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PIDDLE

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PIERCE

splitting the bark of trees; by their slender tongue, armed near the tip with spines that curvebackwards; and by their tail, composed of ten quills, with stiff and elastic stems,

Picus major (Great Spotted Woodpecker).

which acts as a prop in supporting them while climbing. From the structure and sition of their toes—two forward and two hind, each armed with a strong hooked claw—they are naturally climbers, and wander over trees in every direction, rapidly tapping the bark with their beaks to discover the place where an insect is lodged, and insinuating their long tongue into its cracks and crevices to obtain the larvae or eggs on which they feed. The noise they make when striking the bark is heard at a considerable distance, and gives them the name of woodpeckers. They pass most of their time in a solitary manner, living in the depths of forests. The P. viridis, or green woodpecker, is the best known species in Britain as well as on the Continent. P. *major, medius, and minor are likewise European species. P. principalis, or the ivory-billed woodpecker, P. auratus, or §o woodpecker, are American irds, the latter being by some naturalists §§ to the genus Colaptes (C. auratus). Piddle (pid'1), v.i... [A form of peddle (which see).] 1. To deal in trifles; to o: time in trifling objects; to attend to trivial concerns, or the small parts rather than to the main. “Too precise, too curious, in piddling thus about the imitation of others.” Ascham. [Obsolete or provincial.]–2. To pick at table; to eat squeamishly or without appetite. Swift.—3. To make water; to urinate: a childish word. Piddler o m. One who piddles. Piddock (pid’ok), n. Aboring mollusc of the genus Pholas or family Pholadidae (which

see). Pie o m. [From the Celtic; comp. Ir, pighe, a pie.] 1. An article of food consisting of aste baked with something in it or under t, as apples, minced meat, &c. Mincing of meat in pies saveth the grindig of the teeth. acon. 2. A mound or pit for preserving potatoes, &c.; a compost-heap.–3. In printing, a mass of types confusedly mixed or unsorted. re{}} m. [Fr. pie, from L. pica, a magpie.]

e magpie. “Chattering pies in dismal discords sung.” Shak.-2. A prating gossip or tell-tale. Chaucer.

Pie (pi), n. The old Roman Catholic ordinary, a table or directory for devotional services. Also called Pica (which see).-Cock and pie, a minced oath consisting of an adjuration of the Divine Being under a corrupted name, and the Roman Catholic service-book.

By cock and pie, sir, you shall not away to-night. Shak.

Piebald (pi'bald), a... [From pie, a magpie, and bald, spotted with white; Armor. bal, a white spot on the face of an animal. See BALD.] 1. Having spots or patches of white and black or other colour; having patches of various colours; party-coloured; pied; as, a piebald horse. “In a piebald livery of coarse patches and borrowed shreds.” Locke. Hence–2. Diversified; mixed; heterogeneous; mongrel. Piece o n. [Fr. pièce, Pr. peza, It pezza, from L.L. petium, a piece, probably from the Celtic: W. peth, Armor. pez, Gael. pios, a piece, a morsel, a fragment. Diez prefers to take it from Gr. peza, a foot, edge, border.] 1. A fragment or part of anything

separated from the whole, in any manner; as, to break, tear, cut in pieces; to dash a thing to pieces. Such implements of mischief, as shall dash To pieces and o'erwhelm whatever stands Adverse. Milton. 2. A part of anything, though not separated or separated only in idea; not the whole; a portion. “Call to mind a piece of a Latin poet or historian.” Addison.—3. A thing considered separately, whether regarded as a part of a whole or as complete in itself. His own spirit is as unsettled a piece as there is in all the .." Coleriore. 4. A definite quantity or portion of certain things; as, (a) a definite quantity of cloth, measuring a certain number of yards according to its kind. A piece of muslin is 10 yds.; of calico, 28 yds.; of Irish linen, 25 yards; of Hanoverian linen, 100 double ells, or 128 yards. Simmonds. (b) A definite quantity of paper-hangings, containing about 63 superficial feet. French papers, however, vary in length and breadth, according to quality.— 5. A distinct portion of labour; work produced; as, a piece of work.--To work by the piece, to work by the measure of quantity, and not by the measure of time. “Recourse was had to working by the piece." J. S. Mill. 6. An artistic or literary composition; as, to write a piece of poetry or prose; a piece of music; a finely painted piece; a piece of statuary. Whoever thinks a faultless piece to see, Thinks what ne'er was, nor is, nor e'er shall be.

Pope. 7. A coin; as, a piece of eight; a fourpenny piece. —8. A gun or single firearm; as, a field piece; a fowling piece. “A piece of ordnance 'gainst it I have placed.” Shak.9. In her an ordinary or charge. The fesse, the bend, the pale, the bar, the cross, the saltier, the chevron, are called honourable pieces.—10. An individual regarded as embodying and exhibiting some abstract quality; an individual regarded as one of a class. “Thy mother was a piece of virtue.”

I had a wife, a passing princely piece,
Which far did pass that gallant girl of Greece.
Mir...for Magrs.

11. An individual, as possessing only a #ht degree of a quality: used generally in contempt. ‘If I had not been a piece of a logician.” Sir P. § 3. A cask or vessel of wine. Beau. & Fl.—A-piece. See APIECE. —Of a piece, like; of the same sort, as if taken from the same whole; as, they seemed all of a piece. Often followed by with.

The poet must be of a piece with the spectators to gain reputation. IXryden. —To give a piece of one's mind, to state bluntly an opinion to one's face—generally uncomplimentary. “In a majestic tone she told that officer a piece of his mind.' Thack

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Rice §: Piecemealed? go." ), a. Divided into small pieces. Cotgrave. Piecener (pés'nér), n. One who supplies the rolls of wool to the slubber in the woollen manufacture. Piecer(pés'ér), n. One that pieces; a patcher; a boy or girl employed in a spinning factory to join broken threads. Piecework (pés'wérk), n. Work done and paid for by the measure of quantity, or by previous estimation and agreement, in contradistinction to work done and paid for by the measure of time. Pied (pid), a. . [From pie, magpie.] Partycoloured; variegated with spots of different colours; spotted. We now o the word chiefly or wholly to animals which are marked with large spots of different colours. If the spots are small, we use speckled. This distinction was not formerly observed, and in some cases pied is elegantly used to express a diversity of colours in small spots. “Daisies pied and violets blue.’ Shak. ‘Meadows trim with daisies pied." Milton.

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Pier (pêr), n. [O.Fr. pere, piere, a stone, Mod. Fr. pierre, from L. and Gr. petra, a stone..] 1. In arch. (a) the solid parts between openings in a wall, such as the door, windows, &c. (b) The square or otherwise formed mass or post to which a gate is hung. (c) The solid support from which an arch springs. (d) In mediaeval arch. a large pillar or shaft.— Pier arch, an arch springing from a pier or pillar.—2. In engin. (a) one of the supports of the arches of a bridge.—Abutment pier, the pier of a bridge next the shore. (b) A mole or jetty carried out into the sea, intended to serve as an embankment to protect vessels from the open sea, to form a harbour, &c. (c) A projecting uay, wharf, or landing-place. Frase (pér’āj), n. Toll paid for using a pler. Pierce (pêrs), v.t. pret & pp. pierced; pp. piercing. [Fr. percer, to pierce: origin quite uncertain] 1. To stab or transfix with a pointed instrument; as, to pierce the body with a sword or spear. If Percy be alive I'll pierce him. Sha&.

2. To penetrate; to enter in any manner; to force a way into; as, a column of troops pierced the main body of the enemy; a shot pierced the ship. Steed threatens steed in high and boastful neigh: Piercing the night's dull ear. Shak. 3. To affect; to touch; to move deeply. “Did your letters pierce the queen.' k.— 4.To dive or penetrate into, as into a secret or purpose.

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Pierce (pêrs), v.i. pret pierced; ppr. pierc* 1. To enter, as a pointed instrument. 2. To (". to force a way into or through anything; as, the shot pierced through the side of the ship.–3. To enter; to dive or penetrate, as into a secret. She would not pierce further into his meaning than himself should declare. Sir P. Sidney. Pierceable (pêrs'a-bl), a. Capable of being pierced. Spenger. Pierced (pêrst), pp. 1. Penetrated; entered by force; perforated.—2. In her. applied to any bearing which is perforated, so as to show the field under it. Piercel (pêrs'el), n. An instrument for forming vents in casks; a piercer. Piercer (pêrs'ér), n. 1. An instrument that pierces, penetrates, or bores; specifically, an instrument used in making eyelets; a piercel; a stiletto.—2. One that pierces or perforates.—3. In entom. that organ of an insect with which it pierces bodies; the ovipositor: formerly known as the terebra. The hollow instrument terebra, we may English piercer. Ray. Piercingly (pêrs'ing-li), adv. In a piercing . with penetrating force or effect; sharply. Pi ess (pêrs'ing-nes), n. The power of piercing or penetrating; sharpness; keenIness. We contemplate the vast reach and compass of our understanding, the prodigious quickness and piercingness of its thought. Derham.

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ope. Pierides (pi-er’i-déz), m. pl. [L] A name of the nine Muses, who were so called from Pieria, near Mount Olympus, where they were first worshipped among the Thracians. Pieris (pi'êr-is), n. A genus of diurnal lepi$o insects. P. crataegi is the blackveined white or hawthorn butterfly. Pierrie,t n. See PERRIE. Chaucer. Pier-table (pêr’tā-bl), n. A table placed between windows. Piet (piet), n. [A dim. from pie, a magpie. See PIE.] A magpie. Written also Piot and Pyot. [Obsolete and Scotch.] Pietism (pi'et-izm), n. The principles or practice of the Pietists; extremely strict devotion, or affectation of piety. Pietist (piet-ist), n. A designation given since the end of the seventeenth century to a religiouso in Germany who proposed to revive declining piety in the Reformed Churches; hence, applied to one who makes a display of strong religious feelings. The name of Pietist is theo of Methodist in Britain, being en in a good sense or otherwise according to the sentiments of

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those who make a display of strong religious feeling. Pietra-dura (pi-et'ra-dò'ra), n. [It... hard stone..] A name given to the finest Florentime mosaic-work executed in coloured stones, as jasper, carnelian, amethyst, &c., representing fruit, birds, &c., in relief, and generally used as a decoration for coffers or the panels of cabinets. Piety (pie-ti), n. [L. pietas, from pius, pious. ity is a different form of the same word.] 1. Veneration or reverence of the Supreme Being and love of his character, or veneration accompanied with love; also, the exercise of these affections in obedience to his will and devotion to his service. Piety is the only proper and adequate relief of decaying man. 3 ohnson. 2. Filial reverence; reverence of parents or friends, accompanied with affection and devotion to their honour and happiness. “The ety which to my country I was judged to we shewn." Milton. Pope's) filial piety excels o: §: story tells. Swift. Religion, Devotion, Piety, Sanctity. See under RELIGION. Piezometer (pi-e-zom’et-êr), n. (Gr. piezo, to press, and metron, measure.] 1. An instrument for ascertaining the compressibility of water, and the degree of such compressibility under any given weight—2. An instrument consisting essentially of a vertical tube inserted into a water-main, to show the pressure of the fluid at that point, by the height to which it ascends in the tube of the piezometer.

Piffero (pife-rö), n. [It., a fife.] The old form of the oboe, still in use in some districts. of Italy and the Tyrol. Pig (pig), n. [D. big, bigge, L.G. bigge, a pig; connections unknown.] 1. The young of swine, male or female; also applied generally to swine.—2. The flesh of a pig; swine flesh; pork. Now pig it is a meat, and a meat that is nourishing. oft-row. 3. An oblong mass of unforged iron, lead, or other metal. In the process of smelting, the principal channel along which the metal in a state of fusion runs, when let out of the furnace, is called the sow, and the lateral channels or moulds are denominated pigs; whence the iron in this state is called pigtron. A hackney-coach may chance to spoil a thought, And then a nodding beam or pig of lead, God knows, may hurt the very ablest head. Pope, —A pig in a poke, a blind bargain; something the quality or value of which is not known or seen. To bring one's pigs to a pretty market, to make a very bad bargain, or to manage anything in a very bad way:Pig's of: slang for a low or inaudible whisper; also, a short space of time. “You'll find yourself in bed in something less than a pig's whisper." Dickens. Pig (pig), v.i. or i. 1. To bring forth pigs; to bring forth in the manner of pigs.-2. To act as pigs; to live or huddle as pigs... ‘Pigging together, heads and points, in the same truckle-bed." . Burke. . . Pig (pig), n. [Contr. from piggin (which see).] n earthen vessel; any article of earthenware; a can for a chimney-top ; a potsherd. [Scotch.] ia (pi-gã'si-a), n. A pointed shoe worn in the middle ages, having the point made, it is said, like a scorpion's tail. The term was also applied to a pointed sleeve. Pig-bed (pigobed), n. The bed or series of moulds formed of sand into which iron is run from the blast-furnace and cast into pigs. Pig-boiling (pig'boil-ing), n. The decarbonization of pig-iron by contact with oxidized compounds of iron, whereby carbonic oxide is produced below the surface of the molten metal, and in escaping causes the appearance of ebullition or “boiling.” Called also Wet-puddling. Pigeon (pij'on), n. . [Fr. pigeon, Walloon povion, It piccione, from L. pipio, pipionis, a chirping bird, from pipio, to peep, to chirp, an imitative verb; comp. E. pipe, fife.] 1. One of the birds that form the family Columbidae, sub-order Columbacei, and belong to the genera Columba, Ectopistes, Turtur, &c.; a dove, as the stock-dove, the ring-dove, the turtle-dove, and the migratory or wild pigeon of America. The pigeons are one of the most numerous, * most widely distributed, and in some respects the most interesting families of the feathered race. They may be considered as among the greatest consumers of the fruits of the earth. They are all almost exclusively vegetable feeders, and very voracious. Notwithstanding their numbers, their general distribution, and the proverbial kindness of their dispositions, only one species has been domesticated, the tame pigeon and all its beautiful varieties deriving their origin, it is believed, from the

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Fan-tail Pigeon (Columba livia, var. laticauda).

rock-pigeon (Columba livia). These varieties are distinguished by names expressive of their several most prominent characteristics, such as the carrier-pigeon, fan-tail, #o shaker, tumbler, cropper, runt, &c.

e Turkish pigeon is another variety. In their wild state pigeons live generally in flocks, and they pair for life. See PASSEN

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2. A North American tree, the broom hickory (Carya porcina), and its fruit. . . Pigotite (pigot-it), n. [After the Rev. Mr. Pigot.) A brownish-yellow mineral containing alumina and organic matter, found incrusting certain caves. It is formed by the decomposing organic matter of the vegetation above being conveyed in solution in water into the cracks and fissures of the cavern, where it comes in contact with the alumina of the rocks. It is found in granite caverns in Cornwall, and in serpentine caverns near Portsoy in Banffshire.

*:::pon (pig'pen), n. A pen for pigs; a

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igtail.” Swift. #..a (pig'wed), n., Same as Goosefoot. gin, Pigwidgin (pig'wig-in, pig': wij-in), n. [Pigwiggin is the name of an elf in Drayton's ‘Nymphidia;' but the origin of the name is doubtful; comp. W. pigoden, a field-mouse..] A fairy; hence, a colloquial term for anything very small. Jeffrey. Also used adjectively. Pika (pi’ka), n. The calling-hare (Lagomys), an animal nearly allied to the hares, and forming the family Lagomydae. It is found in Russia, Siberia, and North America, and is remarkable for the manner in which it stores up its winter provision, and also for its voice, the tone of which so much resem}.that of a quail as to be often mistaken or Pike (pik), n. [Fr. pique, a pike; closely allied to pick, peck. See PICK.] 1. A military weapon, consisting of a long wooden

shaft or staff with a flat steel head pointed. It was used among infantry soldiers from thereign of Edward IV. to that of George II., when it was superseded by the bayonet. See SPONTOON.—2. A central spike sometimes used in targets, to which it was affixed by means of a screw. Shak.-3.t A fork used in husbandry; a pitchfork. A rake to rake up the fitches that lie, A pike for to pike them up handsome to drie, Turfer. 4. A large cock of hay. [Provincial English.] 5. A pointed peak, hill, or mountain summit: generally used along with some particular designation, as Langdale Pikes, High Pike. ‘That tall pike.’ Wordsworth. [North of England.]—6. In turning, a point or centre on which to fasten anything to be turned. Hard wood, prepared for the lathe with rasping, they pitch between the pikes. 3ros. Maxon. 7. A spike; the pointed end of anything. It was ordained in the Parliament of Westminster, anno 1463, ... ‘that no man weare shoes or boots having pikes passing two inches in length." Bryant. 8. In ich. a fish of the genus Esox, *; to the malacopterygious abdominal fishes, so named from its long shape or from the form of its snout. It is a fresh-water fish, living in deep water, and very voracious, but becomes palatable food. The common #. (Esox lucius) abounds in most of the kes of Europe. “The pike, the tyrant of the flood.” Pope. —Sea pike, a name given to the garfish. Bony pike. See LEPIDOSTEUs.

Common Pike (Esox lucius).

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Their shoes and pattens are snouted and Atked more than a finger long. azzlarit. Pike-devant (pik-de-vant'), n. [0. E. pike,

peak, Fr. pique, and devant, before.] A beard cut to a sharp point in the middle, so as to form a peak or pike below the chin. This fashion is seen in most of the portraits of Charles I. And here I vow by my concealed beard, if ever it chance to be discovered to the world, that oš make a pike-devant, I will have it so sharp point that it shall stab Motto like a poynado. Lyly. Pike-headed (pik’hed-ed), a. Having a sharp-pointed head. Pikelet, Pikelin (pikslet, pikolin), n. A light cake or muffin. He crumpled up his broad face like a half-toasted Aikelet. Azizia Seward. Pikeman (pik’man), m. 1. A soldier armed with a ike.—2. A miner working with a pike or crowbar. Disraeli.-3. Turnpikeman. “The cheery toot of the guard's horn, to warn some drowsy pikeman or the ostler at the next change.” T. Hughes. Pikerel, t. n. pike. Chaucer. Pike-staff (pik'staf), n. 1. The staff or shaft of a pike.—2. A long staff with a sharp pike in the lower end of it, carried in the hand as a supportin frosty weather. “As plain as a ke-staff.” Tatler. #. et (pil'aj), n. Same as Pelage. Bacon. Pilaster (pi-las’tér), n. [Fr. pilastre, It, pilastro, from L. pila, a pile, whence pillar.] A debased pillar; a square pillar projecting from a pier, or from a wall, to the extent of from one-quarter to one-third of its breadth.

A young

Pilaster.

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word; comp. Ir. pilseir, a pilchard; W. pilcod, a minnow..] A fish of the family Clupeidae (Clupea pilchardws, or Alausa £: chardus), resembling the herring, but thicker and rounder; the nose is shorter and turns up; the under jaw is shorter, the back more elevated, and the belly less sharp. These fishes appear on the Cornish coast in England about the middle of July in immense numbers, and furnish a considerable article of commerce. “Fools are as like husbands as pilchards are to herrings.” Shak. Pilche,t n. [See PILCH.] A garment of skins, usually furred; a pilch. Chaucer. Pilchert (pilch'ér), n. 1. A pilch. Hanmer. 2. A pilchard. Milton.—3. A scabbard. Will you pluck your sword out of this zitcher by the ears. Joha&. Pilcrowt (pil'krô), n. [A somewhat remarkable corruption of paragraph..] In printing, a p ph mark, thus *[. Pile (pil), n. [Partly from A. Sax. pil, aheap, a wooden pile or stake, partly from Fr. pile, a heap, a pier, a voltaic pile; both from L. {. a pier or mole of stone, a pillar.] 1. A eap; a mass or collection of things in an elevated form; as, a pile of stones; a pile of o: a pile of wood or timber; a pile of ruins.

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—To make one's pile, to make one's fortune. [American.]–2. A regularly formed mass, as a heap of shot or shell piled up by horizontal courses in a pyramidal, wedge-like, or other forms; a collection of combustibles arranged for burning a dead body. Woe to the bloody city, I will even make the pile for fire great. Ezek. xxiv. 9. 3. In iron-working, same as Faggot, 2. — 4. A large building or mass of buildings; an edifice; as, a noble pile; a venerable pile. The Goree, a vast pile of warehouses close to one of the docks, was burned to the ground. De Quincy. 5. In elect, a series of plates of two dissimilar metals, such as copper and zinc, laid one above the other alternately, with cloth or paper placed between each pair, moistened with an acid solution, for producing a current of electricity. (See Voltaic and GALVANISM.) The term is sometimes used as synonymous with battery, for any form of apparatus designed to produce a current of dynamic electricity. . (See GALVANIC.) The word is also §. to an apparatus for detecting slight c o of temperature. See THERMO-PILE.—6. In arch. and engin. piles are beams, generally of timber, pointed at the end, driven into the soil for the support of some superstructure or to form part of a wall, as of a coffer-dam or quay. For permanent works piles are driven in loose or uncertain strata in rows, leaving a space a few feet in width between them, and upon the heads of the piles the foundations of the superstructure are erected. In temporary constructions they are driven close together in single or double rows, so as to inclose a space of water and form a cofferdam, from which the water is subsequently pumped out, and thus a dry space is obtained for laying the foundation of piers, &c., in bridges and other similar works. Iron piles are used for wharf walls and other

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purposes; they are hollow or tubular within, and are cast in various forms. The foundation of the church of Haarlem is supported by wooden piles, as the houses in Amsterdam are. Alocke. —Pneumatic pile, one driven by atmospheric pressure when the air is exhausted from within it.—Screw pile, one with a screw at the lower end, and sunk by rotation aided by pressure if necessary. See SHEETPILE. —7. In her. one of the lesser ordinaries, triangular in form, and issuing from the chief with the point downwards. When borne plain it should contain one-third of the chief in breadth, and if charged, two-thirds. —Perpile, a term used when the escutcheon is divided by lines in the form of the pile. Pile (pil), v.t. pret. & pp. piled; ppr. piling. 1. To lay or throw into a heap; to collect many things into a mass; to heap up; as, to pile wood or stones. “Or pile ten hills on the Tarpeian rock.” Shak-2. To bring into an aggregate; to accumulate; as, to pile quotations or comments. Life piled on life Were all too little. Tennyson. 3. To drive piles into; to furnish, strengthen, or support with piles.—To pile arms, in military tactics, to place three muskets in such a relative position that the butts shall remain firm upon the ground,and the muzzles be close together in an oblique direction.— To pile barley, to break off the awns of threshed barley. Pile (pil), n. [Fr.; origin unknown.] One side of a coin; originally, a punch or puncheon used in stamping figures on coins, and containing the figures to be impressed. Hence the arms, or reverse, side of a coin is called the pile, as distinguished from the obverse, which formerly bore a cross in the place of the head. Hence the game of cross and pile. See under CROSs. Pile f (pil), n. [D. pijl, Dan. pil, pil, Sw. G. pfeil, an arrow, from L. pilum, a avelin.] The head of an arrow; an arrow with a square head, used in a cross-bow; a small javelin. When, on his haire-plumed helmet's crest, the dart first smote, then ran Into his forehead, and there stucke the steele pile, making way Quite through his skull. Pile (pil), n. . [0. Fr. peil, from L. pilus, hair.] 1 + A hair; a fibre of wool, cotton, and the like.—2. The nap, the fine hairy or woolly surface of cloth; also, the shag or hair on the skins of animals. ‘Velvet soft, or plush with shaggy pile.” Cowper. Pileate, Pileated § pi'lé-āt-ed), a. [L. pileus, a cap.] 1. Having the form of a cap or cover for the head. “A pileated echinus taken up with different shells of several kinds.” Woodward.—2.In bot. having a cap or lid like the cap of a mushroom. Pile-cap (pil'kap), n. In hydraulic engin. a beam connecting the heads of piles. Pil t (pil-kār'pet), n. A carpet in which the looped weft is cut so as to form a pile or downy surface. Pile-clamp (pil'klamp), n. In surg, an instrument for removing hemorrhoids. Pile-driver (pil'driv-Čr), n. 1. A workman

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Chapman.

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driving in piles. A common form shown in the cut consists of a large ram or block of iron, which slides between two guide-posts. Being drawn up to the top, and then let fall from a considerable height, it comes down on the head of the pile with a violent blow. It may be worked by men or horses, or a steamengine. The most improved pile-driver is one in which the iron block is raised by means of a steam-hoist and automatically detached on reaching the top. Pile-dwelling (pil'dwel-ing), n. A dwelling built on piles; a lake or lacustrine dwelling. See under LACUSTRINE. Pile-engine (pil’en-jin), n. An engine for driving down piles. See PILE-DRIVER, Pile-hoop (pil’hôp), n. An iron band put round the head of a timber pile to prevent splitting. Pileiform (pi'li-form), a. [L. pileus, a cap, and forma, shape.] sembling a cap; pile

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Pideopsis ungarica (Foolscap Limpet).

spiral, and directed backwards. The cavity is deep, offering an impression in form of a horse-shoe, open anteriorly. The P. ungarica, or foolscap limpet, is abundant on our own coasts. Pileorhiza (pil'é-ó-ri”za), n. [L. pileus, a cap, and Gr. rhiza, a root..] In bot. a cap or hood found at the end of some roots, and distinct from the spongiole. Pileous (pi'lé-us), a. [From L. Pertaining to the hair; covere sisting of hair; pilose. Pile- i. (pil’plangk), n. One of a number of planks, about 9 inches broad and from 2 to 4 inches thick, sharpened at their lower end, and driven with their edges close together into the ground in hydraulic works, as to make a coffer-dam. Piler (pil'ér), n. One who piles or forms a

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forsaken wretch. Pilgrim (pilgrim), n. [Direct from the L. G. or Scand. ; D. pelgrim, Dan. pilegrim, Sw, pelegrim, Icel. pilagrímr, same word as Fr. pelerin, It. pellegrino, all from L. peregrinus, a wanderer, a traveller in foreign parts, a foreigner—per, through, and ager, land.] 1. A wanderer; a traveller; particularly, one that travels to a distance from his own country to visit a holy place, or to pay his devotion to the remains of dead saints. Like pilgrim r to th' appointed place we tend; The §: an inn, o łł. journey's ; royaert. 2. In Scrip. one who has only a temporary residence on earth; one who lives in the world, but is not of the world. Heb. xi. 13. Pilgrim (pil'grim), a. Relating to pilgrims; travelling. Till morning-fair Came forth, with pilgrim steps, in amice ; tufoot.

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PILL

thing unpleasant that has to be metaphorically swallowed or accepted. Pill (pil), v. t. To dose with pills; to form into pills. Pillt (pil), v.t. [Fr. piller, to pillage, from pilo, to plunder. See PEEL.] 1. To rob; to plunder. See PEEL. The commons hath he pill"d with grievous taxes. Sha&.

2. To peel; to strip bare. Commons are always bare, pilled, and shorn, as the sheep that seed upon theiu. Jouth. Pillt (pil), v.i. 1. To be peeled; to come off in flakes.—2. To rob. See PEEL. Pillaffe (pilaf), n. Same as Pillau. Pillage (pil'āj), n. [Fr. pillage, from piller, to rob. See PILL, v. t.) 1. Plunder; spoil; that which is taken from another by open force, particularly and chiefly from enemies in war. “Which pillage they with merry march bring home.' Shak.-2. The act of plundering. ‘Pillage and robbery.' Shak. SYN. Plunder, rapine, spoil, depredation. Pillage (pil'āj), v.t. pret. & pp. pillaged; pr. 70illaging. To strip of money or goods § open violence; to plunder; to spoil; as, troops pillage the camp or towns of an enemy. It differs from stealing, as it implies open violence, and from robbery, which may be committed by one individual on another, whereas pillaging is usually the act of bands or numbers. *: (pil'âj-èr), n. One that pillages or plunders by open violence; a plunderer. Joye's seed, the pillager, Stood close before, and slackt the force the arrow id confer. hapman.

Pillar o m. [Fr. pilier, a pillar, from L. pila, a column. See PILE.] 1. A column; a columnar mass; by architects often distinguished from column, inasmuch as its section may be of any shape, and the whole mass not subject to the rules of classic architecture. A pillar may be used as a support or for ornament, or as a monument or memorial. And Jacob set a pillar upon her grave. Gen. xxxv. 20.

2. A supporter; one who sustains or up

holds. With grave Aspect he rose, and in his rising seemed A pillar of state. Afilton. 3. Something resembling a pillar in appearance. And the Lord went before them by day in a pillar of cloud to lead them the way; and by night in a fillar of fire to give them light. Ex. xiii. 21. 4. A portable ornamental column formerly carried before a cardinal as emblematic of his support to the church. —5. In the manege, the centre of the volta, ring, or manege ground around which a horse turns. There are also pillars on the circumference or side, placed at certain distances by two and two.—6. In conch. same as Columella. —Pillar Saint. See STYLITE. Pillar-box (pil'lér-boks), n. A public receptacle in the form of a short pillar for letters that are to be sent by post. Pillar-dollar (pilolér-dol-lér), n. A Spanish silver coin having two columns supporting the royal arms on the obverse. Simmonds. Pillared (pil'lérd), a. 1. Having pillars; supported by pillars.-2. Having the form of a pillar. ‘The pillar'd flame.” Thomson. Pillaret (pil'ér-et), n. A little pillar. “A cross floor . . . supported with pillarets.”

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And then concussion, rapine, pilleries, Their catalogue of accusations fill. Daniel. Pillez (pilléz), n. The name given in Cornwall to a species of naked barley raised there. Pillion (pilli-on), n. [Probably directly from the Celtic; comp. W. pilym, Ir, pillin, Gael. pillean, Manx pollan, a pillion, a pack

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bling those in the stocks, and holes through which were put the head and hands of an offender, by way of punishment. In this manner persons were formerly exposed to Fo view, and generally to public insult. t was a common punishment in Britain appointed for forestallers, users of deceitful weights, those guilty of go; forgery, libel, seditious writings, &c. It was abolished in 1837. The jeers of a theatre, the pillory, and the whipping-post, are very near akin. JP'atts. Pillory (pillo-ri), v.t, pret & pp. pilloried; }. pillorying. 1. To É. with the pilory. “Hungering for Puritans to pillory.” Macaulay. ence—2. Fig. to expose to ridicule, contempt, abuse, and the like. “Franchises . . . which have sometimes been pilloried with scoffing or irregular names." Gladstone. Pillour, t_n. [Fr. pilleur, robber.] A plunderer. Chaucer. Pillow (pil'lö), n. [0.E. pilwe, pulwe, A. Sax.

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when reposing, filled with feathers, down, or other soft material. Weariness

can snore upon the flint, when resty sloth

Finds the down pillow hard. Sha& 2. Naut, the block on which the inner end of a bowsprit is supported.—3. A brass bearing for the journal of a shaft, carried by a plumber-block.-4. A kind of plain fustian. —The pillow of a plough is a cross piece of wood which serves to raise or lower the

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Pilosity (pi-los'i-ti), n. Hairiness. Bacon. Pilot (pilot), n. [Perhaps from O.D. pijloot, a pilot, said to be from peilen, to sound the depth, and loot, the sounding-lead; but the word seems rather to be a Romance word: Fr. pilote, Sp. and Pg. piloto, It piloto, pilota, the origin of which is not clear.] 1. One of a ship's crew or company having the charge of the helm and the ship's route; a steersman. “To take the pilot's rudder in his hand.’ Dryden. His bark is stoutly timber'd and his pilot Of very expert and approved allowance. Shak. 2. Now more usually, a person qualified and appointed by proper authority to conduct ships into and out of particular harbours, or along certain coasts, channels, &c., at a certain fixed rate, depending on the draught of water and distance. The pilot has the charge of the vessel while in pilot's water, and the captain or master neglects or opposes the pilot's advice on his own responsibility. Pilots are established in various parts of the country by ancient charters of incorporation, or by particular statute. —3. A guide; a director of the course of another person; one who has the conduct of any affair requiring skill and vigilance.—4. The cow-catcher of a locomotive. [United States.]—Pilot's fairway, any channel in which a pilot must be employed. —Pilot's water, any part of the sea or of a river in which the services of a pilot must be obtained. Pilot (pilot), v. t. 1. To act as pilot of; to direct the course of, as of a ship in any place where navigation is dangerous.-2. To guide through dangers or difficulties. Where the people are well-educated, the art of §o a state is best learned from the writings of lato. Berkeley. Pilotage (pilot-āj), n. 1. The remuneration made or allowed to a pilot or one who directs the course of a ship.–2.1 The knowledge of coasts, rocks, bars, and channels. ‘Lose all our *: and pilotage of that part of the world." Raleigh.-3. #. guidance of a pilot or of one who directs another. Under his pilotage they anchored on the first of November close to the Isthmus of Darien. Asarazzłay. Used adjectively in suchphrases as-pilotage authority, a body of men appointed by the Board of Trade in certain ports for testing the qualifications of applicants for pilots' licenses, for granting or suspending such licenses, &c.; pilotage district, the jurisdiction of a pilotage authority. Pilot-balloon (pi"lot-bal-lón'), n. A small balloon sent up to ascertain the direction and strength of the wind. Pilot-bird (pilot-bêrd), n. A kind of bird found in the Caribbee Islands; so called because its presence out at sea indicates to seamen their approach to these islands. Crabb. Pilot-boat (pilot-bêt), n. A boat used by pilots for reaching ships near shore. Pilot-bread (pilot-bred), n. Same as Shipbiscuit. Simmonds. Pilot-cloth (pilot-kloth), n. A coarse stout kind of cloth for overcoats, such as are worn by pilots.

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