Imágenes de páginas




for letting blood, for the cure of diseases, from phlogiző, to burn or inflame- phlego, often serves as an emblem of immortality. or the preservation of health.

to burn.] According to an obsolete theory, The phenix is always drawn by the heralds Phlebotomy is so much practised here, that if one's the supposed principle of inflammability; in flames. little finger ache they presently open a vein, the matter of fire in composition with other

And glory, like the phenix midst her fires, Howell. bodies. Stahl gave this name to an hypothet Exhales her odours, blazes, and expires. Byron. Phlegm (flem), 1. [Gr. phlegma, phlegma ical element which he supposed to be pure tos, a cold slimy humour in the body. ] fire fixed in combustible bodies, in order to

2. A paragon; a person of singular distinc1. Cold animal fluid; watery matter; one of distinguish it from fire in action or in a state

tion or beauty. the four humours of which the ancients of liberty.

But, o, my lord, that you could have seen iny supposed the blood to be composed. -2. In

phanix, Lovel-the very prince and chieftain of the Phlomis (flo'mis), n. [From Gr. phlogimos,

youth of this age.

Sir W. Scott. old chem. the aqueous, insipid, and inodor a flame --- in reference to the down being ous products obtained by subjecting moist used for wicks.) A genus of shrubs and

3. One of the modern constellations in the vegetable matter to the action of heat.- | herbaceous perennials, mostly European,

northern hemisphere. - 4. A genus of palms 3. The thick viscid matter secreted in the and belonging to the nat. order Labiata.

inhabiting India and the north of Africa. digestive and respiratory passages, and dis The P. fruticosa, or Jerusalem sage, is an

The P. dactylifera, or date-palm, is one of charged by coughing or vomiting; bronchial ornamental plant common in our shrub

the best-known species. See DATE-PALM. mucus.-4. Dulness; coldness; sluggishness; beries.

Pholadidæ (fő-lad'i-dē), n. pl. (See PHOindifference.

Phlorizin, Phloridzine (flor'iz-in, flo-rid' LAS. ) A family of lamellibranchiate biThey judge with fury, but they write with phlegm. zin), n. [From Gr. phloios, bark, and rhiza, valve molluscs, belonging to the subdivi

Pope, Phlegmagogue (fleg'ma-gog), n. (Gr. phleg. root.) (C21H,4010-) A substance discovered

sion Sinu-palliata of the section Siphonida, in the iresh bark of the root of the apple,

comprising the genera Pholas, Xylophaga, ma, phlegm, and ago, to drive.) A term pear, cherry, and plum tree. It forms fine

and Teredo. The characteristics are: shell anciently used to denote a medicine supcolourless four-sided silky needles soluble

gaping at both ends, without hinge or ligaposed to possess the property of expelling in water. The solution has a bitter, slightly

ment, often with accessory valves; animal phlegm. astringent taste. It has been used with

club-shaped, as in Pholas, or worm-like, as Phlegmasia (fleg-ma'si-a), n. [Gr. phlego, success in intermittents.

in Teredo, with a short truncated foot; to burn. In med. inflammation. Phleg- Phlox (floks), n. (Gr. phlox, a flame, from

mantle closed in front, and siphons long. masia dolens, lit. a painful inflammation; phlego, to burn, from the appearance of the

united to near their extremities. The puerperal tumid leg; an affection depend flowers.) A North American genus of plants,

Pholades, or piddocks, as well as the emining on inflammation of the iliac and femoral nat. order Polemoniaceae. The species are

ently destructive Teredo navalis, are wellveins. elegant plants, with red, purple, or white

known types of the family. See PHOLAS, Phlegmatic, Phlegmatical (fleg-matik, flowers. The trailing kinds are admirably Pholadite (föʻla-dīt), n. A petrified shell of

TEREDO. fleg-mat'ik-al), a. (Gr. phlegmatikos, from

adapted for growing on rock-work. phlegma, phlegm.] 1. Abounding in phlegm; Phlyctæna, Phlyctena (flik-tē'na), n. (Gr.

the genus Pholas. as, phlegmatic humours.

phlyktaina, a blister, a pustule, from phlyó, Pholadomya (foʻla-do-mī"a), n. [Gr. pholeo, Chewing and smoking of tobacco is only proper to boil or gwell over.) In med. a tumour

to bore, and mya, the gaper.) A genus of for phlegmatic people.

formed by the accumulation of a serous

lamellibranch molluscs

found fossil in the 2. Generating phlegm. 'Cold and phleg fluid under the epidermis. Dunglison.

lias, oolite, and chalk formations.

One matic habitations." Sir T. Browne.-3.+ Wa Phlyctænula (Alîk - ten'ū-la), n. [Dim. of species only (P. candida) is known to be tery. 'Spirit of wine grows by every phlyctæna.) In med. a small transparent

now in existence, and it frequents the sea distillation more and more aqueous and tumour of the eyelids. Dunglison.

around Tortola. phlegmatic.' Newton.-4. Cold; dull; slug- Phlyctenular (Hik-ten'ū-ler), a. Pertaining Pholas (fõ'las), n. pl. Pholades (föʻla-dēz) gish; heavy; not easily excited into action to phlyctænula. - Phlyctenular ophthalmia,

(Gr. phõlas, from phöleo, to lie concealed.) A or passion; as, a phlegmatic temperament. inflammation of the eye, accompanied with

genus of marine lamellibranchiate bivalves As the inhabitants are of a heavy phlegmatic tem phlyctæna on the cornea.

of the family Pholadidæ, popularly known per, if any leading member has more fire than comes Phobanthropy (fő-ban'thro-pi), n. (Gr.

along our coasts as piddocks. The pholades to his share, it quickly tempered by the coldness

phobos, fear, and anthropos, a man.) A of the rest.


dread of mankind. West. Rev. Phlegmatically, Phlegmaticly (fleg-mat'. Phoca (föʻka), n. A Linnæan genus of marine ik-al-li, Heg-mat'ik-li), adv. In a phlegmatic mammals, which includes the seals. See manner; coldly; heavily. All the rest is SEAL.

phlegmaticly passed over.' Warburton. Phocacean (-kā'shē-an), n. A mammal Phlegmon (fleg'mon), n. [Gr. phleginonē, belonging to the genus Phoca; a seal. from phlego, to burn.) In pathol. inflam

Brande & Cox. mation of the cellular tissue, accompanied Phocæna (fő-sē'na), n. A genus of Cetacea, with redness, circumscribed swelling, in family Delphinidæ, comprising the porcreased heat and pain; at first tensive and poises. See PORPOISE. lancinating, aft rds pulsatory and hea Phocal (foʻkal), a. Pertaining to the genus It is apt to terminate in suppuration. Phoca, which contains the seals. Phlegmonoid (tlegʻmon-oid), a. Resembling Phocidæ (fo'si-dē), A family of cetaceans, phlegmon.

of which the seal (Phoca) is the type. It Phlegmonous (fleg'mon-us), a. Having the includes only those seals which have no nature or properties of a phlegmon; being external ears, the eared seals and the walof the same specific inflammation as phleg rus being the types of two other families. mon; as, phlegmonous inflammation.

The three families make up the order PinniPhleme (flēm), n. Same as Fleam.

pedia, which answers to the Linnæan genus Pholades (Pholas dactylus) in their holes. Phleum (flē'um), 11. A genus of grasses, Phoca. chiefly natives of Europe. Various British Phocine (fo'sīn), a. Pertaining to the seal are found at depths varying to 9 fathoms; species are known by the name of cat's tribe.

they pierce wood, rocks, indurated clay, &c., Among these the P. pratense Phoebus (fē'bus), n. (Gr. Phoibos, lit. the by rasping with their shell, which is armed (meadow cat's-tail grass or timothy grass) brilliant one.) A name of Apollo, often in front with file or rasp-like imbrications. is of considerable agricultural value as a used in the same sense as Sol, the sun. They have hence received the name of stonefodder plant. It is a general inhabitant of Hark, hark! the lark at heaven's gate sings borers. They are remarkably phosphoresthe most fertile pastures, and is very like

And Phæbus 'gins arise.


cent. See PHOLADIDÆ. the meadow fox-tail in appearance, differ- Phoenician (fe-nish' i-an), n. A native or Pholidogaster (fol'i-do-gas-tér), n. [Gr. ing from it chiefly in having unequal glumes, inhabitant of Phænicia, an ancient country pholis, pholidos, a scale, and gastër, a belly.] and two paleæe instead of one.

It is very
on the coast of Syria.

A genus of fossil labyrinthodonts discovered productive, especially in the early spring, Phænician (fê-nish'i-an), a. Of or pertain in the coal-measures at Gilmerton, near and is a very general component of hay. It ing to Phænicia.

Edinburgh. From its great resemblance to is of the greatest use when the object is to Phænicin (fē'ni-sin), n. (Gr. phoinix, pur a fish, the only species found has been procure a sward of permanent herbage. ple.) Indigo purple. See PHENICIN. named P. pisciformis. Phlæum (flē'um), n. [Gr. phloios, bark.] Phænicopter (fê-ni-kop'ter), n. A bird of Phonascetics (fo-nas-set'iks), n. [Gr. phonIn bot. the cellular portion of bark lying the genus Phænicopterus.

askeo, to practise the voice - phone, the immediately under the epidermis. Thus Phoenicopteridæ (fē'ni-kop-ter'i-dē), n. pl. voice, and askeõ, to practise.] Systematic cork is the phlæum of the Quercus suber. The flamingo family. See FLAMINGO, PHE practice for strengthening the voice; treatIt is also termed Epiphlæum. NICOPTERUS.

ment for improving or restoring the voice. Phlogistian (flo-jis'ti-an), n. A believer in Phonicopterus (fe-ni-kop'ter-us), n. [Gr. Phonation (fo-nā'shon), n. (Gr. phònē, the existence of phlogiston.

phoinikopteros, red-feathered - phoinikos, sound, the voice.] The physiology of the Phlogistic (flo-jis'tik), a. (See PHLOGISTON.] purple-red, and pteron, a wing.) A genus of voice. Dunglison. 1. Pertaining, belonging, or relating to phlo palmipede or natatorial birds (the flamin- Phonautograph (fő-na'to-graf), n. (Gr. giston. "The mistakes committed in the goes), of the order Lamellirostres, and fam phönē, sound, autos, self, and graphö, to celebrated phlogistic theory. J. S. Mill. ily Phænicopteridæ. P. ruber (the common write.). 1. Same as Phonograph. – 2. Same 2. In med. entonic or thenic, that is, at flamingo) occurs abundantly in Southern as Music-recorder. tended with a preternatural degree of vital Europe. See FLAMINGO.

Phonautographic (fo-na'to

graf'ik), a. Perenergy and strength of action in the heart Phonix (fē' niks), n. (Gr. phoinix, the taining to the phonautograph. and arteries.

bird; also the date-palm.] 1. According to Phonetic (fő-net'ik), a. (Gr. phonētikos, Phlogisticate+ (filo-jis'ti-kāt), v.t. To com the ancient Greek legend a wonderful female from phone,sound.] 1. Pertaining to the voice. bine phlogiston with.-Phlogisticated air, bird of great beauty which was said to 2. Pertaining to the representation of sounds; the name given by the old chemists to nitro live 500 or 600 years in the wilderness, when representing sounds; a term applied to gen.-Phlogisticated alkali, prussiate of pot she built for herself a funeral pile of wood alphabetic characters which represent arash.-Phlogisticated gas, nitrogen or azote. and aromatic gums, lighted it with the fan ticulate sounds; as a, b, in contradistinction Phlogisticationt (flo-jis'ti-kā"shon), n. The ning of her wings, and then consumed her to ideographic characters, which represent act or process of combining with phlogiston. self; but from her ashes she revived again objects, or symbolically denote abstract Phlogiston (floj'is-ton), n. (Gr. phlogistos, in the freshness of youth. Hence the phenix ideas, as in the figurative part of the Egyp


tail grass.




In a

tian hieroglyphics. The term has been spe gans of speech.-2. The representation of here to its shell. From this circumstance cifically applied to the method of writing sounds by characters each of which repre it has received the name of the carrier-shell. and printing introduced by Mr. Isaac Pit sents one sound and always the same sound; The specimens with shells adhering to them man of Bath, and designated phonography especially, a method of writing or graphand phonotypy (which see).

ically representing language, invented by Phonetical (fő-net'ik-al), a. Same as Pho Mr. Pitman of Bath. This system is very netic.

complete and simple, and any person who Phonetically (fő-net’ik-al-li), adv.

once knows the characters can decipher phonetic manner; in a manner expressive what is thus written with great facility. In of sounds or letters.

this system, or any similar system, there is Phonetics (fő-net'iks), n. The doctrine of of course no disparity between the spelling sounds; the representation of sounds; the and pronunciation of words as in the prescience which treats of the sounds of the sent system. human voice, and the art of representing Phonolite (fo'no-līt), n. [Gr. phònē, sound,

Phorus agglutinans (Carrier-shells). their combinations by writing.

and lithos, stone.] Sounding stone; a name Phonetist (fon'e-tist), n. Same as Phonolo proposed as a substitute for clinkstone.

are called by collectors conchologists; while gist. Phonologer (fő-nolo-jér), n. Same as Pho

those with stones are named mineralogists. Phonetization (fö'net-iz-ā"shon), n.


Called also Xenophorus. act or art of representing sound by phonetic Phonologic, Phonological (fő-no-loj’ik, fo- Phosgen, Phosgene (fos’jen, fos'jēn), a, signs. (Rare. ] no-lojik-al), a. Pertaining to phonology.

(Gr. phos, light, and gennao, to generate.) Phonic (fõn'ik), a. Pertaining to sound. Phonologist (fő-nol'o-jist), n. One versed

Generating light.-Phosgen gas, a gas generSee PHONICS. in phonology.

ated by the action of light on chlorine and Phonics (fon'iks), n. (Gr. phònē, sound.] Phonology (fő-nol'o-ji), n. (Gr. phonē, sound,

carbonic oxide gas. It is composed of car1. The doctrine or science of sounds, espe voice, and logos, discourse.] The science or

bon, oxygen, and chlorine in the proportions cially those of the human voice; phonetics. doctrine of the elementary sounds uttered

expressed by the formula COCL,. 2. The art of combining musical sounds. by the human voice, which shows how they Phosphate (fos'fāt), 1. [See PHOSPHORUS.)

1. A salt of phosphoric acid. Several phosPhonocamptic (fo-no-kamp'tik), a. [Gr. are respectively formed, the distinctions phone, sound, and kampto, to inflect.] Hav between them, &c.; phonetics.

phates are met with in nature; as those of

calcium, aluminium, manganese, iron, uraning the power to inflect sound, or turn it Phonometer (fo-nom'et-ér), n. [Gr. phónē, from its direction, and thus to alter it. sound, voice, and metron, a measure.) An

ium, copper, and lead. Phosphate of calDerham. instrument for ascertaining the number of

cium constitutes the base of the bones of

animals. 2. A mineral found in EstremaPhonogram (fõ'no-gram), n. [Gr. phone, vibrations of a given sound in a given space the voice, and gramma, a letter.] The of time.

dura, consisting chiefly of phosphate of calsound of the human voice or musical sounds Phonorganon, Phonorganum (fo-norga. Phosphatic (fos-fat’ik), a. Partaking of the as reproduced by the phonograph.

non, fo-norga-num), 12. [Gr. phónē, the Phonograph (fo'no-graf), n. (See PHONO voice, and organon, an instrument. ) An

nature of a phosphate; containing a phosGRAPHY.) 1. A type or character for ex instrument formed to imitate vocal sounds

phate.-Phosphatic diathesis, a morbid state pressing a sound; a character used in pho or speech; a speaking machine.

of the constitution, characterized by the nography.-2. An instrument by means of Phonotype (fo'no-tip), 1. A type or char

formation of the phosphates of magnesia, which sounds can be permanently regis acter used in phonetic printing.

ammonia, and lime, which are generally

evidenced by being deposited in the urine. tered, and afterwards reproduced from the Phonotypic (fo-no-tip'ik), a. Pertaining to register. It consists essentially of a curved phonotypy; as, a phonotypic alphabet; pho- Phosphene (fos’fen), n. (Gr. phos, light, tube, one end of which is fitted with a notypic writing or printing.

and phaină, to show.] The luminous image mouthpiece, while the other end (about Phonotypical (fő-nõ-tip'ik-al), a.

Same as

produced by pressing the eyeball with the 2 inches in diameter) is closed in with a Phonotypic.

finger. It is doubtful whether this effect

arises from the excitation of the retina, or disc or diaphragm of exceedingly thin metal. Phonotypy (fő-not'i-pi), n. (Gr. phònē,sound,

whether it is not rather the result of violence Connected with the centre of this diaphragm and typos, an impression, mark, or type.) A

to the fibres of the optic nerve apart from is a steel point, which, when the sounds are method of representing each of the sounds

the retina. The flashes seen on receiving a projected on the disc from the mouthpiece, of speech by a distinct printed character or

blow on the eye are due to the same cause. vibrates backwards and forwards. This part letter; phonetic printing.

A combination of of the apparatus is adjusted to a cylinder Phoranthium (fo-ran'thi-um),n. [Gr. phoreo, Phosphide (fos'fid), n. which rotates on a horizontal axis. On the to bear, and anthos, a flower. ] In bot. a term

phosphorus with a single element; as, phossurface of the cylinder is cut a spiral groove, sometimes applied to the receptacle of com

phide of iron or copper. and on the axis there is a spiral screw of posite plants. Also called Clinanthium.

Phosphine (fos'fin), n. Same as Phosphurthe same pitch, which works in a nut. Phorminx (for’mingks), n. (Gr.) An an

etted Hydrogen. See PHOSPHURETTED. When the instrument is to be used a piece cient Grecian lute or lyre.

Phosphite (fos'fīt), 11. A salt of phosphorous

acid. of tinfoil is gummed round the cylinder, We beat the phorminx till we hurt our thumbs, and the steel point is adjusted so as to be

Phospholite (fos'fol-it), n. (Gr. phosphoros,

As if still ignorant of counterpoint. just touching the tinfoil, and above the line

E. B. Browning.

phosphorus, and lithos, a stone.) În mineral.

an earth united with phosphoric acid. of the spiral groove. If some words are Phormium (for'mi-um), n. [From Gr. phor: Phosphor (fos'for), n. [Gr. phosphorosnow spoken through the mouthpiece, and mos, a basket, from the purpose to which the cylinder kept rotating either by the the plant is put in its native country.) The

phos, light (from phao, to shine), and phero, hand or clock-work, a series of small marks

to bring. See PHOSPHORUS.) 1.6 Phosphorus. flax-plant or flax-lily, a genus of plants beare made on the foil by the vibratory move longing to the nat. order Liliacea. The

of lambent flame you have whole sheets in a handful of phosphor.

Addison, ment of the steel point, and these markings principal species, P. tenax, is indigenous in have all an individual character of their own, New Zealand and

2. The morning star or Lucifer; Venus, when due to the various sounds addressed to the Norfolk Island.

it precedes the sun and shines in the mornmouthpiece. The sounds thus registered are It grows in great

ing; Phosphorus. reproduced by approaching the diaphragm tufts with sword

Bright Phosphor, fresher for the night, and its steel point towards the tinfoil as at shaped leaves,

By thee the world's great work is heard first commencing, at the point where it was


Tennyson. sometimes 6 feet when the cylinder originally started. The long. The long

Phosphoratę (fos'for-át), v.t. pret. & pp. indentations previously made now cause the spike, bearing a

phosphorated; ppr. phosphorating. To comsteel point to rise or fall or otherwise move large number of

bine or impregnate with phosphorus. as the markings pass under it, and the re yellow flowers,

Phosphor-bronze (fos'for-bronz), n. sult is that the diaphragm is thrown into a rises from the

alloy of copper, tin, and phosphorus, capable state of vibration exactly corresponding to centre of the

of being made tough and malleable, or hard, the movements induced by the markings, leaves. The thick

according to the proportion of the several and thus affects the air around so as to leathery leaves Phormium tenax.

ingredients. It has great power in resisting produce sounds, and these vibrations being contain a large

straining, and is made into bearings for exactly similar to those originally made by quantity of good strong fibre, which is used machinery, cog-wheels, guns, hammers, cutthe voice, necessarily reproduce these sounds by the natives of New Zealand for making lery, wire, sheathing for sea-going vessels, to the ear as the words at first spoken. cloth, nets, &c., and would be very valuable

&c. É. Ú. Knight. These marked strips of foil may be posted to in commerce but for a gummy matter in the Phosphoreous f (fos-fö’re-us), a. Same as any person with whom the speaker wishes to leaves which it is difficult to get rid of. It Phosphorescent. Pennant. correspond, and who must of course have has been introduced into Europe to take Phosphoresce (fos-fo-res'), v.i. pret. phosa machine similar to that of the sender. the place of hemp. Called also New Zealand phoresced; ppr. phosphorescing. (See PhosThe contents of the strips may be repro Flax.

PHORUS.) To shine, as phosphorus, by exduced at any length of time, and repeated Phoronomia (for-o-nö'mi-a), n. Same as

hibiting a faint light without sensible heat; until the markings become effaced. Phoronomics.

to give out a phosphoric light. Phonographer(fó-nog'raf-ėr),n. One versed Phoronomics (for-o-nom'iks), n. (Gr. phoreo, Arenaceous limestone phosphoresces in the dark in phonography. to bear or carry, and nomos, a law.] A term

when scraped with a knife.

Kirivan. Phonographic, Phonographical (fő-no sometimes used to denote that branch of Phosphorescence (fos-fo-res'ens), n. The graf'ik, fő-no-graf'ik-al), a. 1. Pertaining to mechanics which treats of bodies in motion; state or quality of being phosphorescent; or based upon phonography.-2. Pertaining kinematics.

tlfe property which certain bodies possess to the phonograph.

Phoronomy (fő-ron'o-mi), n. Same as Pho of becoming luminous without undergoing Phonographically (fő-no-graf'ik-al-li), adv. ronomics.

combustion. Phosphorescence is sometimes In a phonographic manner; according to Phorus (föʻrus), n. [Gr. phoros, bearing, from a chemical, sometimes a physical action. phonography

phero, to bear.] A genus of turbinated, gas When chemical, it consists essentially in Phonographist (fo-nog'raf-ist), n. One who teropod molluscs, inhabiting the Javan and slow oxidation attended with evolution of is versed in phonography; a phonographer. China seas.

P. agglutinans is remarkable light; when physical, it consists in the emisPhonography (fő-nogʻra-fi), n. [Gr. phone, for the singular habit of accumulating, dur sion of light previously absorbed, or in the a sound, and grapho, to write.] 1. The de ing its formation, different substances, as transformation of heat rays into light rays. scription of the sounds uttered by the or stones, corals, small shells, &c., which ad The phosphoresence of the sea is produced




by the scintillating or phosphorescent light bones, which consist in part of phosphate of Photochemical (fő-tó-kern'ik-al), a. Peremitted from the bodies of certain marine lime. Common phosphorus when pure is taining to the chemical action of light. animals, and is well seen on the surface of almost transparent and colourless. At com Photo-electrotype (fo'tő-é-lek-tro-tip), n. the ocean at night. See extract.

mon temperatures it is a soft solid, easily A process in which a photographic picture The diffused luminosity of the sea is mainly due

cut with a knife, and the cut surface has a is produced in relief so as to afford, by electo the Voctiluca miliaris; but its partial luminosity waxy lustre; at 108° it fuses, and at 550° is tro-deposition, a matrix for a cast, from is due to various phosphorescent animals, amongst converted into vapour. It is soluble, by the which impressions in ink may be obtained. which are the Physilia utriculus (the Portuguese aid of heat, in naphtha, in fixed and volatile . Photo-engraving (fö'to-en-grāv-ing), n. A man-of-war), Meduse, Tunicata, Annelides, &c. The cause of phosphorescence is variously stated, it being

oils, in the chloride of sulphur, sulphide common name of many processes in which supposed very generally to be the result of a process of carbon, and sulphide of phosphorus. the action of light on a sensitized surface of slow combustion analogous to that which takes It is exceedingly inflammable. Exposed to is made to change the nature or condition place in phosphorus when exposed to the atmosphere.

the air at common temperatures it under of the substance of the plate or its coating, Upon the whole, however, it appears that the phenomenon is a vital process, consisting essentially in the

goes slow combustion, emits a white vapour so that it may by processes be made to afford conversion of nervous force (vital energy) into light;

of a peculiar alliaceous odour, appears lu a printing surface corresponding to the just as the same forces can be converted by certain minous in the dark, and is gradually con original from which the photographic image fishes into electricity.

H. A. Nicholson. sumed. On this account phosphorus should was derived. See PHOTOGRAPHY. Phosphorescent (fos-fo-res'ent), a. Shining

always be kept under water. A very slight Photo-galvanography (fo'to-gal-va-nog-rawith a faint light or luminosity like that

degree of heat is sufficient to inflame phos fi), n. The art or process of obtaining from of phosphorus; luminous without sensible

phorus in the open air. Gentle pressure a photographic negative on glass, by means heat. Various animals are phosphorescent,

between the fingers, friction, or a tempera of a gutta-percha impression, an electrotype as the glowworm, the phosphorescent sea

ture not much above its point of fusion, plate, from which may be taken as in copperpen (Pennatula phosphorea), and the bril kindles it readily. It burns rapidly even in plate printing, any number of copies. liant pyrosome. Fish also possess this pro

the air, emitting a splendid white light, and Photogen (foto-jen), 1. (Gr. phos, photos, perty in a remarkable degree. A number causing intense heat. Its combustion is far light, and genein, to produce.) Same as of mineral substances exhibit the same pro more rapid in oxygen gas, and the light far Paraffin-oil. perty, as chloride of calcium, anhydrous

more vivid. The product of the perfect Photogene (fo'tö-jēn), n. Gr. phos, photos, nitrate of lime, some carbonates and sul

combustion of phosphorus is phosphorous light, and genein, to produce. ] A more or phates of baryta, strontia, and lime, the pentoxide (P,03), a white solid which readily less continued impression or picture on the diamond, some varieties of fluor-spar, apa

takes up water, passing into phosphoric retina. H. Spencer. tite, borax, and many other substances. acid (which see). Phosphorus may be made Photogenic(1o-to-jen'ik), a. Of or pertaining Some mineral bodies become phosphorescent

to combine with most of the metals, form to photogeny or to photogenesis. when strongly heated, as a piece of lime.

ing compounds called phosphides; when dis Photogeny (fo-toj'e-ni), n. The art of takThe same property is observable in decayed

solved in fat oils it forms a solution which ing pictures by the action of light on a wood. See PHOSPHORESCENCE.

is luminous in the dark. It is chiefly used chemically prepared ground; photography. Phosphoretted (fos'fo-ret-ed), a. Same as in the preparation of lucifer-matches, and Photoglyphic (fő-to-glif'ik), a. Relating Phosphuretted.

also in the preparation of phosphoric acid. to photoglyphy or to the art of engraving by Phosphoric (fos-for’ik), a. Pertaining to,

It is of all stimulants the most powerful and means of light; as, a photoglyphic engraving. obtained from, or resembling phosphorus;

diffusible, but on account of its activity Photoglyphy (fo-togʻli-fi), n. (Gr. phos, phosphorescent.

highly dangerous. It can be safely aulmini photos, light, and glyphó, to engrave.) The How the lit lake shines, a phosphoric sea,

stered as a medicine only in extremely art of engraving by means of the action of And the big rain comes dancing to the earth.

minute doses, and with the utmost possible light and certain chemicals; a method of

Byron. caution. Phosphorus presents good ex engraving by which photographs and other -Phosphoric acid (PH,01), an acid usually ample of allotropy (see ALLOTROPY), in that transparent designs can be etched into steel, obtained by burning phosphuretted hydro

it can be exhibited in at least one other form, copper, or zinc plates, by the action of light gen in atmospheric air or oxygen. It is also

known as red or amorphous phosphorus, and certain chemicals. A mixture consistproduced by the oxidation of phosphorous presenting completely different properties ing of a solution of gelatine in water and a acid, by oxidizing phosphorus with nitric from common phosphorus. This variety is saturated solution of bichromate of potash acid, by the decomposition of apatite and produced by keeping common phosphorus is poured on the plate and allowed to dry. other native phosphates, and in various

a long time slightly below the boiling point. It is then placed in a printing frame with other ways. It is tribasic, forming three It is a red, hard, brittle substance, not fus the object it is desired to copy laid on it, distinct classes of metallic salts, and the ible, not poisonous, and not readily inflam and exposed to the action of light. Hydrothree atoms of hydrogen may in like manner

mable, so that it may be handled with im chloric acid is next poured on the plate, be replaced by alcohol radicals, forming punity. When heated to the boiling-point which attacks only the parts which the light acid and neutral ethers. Phosphoric acid

it changes back to common phosphorus. has not acted on, thus etching in the design is used in medicine in the form of solution, Bolognian phosphorus, calcined native sul of the object superimposed. It is the invenconstituting the dilute acid of the Pharma phate of barytes, one of the most powerful tion of Mr. Fox Talbot. copæia. It is peculiarly suited to disordered of the solar phosphoric substances. When Photogram (fö'tò-gram), n. Same as Photostates of the mucous surfaces, and also to heated with charcoal, and exposed to the graph. (Rare.] states of debility, characterized by softening sun's rays, it emits light in the dark for Photograph (fö'tő-graf), n. A picture obof the bones.

some hours.-Phosphorus bottle, (a) a con tained by means of photography. See PHOPhosphorical (fos-for'ik-al), a. Phosphoric.

trivance for obtaining instantaneous light. TOGRAPHY Phosphorite (fos'for-it), n. A species of

The light is produced by stirring a piece of Photograph (fõ'to-graf), v. t. To produce a calcareous earth; a sub-species of apatite.

phosphorus about in a dry bottle with a hot likeness or facsimile of by photographic It is an amorphous phosphate of lime. wire, and introducing a sulphur match. It means. Phosphoritic (fos-fo-rit'ik), a. Pertaining is now superseded by lucifer matches and Photographer (fő-togʻraf-ér), n. One who to phosphorite, or of the nature of phos similar contrivances. (b) A 1-oz. phial con takes pictures by means of photography. phorite.

taining 12 grains phosphorus melted in Photographic (fő-to-graf'ik), a. Relating Phosphorize (fos'for-iz), v.t. To combine oz. olive-oil. On this being uncorked in the to photography or the art of making picor impregnate with phosphorus. Dana. dark it emits light enough to read the dial tures by the aid of sunlight.-Photographic Phosphoroscope (fos-for'o-skop), n. An

of a watch, and it will retain this property printing, the process of obtaining positives instrument designed to show the phospho for several years if not too frequently used. on sensitized paper from transparent negarescence of certain bodies, such as uranium --Phosphorus paste, a poisonous composi tives by exposure to light in a printing compounds, that emit light but for a very

tion for the destruction of vermin, as rats, frame. See PHOTOGRAPHY. short period. mice, cockroaches, &c.

Photographical (fő-to-graf'ik-al), a. Same Phosphorous (fos'for-us), a. Pertaining to Phosphuret (fos fü-ret), n. The name for as Photographic. or obtained from phosphorus.-Phosphorous merly given to phosphide (which see). Photographist (fő-tog'ra-fist), n. Same as acid (H2PO2), an acid produced by the action Phosphuretted (fos'fū-ret-ed), a. Combined Photographer. of water on phosphorous anhydride, by ex with phosphorus.--Phosphuretted hydrogen Photographometer (fö'to-gra-fom"et-er), n. posing sticks of phosphorus to moist air, (PH), a gas procured by boiling phosphorus [Gr. phos, photos, light, grapho, to describe, and in several other ways. Phosphorous in a solution of a caustic alkali. The gas and metron, measure.] In photog. an instruacid exists usually in the form of a thick which arises is spontaneously inflammable; ment for determining the sensibility of each uncrystallizable syrup, but it may also be and during its combustion there are formed tablet employed in the photographic proobtained crystallized. This acid is dibasic, water and phosphoric acid. It is colourless, cess, relatively to the amount of radiation, forming two series of metallic salts, named and has a disagreeable smell resembling luminous and chemical. respectively neutral and acid phosphites. that of onions. When mixed with air or Photography (fő-tog'ra-fi), n. [Gr. phos, Phosphorous anhydride (P2O3), a soft, white, oxygen gas it explodes at a temperature of photos, light, and graphó, to describe.] 1. The readily volatile powder, prepared by burn 300°. It is produced by the decomposition science of the action of light on bodies; the ing phosphorus in a limited supply of air. of animal substances. When this gas is principles of physics and chemistry which Phosphorus (fos'for-us), n. [L. phosphorus, cooled below zero (C.) it deposits a liquid relate to the production of pictures by the Gr. phosphoros, the morning-star, lit. light phosphide of hydrogen; the gaseous phos action of light.--2. The art of delineating bringer, from phos, light, and phero, to phide remaining is no longer spontaneously objects by the action of light. The name, bring. The chemical substance has this name inflammable.

however, as applied to the process of profrom its character.] 1. The morning-star; Phosphyttrite (fos-fit'rīt), n. Phosphate ducing pictures by the sun's rays, rests on a Phosphor (which see). -2. Sym. P. At. wt. of yttria, a very rare mineral substance. misconception. The true light-giving rays 31; sp. gr. 1.826. A solid non-metallic com Photel (fo'tel), n. A tree nearly akin to and of the sun have no influence in altering the bustible substance, hitherto undecomposed, closely resembling the banana-tree.

chemical condition of bodies and thereby occurring chiefly in combination with oxy Photics (fo'tiks), n. (Gr. phos, photos, light.] of producing those changes in their colour gen, calcium, and magnesium, in volcanic That department of science which treats of on which photography depends. Recent and other rocks, whose disintegration consti light. E. H. Knight.

investigations prove that these changes are tutes our fertile soils. It exists also in the Photizite (fo'tiz-it), n. [Gr. phos, photos, produced to some extent by the feebly lumiplants used by man as food, and is a never light.) A mineral, an oxide of manganese. nous blue and violet rays of the spectrum, failing and important constituent in animal Photo (fö'to), n. A contraction of Photo but chiefly by other rays which are ahsolstructures. It was originally obtained from graph; a photographic picture; as, to sit utely dark or invisible. The epithet actinic, urine; but it is now manufactured from for one's photo.

fluorescent, or chemical has been applied to

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these rays. (See ACTINISM.) The principle on tion of the relatives distances at which two by photography and subsequent processes which photography depends reaches back sources produce equal intensities of illumi and then printing from the block. to the time of the alchemists, who discovered nation. One of the most common photo: Photo-zincography (fõ'to-zing-kog“ra-fi), n. that chloride of silver exposed to the sun's meters is that of Bunsen, which consists of (Gr. phos, photos, light, E.zinc,and Gr.grapho, rays became black Wedgewood and Davy a screen of white paper with a grease-spot to write.] The process of projecting an imin 1802 attempted to apply this fact to ar in its centre. The lights to be compared pression on a plate of prepared zinc

by photistic purposes by throwing the shadow of are placed on opposite sides of this screen, tography and then engraving it by etching an object on a sheet of white paper, or, pre and their distances are so adjusted that the with acids, so that copies can be printed from ferably, of leather, covered with a solution grease-spot appears neither brighter nor the plate. This process was invented by Sir of nitrate of silver and exposed to the sun's darker than the rest of the paper, from Henry James, and is extensively employed rays, but they were unable to fix the pic whatever side it is viewed. When the dis in the ordnance survey department at Southtures. About 1814 M. Niepce, in France, tances have not been correctly adjusted, ampton. It is in principle the same as discovered a method of producing pictures the grease-spot will appear darker than the photolithography, on plates of copper or pewter, covered with rest of the paper when viewed from the Phragma (fragʻma), 1. [Gr., a fence.) In a sensitive resinous substance called bitu side on which the illumination is most in bot. a spurious dissepiment in fruit. men of Judea, and also of rendering them tense, and lighter than the rest of the paper Phragmacone (frag'ma - kõn), n. [Gr. permanent. This process he called helio when viewed from the other side. The in phragma, a partition, and könos, a cone.) graphy. M. Niepce associated himself with tensities of the two lights are to one an The chambered cone of the belemnite within M. Daguerre, who elaborated from his pro other as the squares of the distances from

the guard. cess the very beautiful one which bears his the screen at which they must be placed in Phragmites (frag-mi'tēz), n. [From Gr. name. (See DAGUERREOTYPE.) This process order that the grease-spot may appear phragmos, a hedge; forming hedges.) A has been superseded by two processes, viz. neither brighter nor darker than the rest of genus of plants including some eighteen the calotype process of Mr. Fox Talbot, first

species, known as reeds, tall, handsome patented in 1841, who revived Mr. Wedge- Photometric, Photometrical (fo-to-met grasses, with annual stems, and a perennial wood's process of obtaining pictures on sen rik, fő-to-met'rik-al), a. Pertaining to or root, found by the margins of streams and sitized paper (see CALOTYPE), and the collo made by a photometer.

lakes. They occur throughout Europe, and dion process, first suggested by M. Le Grey, Photometry (fő-tom'et-ri), n. (Gr. phos, in Siberia, Japan, North America, and Ausof Paris, and introduced by Mr. Archer in photos, light, and metron, a measure.) The tralia, forming thick coverts, and yielding 1850. (See COLLODION.) Calotype and collo measurement of the relative amounts of an abundance of strong durable grass, of dion photographs may be negative or posi light emitted by different sources, con great value for thatching roofs. P. comtive. Negative photographs exhibit the sisting in determining the relative distances munis, the only British species, is the largest lights and shades contrary to nature, that at which two sources produce equal intensi grass of this country. is, the lights dark and shades white; posi ties of illumination.

Phraise (frāz), v.i. To use coaxing or tire photographs exhibit them in accordance Photo-micrography (fõ' to-mi-krog"ra-fi), wheedling language. (Scotch.) with nature. To produce a positive, the neg n. (Gr. phos, photos, light, mikros, small, and Phraising (frăz'ing), p. and a. Cajoling; ative is placed on the sensitive surface of a graphó, to write.) The art or process of coaxing; palavering; making long or fine sheet of paper, and a piece of glass pressed enlarging minute objects by means of the speeches. (Scotch.] on both to insure contact. The sunlight microscope, and projecting the enlarged Phrase (frāz), n. (Gr. phrasis, a phrase, penetrates the negative and darkens the image on a sensitized collodion film.

from phraző, to speak.] 1. A brief expresparts of the underlying paper opposite the Photophobia (-to-fo’bi-a), n. [Gr. phos,

sion; a single word, or more generally two lights of the picture, whilst the parts oppo photos, light, and phobia, dread.) An intol. or more words forming a complete expression site the opaque parts of the picture (the erance or dread of light. It is a disease of by themselves or being a portion of a senlights of nature) are protected. The process nervous irritability, and one of excitement tence. Mollify damnation with a phrase.' for obtaining a positive from a negative is of the visual nerve in particular.

Dryden. called printing. In the Niepcotype process Photopsia, Photopsy (fő-top'si-a, fo-top'si), Convey,' the wise it call. Steal!' foh! a fico for albumen is used as the basis of the Alm in n. (Gr. phos, photos, light, and opsis, sight.]

the phrase!

Shak. place of collodion. Many modifications are A morbid affection of the eyes, in which 2. A peculiar or characteristic expression; constantly being introduced into photo sparks of fire or flashes of light seem to play a mode of expression peculiar to a langraphy, as the carbon process, popularized before them.

guage; an idiom. 'Sweet household talk and by Mr. Swan of Newcastle, whose plan was Photo-relief (fõ'tő-re-lēf), n. A term applied phrases of the hearth.' Tennyson.-3. The to prepare a solution of gelatine and bichrom to a process for obtaining by photographic manner or style in which a person expresses ate of potash (the latter being the sensitiz means and subsequent manipulations a himself; diction. Thou speak'st in better ing agent), mixed with some black pigment, printing surface in relief to receive the ink phrase.' Shak.-4. In music, a short part of a and apply the mixture as a coating to a and communicate impressions. See PHOTO composition occupying a distinct rhythmical sheet of paper, and print his positives on GRAPHY, PHOTO-ENGRAVING, &c.

period of from two to four bars, but somethe black cake, or tissue as it is called, thus Photo-sculpture (fő-to-skulp'tūr), n. [Gr. times extended to five and even more. Two produced. The autotype process, invented phos, photos, light, and E. sculpture.] The phrases generally make up a sentence closed by Mr. Johnson, is a more simple and process of sculpturing statuettes, medal by a perfect cadence. ready method of carbon-printing than the lions, and the like, by the aid of photography. Phrase (frāz), v.t. pret. & pp. phrased; ppr. carbon process proper, but the principles The person whose likeness is to be taken phrasing. To call; to style; to express in involved are the same. Various modes of is placed in the centre of a circular room, words or in peculiar words.

These suns, multiplying photographic pictures by what in the wall of which there are twenty for so they phrase them.' Shak. is termed photo-lithography have been suc four equidistant circular holes only large Phrase (fraz), v.i. 1. To employ peculiar cessfully tried. For a mode of multiplying enough to permit the action of a camera phrases or forms of speech; to express one's pictures by litho-photography from a har lens through each, while in a dark passage self. “So Saint Cyprian phraseth. Prynne. dened tissue, similar to that employed in outside the wall there are twenty-four (Rare.)-2. In music, to render music prothe carbon process, see under HELIOTYPE. cameras, each of which receives the image perly with reference to its melodic form; In Mr. Woodbury's engraving process the of that portion of the person towards to bring into due prominence the grouping hardened tissue is brought into contact which its lens is directed. The subject of tones into figures, phrases, sentences, &c. with a plate of type metal under consider is thus photographed all round. The Phrase-book (frāz'byk), n. A book in which able pressure. The plate takes the impres pictures thus received are then so arranged phrases or the idioms of a language are colsion of the relief, and pictures are printed that in a neighbouring room they can be lected and explained. from it instead of from the raised tissue. projected in succession by means of a magic Phraseless (frāz'les), a. Not to be expressed Photo-heliograph (fő-to-hē'li--graf), n. An lantern on a transparent screen. The sculptor or described. Shak. instrument for observing transits of Venus works behind this screen on a piece of model. Phraseogram (fră' zē-7-gram), n. (Gr. and other solar phenomena, consisting of ling clay, turning it round as he works, and phrasis, phraseos, a phrase, and gramma, a a telescope mounted for photography on an copying the figures produced on the screen letter.)' In phonography, a combination of equatorial stand and moved by suitable successively by means of a pantograph, shorthand characters to represent a phrase clockwork.

which has its reducing point armed with a or sentence. Photo-Uthography (fő-to-li-thog'ra-fi), n. moulding or cutting tool, so that, as the Phraseologic, Phraseological (frā'zė-oThe art of engraving on stone by means of longer arm is tracing each figure on the loj"ik, frā zē-ó-loj'ik-al), a. Pertaining to the action of light and of certain chemicals: screen the shorter one is reproducing it on phraseology; consisting of a peculiar form specifically, the process of producing copies the clay.

of words. of photographs and other transparent de Photosphere (fo'to-sfēr), n. [Gr. phos, Phraseologist (frā-ze-ol'o-jist), n. 1. A signs on prepared stone, analogous to that photos, light, and E. sphere.) An envelope of stickler for a particular form of words or of producing such copies on metal, described light; specifically, the luminous envelope, phraseology; a coiner of phrases. A mere under photoglyphy. See PHOTOGLYPHY. supposed to consist of incandescent matter, phraseologist.' Guardian.-2. A collector of Photologic, Photological (fő-to-loj'ik, fő surrounding the sun. According to Kirchhoff phrases. to-loj'ik-al), a. Pertaining to photology, or the sun's photosphere is either solid or liquid, Phraseology (frā-zē-ol'o-ji), n. (Gr. phrasis, the doctrine of light.

and is surrounded by an extensive non-lum a phrase, and lego, to speak.] 1. Manner of Photology (fo-toi o-ji), n. [Gr. phos, photos, inous atmosphere, composed of gases and expression; peculiar words or phrases used light, and logos, discourse.] The doctrine vapours of the substances incandescent in in a sentence; diction.--2. A collection of or science of light, explaining its nature and the photosphere.

phrases in a language. --- Diction, Phraseophenomena.

Phototype (fõ'tő-tip), 1. [Gr. phos, photos, logy, Style. See DICTION. - Syn. Diction, Photomagnetism (fő-to-mag'net-izm), n. light, and typos, a type.) A type or plate of the expression, style, language.

The relation of magnetism to light. Fara same nature as an engraved plate produced Phratry (frā'tri), n. [Gr. phratria. ) In day.

from a photograph by a peculiar process, as ancient Athens, a section of the people, Photometer (fo-tom'et-ér), n. (Gr. phos, by photoglyphy or photolithography, and being a subdivision of the phylē or tribe. photos, light, and metron, measure.) An in from which copies can be printed ; also, the Phrenesiact (fre-ne-si'ak), a. Same as strument intended to indicate the differ process by which such a plate is produced. Phrenetic. Like an hypochondriac person, ent quantities of light, as in a cloudy or Photo-xylography(fo'to-zi-log" ra-fi), n. or, as Burton's Anatomia hath it, a phrenesiac bright day, or between bodies illuminated (Gr. phos, photos, light, xylon, a log of wood, or lethargic patient.' Sir W. Scott. in different degrees. All such instruments and graphó, to write.] The process of pro- phrenetic † (fre-net'ik), a. (L. phreneticus, have for essential purpose the determina ducing an impression of an object on wood from Gr. phrenitikos, suffering from phrenich, chain; ch, Sc. loch;

j, job; , Fr. ton; ng, sing; TH, then; th, thin; w, wig; wh, whig; zh, azure.-See KEY.





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2 5

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tis or inflammation of the brain. See Phrygian (frij'i-an), a. (From Phrygia, in texts from the Old Testament, and inclosed PHRENSY.] Having the mind disordered; Asia Minor.] Pertaining to Phrygia or to within a small leather case, which was fastfrenzied; frantic; frenetic. Butler. the Phrygians.-Phrygian cap, the red cap

ened with straps on Phrenetic (fre-net'ik), n. A frantic or of Liberty worn by the leaders during the

the forehead just frenzied person; one whose mind is dis first French republic. - Phrygian mode, in

above and between ordered. anc, music, one of the ancient ecclesiastical

the eyes, and on Phreneticks imagine they see that without which modes or scales. The Phrygian scale com

the left arm near their imagination is affected with within, Harvey. mences on E, and differs from the modern

the region of the Phrenetically (fre-net'ik-al-li), adv. In a E minor in having for its second degree F

heart. The four phrenetic manner. flat instead of F sharp.-Phrygian stone, a

passages inscribed Phrenic (fren'ik), a. [From Gr. phrenes, the stone described by the ancients, used in

upon the phylacdiaphragm. ) in anat. belonging to the dyeing; a light spongy stone resembling a

tery were Ex. xiii. diaphragm; as, a phrenic vein. pumice, said to have drying and astringent

1-10, 11-16; Deut. Phrenic (fren'ik), 12. A mental disease; a properties.

vi. 4-9; xi. 18-21. medicine or remedy for such a disease. Phrygian (frij'i-an), n. 1. A native or in

The custom was Phrenics (fren'iks), 12. (Gr. phrën, phrēnos, habitant of Phrygia.--2. Eccles. one of an

founded on a literal the mind.) Mental philosophy; metaphys early Christian sect, so called from Phrygia,

interpretation of ics. R. Parke. (Rare.] where they abounded. They regarded Mon

Ex. xiii. 16; Deut. Phrenitis (fre-ni'tis), n. (Gr., from phrén, the tanus as their prophet, and laid claim to

vi. 8; xi. 18. mind, and -itis, term. denoting inflammation.] the spirit of prophecy.

3. Among the primi1. In med. an inflammation of the brain or Phthiriasis (thi-ri'a-sis), n. (Gr. phtheiria

tive Christians, a of the meninges of the brain, attended with sis, from phtheir, a louse.) The lousy dis

case in which they acute fever and delirium. -2. Delirium; ease (morbus pediculosus), which consists in

inclosed the relics phrensy or frenzy.

the excessive multiplication of lice on the Phylactery, from an original of the dead. Phrenologer (fre-nol'o-jer), n. A phrenol human body in spite of cleanliness.

Phylactolæmata ogist. Phthisic (tiz'ik), n. 1. A consumption or

(fî-lak'tő-lē"ma-ta), Phrenologic, Phrenological (fren-7-loj'ik, wasting away; phthisis.--2. A person affec n. pl. [Gr. phylaeső, to guard, and laima, fren-o-loj'ik-al), a. Pertaining to phren ted with phthisis.

laimatos, the throat. The division of Polyology.

Phthisical (tiz'ik-al), a. (Gr. phthisikos. See zoa in which the mouth is provided with Phrenologically (fren-o-loj'ik-al-li), adv. In PHTHISIS.] Of or belonging to phthisis; af the arched valvular process known as the

a phrenological manner; according to the fected by phthisis; wasting the flesh; as, a epistome,' and in which the tentaculate principles of phrenology. phthisical consumption.

disc is horse-shoe shaped. Phrenologist (fre-nol'o-jist), n. One versed Phthisicky (tiz'ik-i), a. Phthisical (which Phylarch (fYlärk), n. (Gr. phylē, a tribe, and in phrenology see).

archë, rule.) In ancient Athens, the chief or Phrenology (fre-nol'o-ji), n. (Gr. phrën, the Phthisiology (tiz-i-ol'o-ji), n. (Gr. phthisis, governor of a tribe or phylē, who was spemind, and logos, discourse.) The science of a wasting, and logos, a discourse.) A trea cially charged with the command and superthe human mind. But the term is now re tise on phthisis. Dunglison.

intendence of the cavalry. stricted to a doctrine founded on a presumed Phthisipneumonia (thi'zip-nu-mõ'ni-a), n. Phylarchy (fīlär-ki), n. The state or office knowledge of the functions of different por (Gr. phthisis, consumption, and pneumones, of a phylarch; government of a tribe or tions of the brain obtained by comparing the lungs.] In med. pulmonary consump clan. their relative forms and magnitudes in dif tion.

Phyle (fīlē), n. [Gr. phylē, a tribe.] One ferent individuals with the propensities and Phthisis (thi'sis), n. [Gr. phthisis, a wast of the tribes into which the ancient Atheintellectual powers which these individuals ing, from phthió, to consume.) A disease nians were divided, originally four, afterare found respectively to possess. The doc produced by tubercles in the lungs, and com wards ten. trine which is the basis of phrenology was monly known by the name of consumption; Phyletic (fi-let’ik), a. [Gr. phylē, a race. ] first propounded by Dr. Gall, a physician of pulmonary consumption.

Relating or pertaining to a race or tribe: Vienna, and subsequently by Dr. Spurzheim, Phthongometer (fthong-gom'et-ér), n. [Gr. applied especially in connection with the Dr. A. Combe, George Combe, and others. phthongos, the voice, a sound, and metron, development of animal tribes. The doctrine is based on the idea that the a measure.) An instrument used for mea Phyllanthus (ft-lan'thus), n. (From Gr. brain is an aggregation of parts or organs, and suring vocal sounds. We may, however, phyllon, a leaf, and anthos, a flower; flowers that each organ has a distinct and separate consider this instrument as a phthongo produced from the edges of the leaves.) A function in the evolution of mind or mental meter, or measure of vowel quantity.' Whe large genus of plants, nat. order Euphorbiacts. The faculties are usually divided into well.

acea. The species are all natives of warm two orders-feelings and intellect, or affec- | Phycology (fi-kol'o-ji), n. (Gr. phykos, a climates, and vary in stature from small prostive and intellectual fa

trate annuals to moderculties. The feelings

ate-sized trees. Some of are divided into two

18 17/16


possess medical genera- the propensi

properties, but few are ties and the sentiments;

21 15 21 12

of any special interest. while the intellectual

Phyllary (Al'a-ri), n. In faculties are divided


bot. one of the leaflets into the perceptive or

forming the involucre of knowing and the re

composite flowers. Storflective faculties. In the

month. subjoined figures the

Phyllis (fil'is), v.t. [From different organs (most

Phyllis, a name common of them double) are

in amatory poems.) To marked out and num

celebrate or flatter in bered, according to the

amatory verses. [Rare.) system of Spurzheim.

He passed his easy hours, Frey and Hitzig in Ger

instead of prayer, many and Ferrier and

In madrigals and pryllising Fig. 1.

Fig. 2. others in England have

the fair.

Garth. endeavoured to prove PHRENOLOGICAL CHART OF THE HUMAN HEAD.

Phyllite (fil'it), 1. [Gr. experimentally thatcertain functions are localAFFECTIVE FACULTIES. I. Propensities. I. Amativeness. 2. Philoprogenitiveness. 3. Con.

phyllon, a lear, and lithos, centrativeness. 4. Adhesiveness. 5. Combativeness. 6. Destructiveness. 7. Secretiveness. a stone.] 1. In geol. a ized in certain parts of 8. Acquisitiveness. 9. Constructiveness. II. Sentiments. Io. Self-esteem. II. Love of approba term used for a fossil leaf the brain, but their tion. 12. Cautiousness. 13. Benevolence. 14. Veneration. 15. Firmness. 16. Conscientiousness. in which the principal experiments are not

17. Hope. 18. Wonder, 19. Ideality. 20. Wit. 21. Imitation. conclusive. INTELLECTUAL FACULTIES. 1. Perceptive. 22. Individuality. 23. Form. 24. Size. 25. Weight.

veins converge at both the 26. Colouring. 27. Locality. 28. Number

29. Order.
30. Eventuality. 31. Time.

32. Tune.

base and the apex.-2. In Phreno - magnetism 33. Language. II. Reflective. 34. Comparison. 35. Causality.

mineral, a mineral found (fren-7-mag'net-izm ),

in Sterling, Massachun. The power of exciting the organs of the sea-weed, and logos, a discourse.] That de setts, consisting chiefly of the hydrous silibrain through mesmeric influence.

partment of botany which treats of the algæ cate of alumina, iron, and manganese, and Phrensy (fren'zi), n. [Fr. phrénésie, fréné or sea-weeds.

occurring in thin sie; L. phrenesis, from Gr. phrén, phrenos, Phycomater (fi'ko-mā-tér), n. [Gr. phykos,

scales or leaves. the mind.) An old spelling of Frenzy. De sea-weed, and matēr, mother.] The gelatine moniac phrensy, moping melancholy.' Mil in which the sporules of algaceous plants

Phyllium (fil'i-um),

912 (Gr. phyllon, a ton. first vegetate.

leaf.] A genus of orPhrensy (fren’zi), v.t. pret. & pp. phrensied; Phylactert (fi-lak'tër), n. A phylactery.

thopterous insects ppr. phrensying. To make frantic; to infuThe Pharisees were ... skilful expositors of the

belonging to the fariate. Byron. Mosaical law, weaving the precepts thereof in phy.

mily Phasmidæ, and Phrentict (fren'tik), n. A phrenetic. "Phren lacters (narrow scrolls of parchment) bound about

popularly known by tics or bedlams.' Woodward. their brows and above their left elbows. Sandys.

the name of leaf. Phrentict (fren'tik), a. Phrenetic. B.Jenks. Phylacteredt (fi-lak'térd), a. Wearing a

insects or walkingPhrontistery (fron'tis-tér-i), n. [Gr. phron-phylactery; dressed like the Pharisees.

leaves. Some of them tistērion, from phrontizo, to think, from Phylacteric, Phylacterical (fi-lak-ter'ik,

have wing-covers so phrën, mind.) A school or seminary of learn fi-lak-ter'ik-al), a. Pertaining to phylac

closely resembling ing. teries.

the leaves of plants Phryganea (frī-gā'nē-a), n. [Gr. phryganon, Phylactery (i-lak'tér-i),n. [Gr.phylaktērion,

that they are easily a dry stick-from appearance of larva.] A from phylasso, to defend or guard.] 1. Any Phyllium siccifolium.

mistaken for the genus of insects of the order Neuroptera, of charm,spell,or amulet worn as a preservative

vegetable producwhich there are many species. See CAD from danger or disease. -2. In Jewish antiq. tions around them. The eggs too have a DIOE-FLY.

a strip of parchment inscribed with certain curious resemblance to the seeds of plants.



Fig. 3.

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