of an emerald green. Li (lé), n. 1. A Chinese copper coin, otherwise called a cash. It is worth about onefifth of a farthing.—2. A Chinese measure of length, equal to 486 inch. Liability (li-a-bil’i-ti), n. 1. The state of being liable: (a) the state of being bound or obliged in law or justice; responsibility; as, the officer wishes to discharge himself from his liability. (b) Exposedness; tendency; a state of being subject; as, the liability of a man to contract disease in an infected room; a liability to accidents.2. That for which one is liable; specifically (pl.), that which one is under obligation to pay; debts; as, his liabilities amounted to £50,000. Liable (li'a-bl), a. [“Commonly explained from L. ligo, Fr. lier, to bind; under obligation to. But no L. ligabilis, or Fr. liable, is brought forwards. The word seems purely English, and it looks as if it were barbarously formed from the verb lie, as inclinable from incline, with the sense of lying open to.' Wedgwood. Such words as ally, lien, however, may have had something to do with the development of the meaning. Comp. rely and reliable.] 1. Obliged in law or equity; responsible; answerable for consequences; bound to make good a loss; as, the surety is liable for the debt of his principal ; the parent is not liable for debts contracted by a son who is a minor, except for necessaries.—2 Apt or not unlikely to incur something undesirable; subject; exposed: with to.

Proudly secure, yet liable to fall. Milton.

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4. t Fit; suitable. “Apt, liable to be em% in danger." Shak. -Liable, Subject. iable is used chiefly with regard to what may befall; subject to what is likely to do so, and does so customarily. The former class of things are determined more by accident and circumstance, the latter by nature or constitution. A man may be subject to certain ailments, and he is always liable to accidents of various kinds. Liableness (li'a-bl—nes), n. The state of being liable; liability. Lia-fail, m. [Gael, lia, a stone, and fail, for faidheil, fate. J Stone of destiny, the stone on which the ancient Irish kings are said to have been crowned, brought by Fergus to Scotland, and ultimately deposited at Scone, where the Scottish kings sat on it at their coronation. It was removed by Edward I. to England and placed in Westminster Abbey, where it still forms part of the coronation chair. Enthusiasts affirm that it was the stone on which Jacob rested his head when he had his miraculous dream, and that it was brought to Spain by Gathelus, who married Scota, Pharaoh's daughter, and was subsequently brought to Ireland by one of their descendants, who was crowned king of Ireland on it. In reality the legend was fabricated by a Baldrec Bisset, who was sent to Rome to pray the pope to aid the Scots in resisting the claims of England. The stone is the same as the rocks around Scone. , Called also Jacob's Stone. Llaget (li'āj), n. . [Fr. liage, a binding, from lier, L. ligare, to bind.]. A off. an alliance. Liaison (lé-à-zofi), m. [Fr., from L. ligatio, a binding, from L. ligare, to bind.]. 1. A union or bond of union; an entanglement; an intimacy; commonly, an illicit intimacy between a man and a woman.-2. In cookery, a thickening, generally of beat eggs, sometimes of cream and eggs, intended to tie or connect the component }. of a dish. Liana (lé-ā'nā), m. [Fr. liane, from lier, to bind.] A term *. to the climbing and twining plants in tropical forests, which wind themselves round the stems of the trees, often overtopping them, and descending again to the ground. Our own honeysuckle and clematis afford familiar examples of this kind of plants on a limited scale. Liar (li’ér), m. One who tells lies; a person who knowingly utters falsehood; one who declares to another as a fact what he knows to be not true, and with an intention to de

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dapple-gray.) A name applied to a horse, properly of a gray or dapple-gray colour: equivalent to Dapple. Chaucer. , Lyart (li'èrt), a. Gray; gray-headed. [Scotch...] Lias (li’as), m. [Fr. liais, O. Fr. liois, Arm. liach, Gael, leac, a stone..] In geol, a name given to that series of strata, consisting principally of thin layers of limestone embedded in thick masses of blue argillaceous clay, lying at the basis of the oolitic or jurassic series, and above the triassic or new red sandstone. The formation is highly fossiliferous, ammonites being found in such quantities and varieties as to be called into use in the classification of the different beds. Gryphites and belemnites are also very common molluscs. Fish remains are frequent, but of all its fossil remains by far the most important are those of the great reptiles, of which the ichthyosaurus, plesiosaurus, and enaliosaurus are representatives. Numerous remains of plants occur in the lias. Liassic (li-as'ik), a. Pertaining to or of the age of the lias formation. Lib (lib), v.t. [D. lubben, Dan. live, to geld.

The form glib is also found.] To castrate.

[Obsolete or Scotch.] Libament t (lib'a - ment), n. (L. libamentum.] Same as Libation. Holland.

Libant (libant), a. [L. libans, libantis, ppr. of libo, to taste, to sip.] Sipping; touching lightly. [Rare.] She touched his eyelashes with /rban lip, And breathed ambrosial odours o'er his cheek. Ilanator. Libation (li-bā'shon), n. [L. libatio, libationis, from libo, Gr, leibo, to pour, to pour forth, as in honour of a deity.] 1. The act of pouring a liquor, usually wine, either on the ground or on a victim in sacrifice, in honour of some deity: a practice observed by the ancient Greeks and Romans, and by the Jews. –2. The wine or other liquor poured out in honour of a deity. The goblet then she took, with nectar crown'd, Sprinkling the first libation on the ground. Dryden.

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Shak. Libbard's-banet (lib'ardz-bān). See LEopARD'S-BANE. B. Jomson. Libbet (lib'bet), n. A billet of wood; a stick or club; a staff. Halliwell. #."#. Libecchio (li-bek'i-o), n. [It. libeccio..] The south-west wind. Thwart of these, as fierce, Forth rush the Levant and the Ponent winds, Eurus and Zephyr, with their lateral noise, Sirocco and Libecchio. Asilfort. Libel (libel), n. [Fr. libelle, bill, lampoon; L. libellus, a little book, a pamphlet, a notice, a libel or lampoon, dim. of liber, the inner bark or rind of a tree used for paper; and hence a book.] 1.f A writing of any kind; a written declaration, certificate, supplication, &c. ‘A libel of forsaking.” Mat. v. 31. off. [“Writing of divorcement' in our New Testament.]–2. A defamatory writing; a malicious publication; any book, pamphlet, writing, or picture containing representations, maliciously made or published, tending to bring a person into contempt, or expose him to public hatred, contempt, or derision ; also any obscene, blasFo or seditious publication, whether yTo: writing, signs, or pictures,3. The crime of publishing a libel; as, guilty of libel.—4. In Scots law and English eccles. law, the summons or similar writ commencing a suit and containing the plaintiff's allegations. Libel (libel), v.t. pret. & pp. libelled; ppr. libelling. 1. To defame or expose to public hatred or contempt by a writing, picture, and the like; to lampoon. Some wicked wits have libelled all the fair. Pope.

2. To exhibit a charge against, as against a clergyman for conduct unbecoming his office. or against a ship or goods for a violation of the laws of trade or revenue. Libelt (libel), v.i. To spread defamation, written or printed: with against. “Libelling against the senate.” Shak. Li (libel'la), n. [L., dim. of libra, a balance.) 1. A small balance. — 2. An instrument for taking levels; a level. bellant (li'bel-ant), n. One who libels: one who brings a libel or institutes a suit in a court, especially in an ecclesiastical or admiralty court. The counsel for the libellant contended they had a right to read the instructions. Cranch. Libeller (li'bel-er), n. One who libels; a lampooner. It is ignorance of ourselves which makes us the fibellers of others. Puckminister. Libellist (libel-ist), n. A libeller. Libellous (li'bel-us), a. Containing matter of the nature of a libel; defamatory; containing that which exposes a so to public hatred, contempt, or ridicule; as, a libellous picture. ‘A libellous pamphlet." Wotton. Libellously (libel-us-li), adv. In a libellous nanner. Libellula (li-bel'ti-la), n., A Linnaean genus of neuropterous or orthopterous insects, having the mouth furnished with jaws, and the tail terminated by a kind of forceps. This genus is now divided into three families, each containing several genera, Libellula being the type of those with large eyes, broad hind wings, and larvae with helmetmask. Libellulidae (li-bel-ū’ li-dé), m. pl. The dragon-flies, a family of neuropterous, or, according to some, orthopterous insects, with a mouth furnished with jaws, antennae shorter than the thorax, extended wings, and a tail terminated by a kind of forceps. LIBER,

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The metamorphosis is incomplete, and the larvae aquatic. See DRAGON-FLY. Liber (libor), n. (L.) In bot. the inner lining of the bark of exogenous trees; the innermost layer of the bark; endophloeum;

ast. Liberal (lib'êr-al), a. [L. liberalis, from liber, free. Akin to libet, lubet, it pleases, it is agreeable, Skr. lubh, to desire.] 1. Befitting a freeman or one well-born ; not mean or low ; gentlemanlike; refined ; as, the liberal arts; a liberal education.--2. Of a free heart; ready to give or bestow; munificent: bountiful; generous; giving largely: as, a liberal donor; the liberal founders of a college or hospital. –3. Generous; ample; large; as, a liberal donation; a liberal allowance; hence, abundant; profuse; as, a liberal outflow of water. His wealth doth warrant a liberal dower. Saak.

4. Not having or not characterized by selfish, narrow, or contracted ideas or feelings; favourable to civil, political, and religious liberty; favourable to reform or progress; not bound by orthodox or established tenets in politics or religion; not conservative; friendly to great freedom in the forms of administration of government; as, a liberal thinker; a liberal Christian; liberal sentiments or views; a liberal mind; liberal policy; liberal institutions ; the Liberal P". -5. Free ; open ; candid; as, a liberal communication of thoughts. -6. Not too literal or strict; free; as, a liberal construction of a statute. --7. Licentious; free to excess; unrestrained; uncontrolled; loose; lax. “A liberal villain.' Shak. ‘Liberal jests." Beau. & Fl.--Liberal arts. See under ARt. [Liberal has of or with before the thing bestowed, and to before the person or object on which anything is bestowed; as, to be liberal of praise or censure; he was liberal with his Inoney; liberal to the poor.) Liberal is often used in compounds which are selfexplanatory; as, liberal-hearted; liberalminded ; liberal-souled. Liberal (lib'êr-al), n. An advocate of freedom from restraint, especially in politics and religion; a member of that party which advocates progressive reform, especially in the direction of conferring more power on the people. Liberalism (lib'ér-al-izm), n. Liberal principles; the principles or practice of Liberals; freedom from narrowness or bigotry, especially in matters of religion or politics. They show that our forefathers had not learned our modern affectation of a libera.', on so cosmopolitan as to shrink from celebrating, in the loftiest strains, the greatness, the giory, and the happiness of England. Sir 3. Stephen. Liberalist (lib'êr-al-ist), n. A liberal. Liberalistic (lib'ér-al-ist”ik), a. Relating to or characterized by liberalism; conforming to liberal principles. Liberality (lib-êr-al’i-ti), n. (L. liberalitas; Fr. libéralité. See LIBERAL.] 1. The quality of being liberal : (a) disposition to give largely; the habit of giving largely; muniflcence; bounty; generosity. That liberality is but cast away Which inakes us borrow what we cannot pay. Denham. (b) Largeness of mind; catholicity; that comprehensiveness of mind which includes other interests besides its own, and duly estimates in its decisions, the value or importance of each ; impartiality; as, it is evidence of a noble mind to judge of men and things with liberality. Many treat the gospel with indifference under the name of liberality. 3. Af. Mason. 2. A particular act of generosity; a donation: a gratuity: in this sense it has the plural number; as, a prudent man is not impoverished by his liberalities. Liberalize (lib'ér-al-iz), p.t, pret & pp. liberalized; ppr. liberalizing. To render liberal or catholic; to enlarge; to free from narrow views or prejudices. Grand, swelling sentiments of liberty I am sure I do not despise. They warm the heart, they enlarge and otheroize our minds; they animate our courage in a time of conflict. Burke. Liberally (lib'ér-al-li), adv. In a liberal manner: (a) bountifully; freely; largely; with inunificence. If any of giveth to all inen liberally, and upbraideth not. Jann. i. 5. (b) With generous and impartial regard to other interests than our own; with enlarged views; without selfishness or meanness; as,

i. lack wisdom, let him ask of God, that

44

to think or judge liberally of men and their actions. (c) Freely; not strictly; not literally; as, he construes the words of the act liber

attan. Liorate (lib'é-rát), v. t. pret & pp. liberated: ppr. liberating. [L. libero, liberatum, from liber, free.] To release from restraint or bondage; to set at liberty; to free; to deliver; to disengage; as, to liberate a slave; to liberate one from duressor imprisonment; to liberate the mind from the shackles of prejudice. By what means a luan may liberate himself from those fears. Johnson. Liberation (lib-e-ra'shon), n. [L. liberatto, liberationis, from libero, to free. See LIBERATE.) The act of delivering, or the state of being delivered from restraint, confinement, slavery, debt, and the like. Liberator(lib'é-rat-er), n. One who liberates or delivers. He (I-uther) was the great reformer and Morrator of the European intellect. Biackie. Liberatory (lib'é-ra-to-ri), a. Tending to liberate or set free. Libero-motor (lib'êr-o-mo-tor), a. Letting out or liberating nerve-force. Each ganglion is a libero-motor agent. Herbert Spencer. Libertarian (lib - or-tá’ri - an ), a. Pertaining to liberty, or to the doctrine of freewill, as opposed to the doctrine of necessity. Libertarian (lib-êr-tä'ri-an), n. One who holds the doctrine of moral freedom, or the doctrine of the freedom of the will. It retorts against himself the very objection of incomprehensibility by which the fatalist had thought to triumph over the sièertarian. Sir J.P. Harnistant. I believe he (Dr. Crombie) may claim the merit of adding the word ‘literrarian to the English language as Priestley added that of ‘necessarian." Reid. Libertarianism (lib-êr-tā’ri-an-izm), n. The principles or doctrines of libertarians. Liberticide (lib'ér-ti-sid), n. [Liberty, and L. caedo, to kill.] 1. Destruction of liberty. 2. A destroyer of liberty. Libe e (lib’ér-tin-āj), n. Undue freedom of opinions or conduct; license. A growing libertimore, which disposed them to think slightly of the Christian faith. 14 arbierton. Libertine (lib'êr-tin), n. (L. libertinus, from liber, free..] 1. Among the Romans, a freedman; a person manumitted or set free from legal servitude.—2. One unconfined; one free from restraint. When he speaks, The air, a charter'd libertime, is still. Share. 3. One who indulges his lust without restraint; one who leads a dissolute, licentious life; a rake; a debauchee. —4. t One who holds loose views with regard to the laws of religion or morality; an irreligious person. 5. One of a sect of heretics in Holland, who maintained that nothing is sinful but to those who think it sinful, and that perfect innocence is to live without doubt. They rejected all the customs and decencies of life, and advocated a community of goods and of women. That the Scriptures do not contain in them all things necessary to salvation is the fountain of many great and capital errors: I instance in the whole doctrine of the 'orrtunes, familists, quakers, and other enthusiasts, which issue in the corrupted fountain. Goer. Taylor. 6. t.A freeman of an incorporate town or city. And used ine like a fugitive, an inmate in a town, That is no city literrine, nor capable of their gown. Chapman. Libertine (lib'êr-tin), a. [Fr. libertin, licentious; L. libert intus, from libertus, one made free, from liber, free.] Licentious; dissolute; not under the restraint of law or religion; as, libertine principles. ‘A libertine life.’ Bacon. Libertinism (lib’ér-tin-izm), n. 1. State or condition of being a libertine or freedman. [Rare.] Dignified with the title of freeman, and denied the Albertin is on that belongs to it. AHannonicola. 2. The state or conduct of a libertine or rake; licentiousness; unrestrained indulgence of lust; debauchery; lewdness.-3, t Irreligious. carelessness for the dictates of mority. *. spirit of religion and seriousness vanished all at once, and a spirit of liberty and stortion isot, of infidelity and profaneness, started up in the room of it. Atterbury. Libe (lib'ér-ti), n. [L. libertas, from laber, free; Fr. liberté.] 1. The state or condition of one who is free; exemption from restraint; power of acting as one pleases; freedom. 'Tis liferty alone that gives the flower

LIBIDINOUSNESS

2. Permission granted, as by a superior, to do something that one might not otherwise do; leave; as, liberty given to a child to play, or to a witness to leave a court.— 3. Immunity enjoyed by prescription or by grant; privilege; exemption; franchise; as. the liberties of the commercial cities of Europe.-4. A place or district within which certain exclusive privileges may be exercised; a place of exclusive jurisdiction; as, within the city liberty 5. A certain amount of freedom; permission to go about freely within certain limits, as in a place of confinement; also, the place or limits within which such freedom or privilege is exercised; as, the liberties of a prison. —6. Action or speech of one person to another hardly warranted by their relative positions; freedom not specially granted ; freedom of action or speech beyond the ordinary bounds of civility or decorum ; as, may I take the liberty of calling on you? He was repeatedly provoked into striking those who had taken laterties with him. A/acaulay. 7. The power of an agent to do or forbear any particular action, according to the determination or thought of the mind, by which either is preferred to the other; freedom of the will; exemption from compulsion or restraint in willing or volition.—8. Freedom from occupation or engagements; disengagement. – 9. In the manage, a curve or arch in that part of the bit placed in the mouth of a horse in order to afford room for the tongue of the animal. -- Natural liberty, the power of acting as one thinks fit, without any restraint or control, except from the laws of nature. It is a state of exemption from the control of others, and from positive laws and the institutions of social life. This liberty is abridged by the establishment of government. — Civil liberty. the liberty of men in a state of society, or natural liberty, so far only abridged and restrained as is necessary and expedient for the safety and interest of the society, state, or nation. Civil liberty is an exemption from the arbitrary will of others, secured by established laws, which restrain every man from injuring or controlling another. Hence the restraints of law are essential to civil liberty. –Political liberty, a term sometimes used as synonymous with civil o: But it more properly designates the liberty of a nation, the freedom of a nation or state from all unjust abridgment of its rights and independence by another nation. Hence we often speak of the political liberties of Europe, or the nations of Europe. Religious liberty, the free right of adopting and enjoying opinions on religious subjects, and of worshipping the Supreme Being according to the dictates of conscience, without external control. —Liberty of the press, freedom from any restriction on the power to publish books; the free power of publishing what one pleases, subject only to punishment for abusing the privilege, or publishing what is mischievous to the public or injurious to individuals. – Cap of liberty, a cap or hat used as a symbol of liberty. In ancient times the manumitted slaves put on what was termed the Phrygian cap, in token of their freedom. In modern times, a red cap worn by French revolutionaries. —Leave, Liberty, License. See under LEAVE. Libethenite (li-beth'en-it), n. The hydrous phosphate of copper, a mineral first found at Libethen in Hungary, having an olivegreen colour, and consisting of phosphoric acid, oxide of copper, and water. Libidinist (li-bid'in-ist), n. One given to lewdness. [Rare.] Nero, being monstrous incontinent himself, verily believed that all men were most foul libido ists. outrius. Libidinosity (li-bid'in-os"i-ti), n. The state or quality of being libidinous; libidinousness. Libidinous (li-bid'in-us), a [L. libidinosus, from libido, lubido, lust, from libet, lubet, it pleases.) Characterized by lust or lewdness; having an eager appetite for sexual indulgence; fitted to excite lustful desire ; lustful; lewd. “Wanton glances and libidinous thoughts.” Bentley.—SYN. Lewd, lustful, lascivious, unchaste, impure, sensual, licentious, lecherous. s Libidinously (li-bid'in-us-li), adr. In a libidinous manner; with lewd desire; lustfully; lewdly. Libidinousness (li-bid "in-us-nes), n. The state or quality of being libidinous; lust

Of fleeting life its lustre and perfume. Coazer.

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