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free; as, a literal translation.—3. Consisting of or expressed by letters. The siteral notation of numbers was known to Europeans before the ciphers, Johnson. –Literal equation, in alg, an equation in which not only the unknown quantities, but also the known quantities, are represented by letters. Thus z* + az=b is a literal equation. Literal t (lit'êr-al), n. Literal meaning. What absurd conceits they will swallow in their Jiter...s. sir Z arozzi.e. Literalism (lit’ér-al-izm). m. The act of adhering to the letter; that which accords with the letter; a mode of interpreting literally. Literalist (lit’ér-al-ist), n. One who adheres to the letter or exact word; an interpreter according to the letter. Literality (lit-êr-al’i-ti), n. The quality of being literal ; verbal or literal meaning. Those who are still bent to hold this obstinate Aiterality. Milton. Literalization (lit'ér-al-iz-à"shon), n. The act of literalizing or rendering literal; the act of reducing to a literal meaning. Literalize (liter-al-iz), v. t. To render literal; to conform or adhere to the letter of; to interpret or put in practice according to the strict meaning of the words. Literally (lit’ér-al-li), adv. In a literal manner or sense: (a) according to the primary and natural import of words; not figuratively; as, a man and his wife cannot be literally one flesh. (b) With close adherence to words; word by word; exactly; as, the prophecy has been literally accoulplished. So wild and ungovernable a poet cannot be translated sitera oy. I’ryden. Literalness (lit’ér-al-nes), n. The state of being literal; literal import; the quality of iving to everything a literal or matter-ofact interpretation; want of imaginativeness or ideality. The short, fair, dignified, but well-meaning woman, whose excessive outera/ness had alumost driven her step-daughter crazy. P. B/ack. Literary (lit’ér-a-ri), a. (L. literarius, from litera, a letter.) 1. Pertaining to letters or literature; treating of or dealing with learning or learned men; as, literary fame: a literary history. “Literary conversation.’ Johnson. – 2. Furnished with erudition; versed in letters; engaged in literature. He liked those literary cooks

Who skin the cream of others' books.
Han. Mfare.

3. Consisting in letters, or written or printed compositions; as, literary property. Literate (lit’ér-āt), a. [L. literatus, from litera, a letter.] Instructed in learning and science; learned; lettered. “Literate nations.' Johnson. This is the proper function of literate elegancy.

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lege, but has not graduated.—2. A literary nian. Literatim (lit-êr-ā'tim), adv. [L.] Letter for letter. Literato (lit-êr-ā’tó), n. pl. Literati (litêr-ā'ti). [It litterato.) A literary man ; a litterateur. [Rare in singular. ) Literator (liter-āt-ér), n. (L.) 1. A petty schoolmaster; a dabbler in learning. Burke. 2. A man of literary culture; a man of letters; a literary man. Eobanus was the Poet of the Reformation, and, with Melancthon and Cainerarius, its chief / iterafor. Sir Jo". Hazza: froza. [“. Literator, modified from littérateur, is much nearer being anglicized. This word, but not in the sense attached to it by Burke, we have long desiderated; and the countenance it has received from Southey, Landor, Lockhart, Mr. De Quincey, and Mr. Carlyle has already availed to take off something of its strangeness of aspect." Fitzeducard Hall.) Literature (lit’ér-a-tūr), n. [L. literatura, from litera, a letter.) 1. Learning; acquaintance with letters or books; skill in letters; as, a man of literature. —2. The collective body of literary productions, embracing the entire results of knowledge and fancy preserved in writing; also, the whole collection of literary productions upon a given sub# or relative to a particular science or 3ranch of knowledge; the collective writings of a country or period; as, the literature of geology; the literature of chess;

Elizabethan literature; English literature. 2 + Idle; lazy.

3. The class of writings in which beauty of style or expression is a characteristic feature, as poetry, romance, history, biography, essays: in contradistinction to scientific works, or those written expressly to impart knowledge; belles-lettres.—4. The literary profession; the calling of authors of books or other written matter, &c. J.iterature is a very bad crutch, but a very good walking-stick. 1.aznič. –Literature, Learning, Erudition. Literature, the more polished or artistic class of written compositions, or the critical knowledge and appreciation of such ; learning, knowledge, that is, a store of facts acquired by study, especially in the literature of the past; erudition, scholastic or the more recondite sort of knowledge obtained by profound research. Literature is the thought of thinking souls. Caroyle. As Zeornrot, advanced, new words were adopted into our language. 3rchnson. Two of the French clergy with whom I passed my evenings were men of deep erudition. Aorarfe. Literatus (lit-er-ā’tus), m. pl. Literati (lit-er-ā'ti) [L. J A man of letters or el udition. Now we are to consider that our bright ideal of a literatus may chance to be maimed. De Quincey. Lith (lith), n. [A. Sax. lith. D. lid, Dan. lid, led, Icell lithr, G. glied, Goth. lithus, member, limb, joint; allied to A. Sax. lithan, Goth. leitham, to go.) A member; a limb; a joint; a symmetrical part or division; as, sound in lith and limb. The reader will at once comprehend the reason by cutting an orange through its centre obliquely to its axis. Fach oth is of equal size, but the exposed surface of each on the freshly-cut circle will not be so. A roy. Vacho. Lithagogue (lith'a-gog), a. (Gr. lithos, a stone, and agó, to bring away.) In med. having the power of expelling stone from the bladder or kidneys. Lithagogue (lith'a-gog), n. A medicine formerly supposed to expel small calculi from the kidneys or bladder. Lithanthrax (li-than'thraks), n. (Gr. lithos, a stone, and anthrar, a coal.] Stone-coal, a black, compact, brittle, inflammable substance, of laminated texture, more or less shining: in distinction from arylanthraz, or wood-coal. Litharge (lith'arj), n. [Fr.; Gr. lithargyros lithos, a stone, and argyros, silver, from argos, shining, bright.] The yellow or reddish protoxide of lead partially fused (PbO). On cooling it passes into a mass, consisting of small six-sided plates of a reddish-yellow colour, and semitransparent. It is much used in assaying as a flux, and enters largely into the composition of the glaze of common earthenware. Litharge plaster, in med. lead plaster, prepared by boiling oxide of lead in very fine powder with olive-oil and water, until the oil and litharge unite. Lithate (lith'at), n. (Gr. lithos, a stone..] A salt of lithic acid. See URATE. Lithe (lit. H), a. [A. Sax. lithe, lithe, mild, gentle; O. Sax. lithi, O.H.G. lindi, G. linde, gelind, Dan, lind, Icel. linr, soft, mild; allied to L. lenis, soft, mild, calm. In A. Sax. and E. the n has been dropped, and the vowel lengthened, as in goose, sooth, tooth, &c.)

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1. t Soft ; tender; mild ; calm; agreeable. , tempest.' Holinshed. –2. That may be easily

Litherly? (lith'er-li), adv. Softly; pliantly: yieldingly. Litherly, t adv. Badly; wickedly; corruptly. Chaucer. Litherness? (lith'êr-nes), n. The condition or quality of being lither. Lithesome (lit. H'sum), a. Pliant; limber; nimble; lissome. Lithia (lith'i-a), n. [From Gr. lithos, a stone. in allusion to the existence of the earth in a stony mineral. ) (Li2O.) 1. The only known oxide of the metal iithium, which was at first found in a mineral called petalite. It is of a white colour, very soluble in water, acrid, caustic, and acts on colours like other | alkalies.--2. In med, the formation of stone, gravel, or concretions in the human body. | Also an affection in which the eyelids are | edged with small, hard, stone-like concretions. Lithiasis (li-thi'a-sis), n. (Gr. lithos, a stone.) In mned the formation of a calculus or stone in any part of the body, especially the urinary passages. Lithiate (lith’i-āt), n. Same as Lithate. Lithic (lith'ik), a. 1. Pertaining to or consisting of stone. When we first meet the Buddhist style (of architecture) it is in its infancy—a wooden style painfully struggling into fiotic forms. 5*er Ferous ren. 2. Pertaining to stone in the bladder; uric.— Lithic acid, an acid obtained from urinary or gouty calculus. See under URIC. Lithium (lith'i-um), n. Sym. Li. At wt. 7. The metallic base of lithia, which base was obtained by Sir H. Davy in the electrolysis of fused lithium chloride; it is of a silverwhite lustre, but quickly tarnishes in the air. Lithium may be cut with a knife, but it is scarcely so soft as potassium or sodium; it fuses at 180°C., and takes fire at a somewhat higher temperature. Lithium floats upon rock-oil; it is the lightest of all known solid bodies; sp. gr. 0.5936. It forms salts analogous to those of potassium and sodium. Lithobiblion f (lith-o-bib'li-on), n. (Gr. lithos, a stone, and biblion, a book.] Bibliolite (which see). Lithocarp (lith'o-kārp), n. stone, and karpos, fruit.] carpolite (which see). Lithochromatics, Lithochromics (lith'okró-mat"iks, lith-o-kró'miks), n. (Gr. lithos, a stone, and chrönna, colour.] The art of ainting in oil upon stone, and of taking mpressions on canvas. Lithocyst (lith'o-sist), n. (Gr. lithos, a stone, and kystis, a cyst.] In zool, one of the senseorgans or marginal bodies of the Lucernarida or steganophthalmate Medusae. No certain evidence of the existence of a nervous *:::::: in the Hydrozoa has yet been obtained, but there can be little doubt that the sit/recysts, or sacs çontaining mineral particles. which are so frequently found in the Medusoids and Medusae, are of the nature of o: while the masses of pig

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ment, with embe refracting bodies, which occur often associated with the lithecysts, are doubtless rudimentary eyes. Aftersey. Lithodendron (lith-o-den'dron), n. (Gr. lithos, stone, and dendron, tree.) A genus of carboniferous corals, so called from their resemblance to a petrified branch. Lithodome (lith'o-dóm), n. One of several species of molluscous animals, which make holes in rocks, shells, &c., in which they lodge; one of the genus Lithodomus. Lithodomous (li-thod'o-mus), a. Relating to a genus of molluscs which perforate stones, &c. Lithodomus (li-thod’o-mus), m. pl. Lithodomi (li-thod'o-mi). (Gr. lithos, stone, and donos, house. ) A genus of Lamellibranchiata, belonging to the mussel family, which perforate stones, shells, &c. The mode in which the perforations are made is a subject of dispute. Lithogenesy’t (lith-o-jen'e-si), n. (Gr. lithos, a stone, and genesis, generation.] The doctrine or science of the origin of minerals composing the globe, and of the causes which have produced their form and disposition. Lithogenous (li-thoj'en-us), a. (Gr. lithos, a stone, and gemmao, to produce.] Stoneproducing; pertaining to the class of animals which form coral. Lithoglyph (lith'o-glif), n. (Gr. lithos, a stone, and glyphs, to engrave or sculpture.] The art of engraving on precious stones,

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oGLYPH.] A fossil that presents the appearance of being engraved or shaped by

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grafik, lith-o-graf'ik-as), a. Pertaining to lithography; engraved upon or printed from stone; as, lithographic engravings, lithographic press. – Lithographic stone, lithographic state, a slaty compact limestone, of a yellowish colour and fine grain, used in lithography. The best comes from the flaggy oolites of Solenhofen in Bavaria; but others are got in the oolites of England, France, Greece, and from older rocks in Canada. Lith phically (lith-o-grafik-al-li), adv. By the lithographic art. Lithography (li-thog'ra-fi), n. [See LITHOGRAPH.] The art of writing or drawing on stone, and of producing impressions from it on paper: an art invented by A. Sennefelder at Munich, in 1793. The principles upon which this art is founded are—(1) The quality which a compact granular limestone has of imbibing grease or moisture; and (2) the antipathy of grease and water for each other. A drawing being made upon a dry prepared stone with an ink or crayon of a greasy composition, is washed over with water, which sinks into all the parts of the stone not defended by the drawing. A roller, charged with printing ink, is then passed all over the stone, and the drawing receives the greasy ink, whilst the wetted surface protects the other parts of the stone from it. Impressions of the drawing may then be taken upon paper, by means of a press. For writings, the most common method is to write with a prepared ink on paper, and then transfer the writing to the stone b passing it through the press, after whic the stone is wetted, and the writing can be printed from as already described. Lithoid, Lithoidal (lith'oid, li-thoid'al), a. (Gr. lithos, a stone, and eidos, resemblance.] Resembling a stone; of a stony structure. Litholabe (lith'o-lāb), n. (Gr. lithos, a stone, and labein, to seize.) In surg, an instrument employed for laying hold of a stone in the bladder, and keeping it fixed, so that lithotritic instruments can act upon it. thola (li-thol'a-tri), n. (Gr. lithos, a stone, and latreia, service, worship. ) The worship of stones of particular shapes. Lithologic, Lithological (lith-o-lojik, litho-lojik-al), a. Of or pertaining to lithology or the science of stones; pertaining to the character of a rock, as derived from the nature and mode of aggregation of its minit; i. oily (lith-o-lojik-al-li), adv. I o -o-loj"ik-al-II), status. In a holo manner; from a lithological point of view; as, to regard a stratum litho#.# (li-th ologist -thol'o-jist), n. skilled in the science of stones. Lithology (li-thol’o-ji), n. (Gr. lithos, stone, and logos, discourse.] 1. The science or * history of stones; the study of the mineral structure of rocks. –2. In med. a treatise on stones found in the body. Lithomancy (lith'o-man-si), n. (Gr, lithos, a stone, and manteia, divination.] Divination or prediction of events by means of stones. Lith (lith'o-mârj), n. (Gr. lithos, a stone, and L. marga, marl.] A term applied to several varieties of clay, distinguished by great fineness and capability of being fused into a soft slag. They are friable and indurated, and more siliceous than aluminotusLithon tic, Lithontriptic (lith-onthripstik, lith-on-trip'tik), a. . [Gr, lithos, stone, and thrypto, to wear or break, tribó, to rub, to grind.] Same as Lithotritic. Lithonthriptic, Lithontriptic (lith-onthriptik, lith-on-trip'tik), n. A medicine which has the power of destroying the stone in the bladder or kidneys; a solvent of stone in the human urinary passages. Lithontriptist (lith'on-trip-tist), n. Same as Lithotritist.

A person

Iłł#"uth ophagi, ophagidae (li-thof't-ji, lith-o-faji-dé), n., pl...[see Lithophagous.) A name applied to all bivalve and univalve mollusca, radiata, &c., that penetrate stones, masses of madrepore, and other hard corals, forming a nidus or shallow basin-like lodgment for themselves. Lithop ous (li-thof'a-gus), a. (Gr. lithos, stone, and phagó, to eat.] ting or swallowing stones or gravel, as the ostrich; also, perforating stones. Lithophane (lith'o-fän), m. [Gr. lithos, a stone, and floo clear, transparent.] A peculiar style of ornamentation adapted for lamps, decorative windows, and other transparencies, produced by impressing thin sheets of porcelain, when in a soft state, into figures, which become visible when viewed by transmitted light. Lithophosphor (lith'o-fos-for), m. [Gr. dithos, stone, and phosphoros.) A stone that becomes phosphorescent by heat. Lithophosphoric (lith'o-fos-for’ik), a. Pertaining to lithophosphor; becoming phosphoric by heat. Lithophotography (lith'o-fú-tog"ra-fi), m. [Gr. lithos, a stone, and E. photography.] The art of producing prints from lithographic stones by means of photographic pictures developed on their surface. Lithophyl (lith'o-sil), m. [Gr. lithos, stone,

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Lithophyte (lith'o-fit), n. (Gr. lithos, stone, and phyton, a plant; lit. stone-plant. ) A name given to those species of polypes whose substance is stony or horny, as the corals and sea-fans. The older naturalists classed them with plants, hence the name.

Lithophytic (lith-o-fit'ik), a. Pertaining to lithophytes. Lithop us (li-thofit-us), a. Pertaining

to or consisting of lithophytes. Lithornis (li-thor'nis), n., [Gr, lithos, a stone, and ornis, a bird.) The generic name §. by Professor Owen for certain ird-remains from the eocene clay at Sheppey. The bird is supposed to have been accipitrine, whence the species found has teen called i, ruinurious. Lithosiidae (lith-o-si'i-dé), m. pl. [Type-genus Lithosia, Gr. lithos, a stone, and eidos, resemblance. J A small family of Lepidoptera, section Heterocera, characterized by a slender body, slender and setaceous antennae, long and spiral maxillae, moderate-sized, three-jointed labial palpi, and long and delicate wings. Some of the family are of brilliant colours, but the British species of the genus Lithosia are of a sombre colour. Lithospermum (lith-o-spèr'mum), n. (Gr. lithos, a stone, and sperina, seed—the little nuts or seeds being extremely hard, and having a surface as smooth as a polished pebble.] A genus of annual, biennial, and perennial herbs, mostly natives of Europe, nat. order Boraginaceae. L. tinctorium contains a reddish-brown substance used by dyers. Three species are natives of Britain, *} are popularly known as gromwell (which see). Lithostrotion (lith-o-strö’ti-on), m. [Gr. lithoströtos, inlaid with stones — lithos, a stone, and strötos, spread..] The name given by Lloyd to certain fossil corals found chiefly in the mountain limestone. Lithotint (lith'o-tint), n. 1. The art or process of producing pictures in colours from a lithographic stone.—2. The picture so produced. Lithotome (lith'o-tóm), n. (Gr. lithos, stone, and temno, to cut.] 1. A stone so formed naturally as to appear as if cut artificially. 2. In surg, an instrument for cutting the bladder in operations for the stone. Lithotomic, Lithotomical (lith-o-tom'ik, fit omik ai). a. Pertaining to or performed by lithotomy. Lithotomist (li-thot'o-mist), n. [See LITHOTOMY.] One who performs the operation of cutting for the stone in the bladder, or one who is skilled in the operation. Lithoto (li-thot'o-mi), n., [Gr, lithos, stone, and temno, to cut.] The operation, art, or practice of cutting for the stone in the bladder. Lithotripsy (lith'o-trip-si), n. Same as Lithotrity.

Lithotriptor (lith'o-trip-tér), n. Same as Lithotritor. Honorite (lith'o-trit), m. Same as Lithorator. Lithotritic (lith-o-tritik), a., of or per: taining to lithotrity; having the quality of destroying stone in the bladder. Lithotritist (lith'o-trit-ist), n. One skilled in breaking and extracting stone in the bladder. Lithotritor (lith'o-trit-ér), n. An instrument for triturating the stone in the bladder, so as to reduce it to small particles which may admit of being passed along with the urine, and thus render the operation of lithotomy unnecessary. Lithotrity (li-thot'ri-ti), n. (Gr. lithos, a stone, and L. tero, tritum, to rub, to grind.] The operation of triturating the stone in the bladder by means of an instrument called a lithotriptor. Lithotype (lith’o-tip), n. A kind of stereotype plate produced by lithotypy. Lithotype (lith’o-tip), v. t. To prepare for printing by lithotypy. Lithotypy (li-thot'i-pi), n. (Gr. lithos, a stone, and typos, impression.] A peculiar process of stereotyping by pressing the types of a page set up into a soft mould or matrix. On the removal of the types the hollows left by them are filled with a mixture of gum shellac, fine sand, tar, and linseed-oil in a heated state. This mixture when thrown into cold water becomes as hard as a stone, and forms a plate ready to be Ho! from. From the sand present in it t has a stony texture, whence the name. Lithoxyle, Lithoxylite (li-thoks' il, lithoks’il-it.), n. I Gr. lithos, stone, and arylon, wood.] A variety of opal, in which the form and texture of the wood which has been petrified into the mineral is still distinctly visible. Lith lith-il-ā'ni-an), a. Of or pertaining to Lithuania in Poland, or to its people or language. Lithuanian (lith-u-ā'ni-an), n. 1. A native or inhabitant of Lithuania. –2. The language of Lithuania. It is a member of the Slavonic family of Aryan tongues, and is gradually becoming extinct before the encroachments of Russian and German. Lithy (lit.H'i), a. [See LITHE.] Easily bent; * le; lithe.

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litigated or defended at law. Litigant (litsi-gant), a. Disposed to litigate; contending in law: engaged in a lawsuit. Litigant (lit’i-gant), n. A person engaged in a lawsuit. Litigate (listi-gāt), v.t...pret. & pp. litigated: }. litigating. [L. litigo, litigatum—lis, it is, strife, dispute, quarrel, and ago, to carry on..] To make the subject of a lawsuit; to bring before a court of law for decision; to prosecute or defend by pleadings, exhibition of evidence, and judicial debate. Dar'st thou still litigate thy cause, Spite of these numerous awful witnesses? Young. Li te (li’ti-gāt), v.i. To carry on a suit by judicial process. The appellant, after the interposition of an appeal, still litigates in the same cause. Ayloffe. Litigation (li-ti-gå'shon), n. The act or process of litigating or carrying on a suit in a . court of law or equity for the recovery of a right or claim; a judicial contest. Nothing quells a spirit of litigation like despair of success. Aaley. Litigator (li'ti-gāt-êr), n. One who litigates. Litigiosity Čš.o. m. 1. The character or quality of being litigious P2. In Scots law, a tacit legal prohibition of alienation, to the prejudice of a begun action or diligence, the object of which is to attain the possession or to acquire the property of a particular subject, or to attach it in security of debt. Litigious (li-tijous), a. [Fr. litigieuz, L. litigiosus, quarrelsome, contentious, from litigium, a dispute. See LITIGATE.] 1. Inclined to go to law; given to the practice of bringing lawsuits; quarrelsome ; contentious; fond of litigation. “A pettifogging attorney or a litigious client." Macaulay. -2. Disputable; controvertible; subject to contention; as, litigious right. No fences, parted fields, nor marks nor bounds, Distinguish'd acres of litigious grounds. Dryden. LITIGIOUSLY

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ronage, and present several clerks to the ordinary, which fact excuses him from admitting any until the right of presentation is decided. If two presentations be offered to the bishop upon the same avoidance, the church is then said to become Mitigious; and, if nothing further be done, the bishop

may suspend the admission of either, and suffer a lapse to incur. Blackstone. Litigiously (li-tij'us-li), adv. In a litigious

or contentious manner. Litigiousness (li-tijous-nes), n. The condition or quality of being litigious; a disposition to engage in or carry on lawsuits; inclination to judicial contests. Litiscontestation (li’tis-kon-tes-tà"shon), m. [From L. lis, litis, and E. contestation.] In Scots law, the appearance of parties in court to contest their rights. Litispendence? (li-tis-pen'dens), n... [L. lis, litis, a lawsuit, and E. pendence.] The time during which a lawsuit is going on. Litling, ta. Very little. Chaucer. Litmus (lit.'mus), n. (G. lackmus, D. lakmoes lack, lacker, and mus, moes, a semiliquid preparation, pap. 1 A peculiar colouring matter procured from Roccella tinc: toria and some other lichens. Paper tinged blue by litmus is reddened by the feeblest acids, and hence is used as a test for the }. of acids; and litmus paper which as been reddened by an acid has its blue colour restored by an alkali. Litorn (lit’orn), n. [Fr. litorne. Origin unknown..] A European bird, a species of

thrush. Litotes (li’to-téz), n. (Gr. litotes, plainness, simplicity.] In rhet, a figure, according to the Greek and Latin rhetoricians, in which an affirmative is expressed by the negative of the contrary. It expresses less than what is intended to be conveyed to the mind of the reader or hearer. Thus, “a citizen of no mean city," means, “of an illustrieus city.’ It is a figure constantly employed to soften what might otherwise appear obnoxious in self-commendation. Litrameter (li-tram'et-ér), m. (Gr. litra, a weight, and metron, a measure. An instrument for ascertaining the specific gravity of liquids. Litre (lé'tr), n. [Fr., from L. L. litra, from Gr. litra, a pound.] The French standard measure of capacity in the decimal system. The litre is a cubic decimetre; that is, a cube, each of the sides of which is 3-937 English inches; it contains 61-028 English cubic inches; the English imperial gallon is equal to fully 4% litres, or more exactly 4'54345797 litres. Litter (littér), n. [Fr. littore, Pr. littiera, from L.L. lectaria, and that from L. lectus, a bed or couch, from lego, lectum, to gather, to lay.] 1. A vehicle formed with shafts supporting a bed between them, in which a erson may be borne by men or by a horse. f by the latter it is called a horse-litter.— 2. Straw, hay, or other soft substance, used as a bed for horses and other animals; also, a covering of straw for plants. –3. Waste matters, shreds, fragments, and the like, scattered on a floor or other place; scattered rubbish; things scattered about or over in careless or slovenly manner. Strephon, who found the room was void, Stole in, and took a strict survey Of all the litter as it lay. Swift. 4. A condition of disorder or confusion; as, the room is in a litter. Litter (littér), v. t. 1. To scatter straw, hay, or other similar substance on or over for bedding. He found a stall where oxen stood, But for his ease well sittered was the floor. Dryden. 2. To spread a bed for; to supply with litter; as, to litter a horse.-3. To make litter of ; to use for litter. “Old leaves and littered straw.” Dodsley.—4. To scatter things over or about in a careless or slovenly manner. They found The room with volumes fittered round. Swift. Litter (littér), v.i. To be supplied with litter for bedding; to sleep in litter; as, he littered in the straw. Litter (littér), m. [Comp. Icel. laitr, the place where animals lay their young, from lag, a layer, a laying.] 1. The young produced at a birth by a quadruped, especially by a quadruped which brings forth a number at a birth, as the sow, the rabbit, the cat, the bitch, &c.–2. A birth or bringing forth, as of pigs, kittens, rabbits, puppies, &c. “The thirty pigs at one large litter farrowed." Dryden.

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Litterateur (littér-a-ter), n. [Fr. littérateur.] A literary man; one engaged in literary work; one who adopts literature as a profession. Befriended by one and another kind-hearted lit. terateur after another. C. Kingsley. Littery (littér-i), a. Consisting of litter; encumbered or covered with litter. Little (litol), a. [The regular comparative and superlative of the word are wanting, and are supplied from a different root. The comparative used is less, or more rarely lesser. For the superlative least is used, the regular form littlest occurring very rarely i. as a provincialism, and occasionally in colloquial language. It is used, however, by Shakspere. See LITTLEST.] . [A. Sax. lutel, O.E. litell, lytylle, &c., also lute, lite, lile, lille, D. luttel, Icel. litill, Sw., liten, Dan. liden, lille, Goth, leitils, little; O.H. G. luzil; farther alliances doubtful.] 1. Small in size or extent; not great or large; as, a little body; a little animal; a little piece of ground; a little table; a little book; a little hill; a little distance; a little child.— 2. Short in duration; as, a little time or season; a little sleep.–3. Small in quantity or amount; as, a little hay or grass; a little food; a little sum ; a little light; a little air or water.— 4. Of small dignity, power, or importance. When thou wast little in thine own sight, wast thou not made the head of the tribes of Israel? 1 Sam. xv. 17. 5. Of small force or effect; slight; inconsiderable; as, little attention or exertions; little effort; little care or diligence: little weight. 6. Small in generosity; not liberal; mean: narrow; insignificant; paltry; selfish. The talent of turning men into ridicule, and expos. ing to laughter those one converses with, is the qualification of little, ungenerous tempers. Addison. However we brave it out we men are a little breed. 7 room wront. 7. In the fine arts, a term denoting that a work is devoid of those qualities that tend to raise the mind of the spectator.-SYN. Diminutive, brief, insignificant, contemptible, weak, slight, inconsiderable. Little (lit'l), n. 1. That which is little; a small quantity, amount, space, and the like. A little that a righteous man hath is better than the riches of many wicked. Ps. xxxvii. 16. I view with anger and disdain, How little gives thee joy or pain. Prior. 2. Small degree or scale; miniature. ‘His picture in little.' Shak.-A little, somewhat; to or in a small degree; to a limited extent; for a short time. ‘The painter flattered her a little.” Shak. ‘Sub-acid substances are proper, though they are a little astringent.’ Arbuthnot. “Stay a little.' Shak.-By little and little, by slow degrees; gradually. Little (litol), adv. In a small quantity or degree; not much ; slightly; as, he is little changed. “The poor sleep little." Otway. Little-ease (lit'l-éz), n. An old name for any kind of peculiarly uneasy punishment, as the stocks, pillory, or some especially uncomfortable part of a prison. Was not this fellow's preaching a cause of all the trouble in Israel? was he not worthy to be cast in bocardo or little-rase # Bp. Latimer. Little-go (lit'l-gö), n. In the English universities, a cant term for a public examination about the middle of the course, which, being less strict and less important in its consequences than the final one, has received this appellation. Little-gude (lit’l-güd), n. The devil. [Scotch..] The Little rude was surely busy that night. for I thought the apparition was the widow. Gast. Littleness (lit'l-nes), n. The state or quality of being little: smallness of size or bulk: meanness; want of grandeur or dignity; as, the littleness of the body or of an animal; littleness of conception. The English and French, in verse, are forced to raise their language with metaphors, the pompousness of the whole phrase to wear off any sittlenest that appears in the particular parts. Addison. The angelic grandeur, by being concealed, does

not awaken our poverty, nor mortify our litt/rotest so much as if it was always displayed. Ger. Criter. Littlest (liti-est), a. The regular but seldom used superlative of little. Where love is great, the littlest doubts are fear. Shark

orLittleworth (lit'l-werth), a. Worthless: a term often applied to a person who has a bad character, and is viewed as destitute of moral principle. He returned for answer that he would not come to a stranger. He defended himself by saying, “He had once coine to a stranger who sent for hun; and he found him a littorwerth person." Asaszell. Littleworth (lit'l-werth), n. A person of little personal character, or of actually bad character; a blackguard. Littoral (lit’tó-ral), a. (L. littoralis, from littus, shore..] Of or pertaining to a shore, as of the sea or a great lake; inhabiting the sea-shore. Littoral zone, the interval or zone on a sea-coast between high and low water mark. Littorella (lit-tū-rella), n. [From L. littus, littoris, the shore, in allusion to its place of growth. ) A genus of plants, nat. order Plantaginaceae, containing one species, L. lacustris. It is an insignificant plant with grasslike leaves and small white monoecious flowers, the females sessile, the males on long stalks, with conspicuous anthers. It grows on the margins of lakes and ponds throughout the continent of Europe, as well as in Britain, where it is known under the name of shoreuteed. Littorina (lit-to-ri'na), n. [L. littus, littoris, the sea-shore..] A genus of pectinibranchiate molluscs, found on the sea-shores in all parts of the world, and which feed on seaweed. They inhabit a thick turbinated shell, of which the aperture presents a small angle, and is without a ridge. The common # is a specimen of this genus. rinidae (lit-tor-in’i-dé), n, pl. A family of gasteropodous molluscs, of which the genus Littorina is the type. See LITTORINA. Lituate (litou-āt), a. (L. lituus, a staff used by the augurs in taking omens, also a trumpet slightly bent at the end. In bot. forked, with the points a little turned outwards. Lituiform (li-tū’i-form), a. (L. lituus (see LITUATE), and forma, shape.) Curved like a lituus. Lituite (liti-it), n. [See Litt'ATE] A fossil cephalopod shell found in the Silurian formation. It is a chambered shell partially coiled up into a spiral form at its smaller extremity, its larger end being continued into a straight tube of considerable length. Lituolida (li-tū-ol’i-da), m. pl. [L. lituola, from lituus, and Gr. eidos, resemblance.) A family of Foraminifera whose walls are not perforated by apertures for the pseudopodia which are emitted from the single or multiple aperture of the shell. They are distinguished from the other families of the order by the test being arenaceous. Lituolite (li-tū’o-lit), n. (L. lituola, dim. of lituus, a trumpet slightly bent at the end, and Gr. lithos, a stone.) A genus of microscopic fossil foraminifera, chiefly of the chalk. They have their name from their spiral form and straight prolonged outer

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somewhat curved form and shrill note.— 2. A spiral, of which the characteristic property is that the squares of any two radii vectores are reciprocally proportional to the angles which they respectively make with a certain line given in position, and which is an asymptote to the spiral. Live (liv).p. i. pret & pp. lived; ppr. living. [A. Sax. lifian, libban, leosian, 0.F. lyve, leve, libbe, O. Fris. libba, liva, leva, L.G. and D. leten, Icel. lifa, Dan. leve, G. leben, Goth. liban, to live; from the same root as E. leave, the original meaning being to be left, to survive, a sense which the Icel. lifa still retains in some phrases; it is also allied to O. Sax lif, O.G. lip, G. leib, body..] 1. To have life; to be capable of performing the vital functions: said of animals and plants, but more especially the former. I am Joseph; doth my father yet live Gen. xlv. 3.

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Alrte while yo live, the epicure would say, And seize the pleasures of the present day; Lice while you live, the sacred preacher cries, And give to God each inoment as it flies: Lord, in my views let both united be; I lite to pleasure when I five to thee. Doddridge. 6. To feed; to subsist; to be nourished and supported: generally with on or upon, sometimes by or with; as, horses live on grass or grain; fowls lice on seeds or insects. Animals that live upon other animals have their flesh more alkalescent than those that live upon vegetables. Aröuth muct. As I do live by food. Shak. I had rather size H'ith cheese and garlic in a windmill, far, Than feed on cates and have him talk to me In any summer-house in Christendom. Shak. 7. To be maintained in life; to acquire a livelihood. Even so hath the Lord ordained that they which preach the gospel should live of the gospel. - 1 Cor. ix.14. 8. In Scrip. (a) to be exempt from spiritual eath. Ye shall therefore keep my statutes, and my judgments: which if a man do, he shall lize in them. Lev. xviii. 5. (b) To be inwardly quickened, nourished, and actuated by divine influence or faith. The just shall five by faith. Gal. iii. 11.

Live (liv), v. t. 1. To continue in constantly or habitually; to pass; to spend; as, to live a life of ease. Fame is the spur that the clear spirit doth raise . . . To scorn delights and live laborious days. Milton. 2. To act habitually in conformity to. It is not enough to say prayers, unless they live them too. Alarker. –To lice down, o to live so as to subdue or give the lie to; to live till subdued or proved false; to prove false by the course of one's life; as, to live down a calumny. Don't suppose that any mere scribbling and typework will suffice to answer the scribbling and type. work set at work to demolish you—write down that rubbish you can't—live it down you may. Alard Lytton. Leaving her husband to ponder how she and he had each oved their sorrows downt. 3 eafferson. (b) To obliterate the remembrance of by one's after conduct; as, he has lived down that mistake of his. Live (liv), a... l. Having life; having the organic functions in operation, or in a capacity to operate; not dead; as, a live ox; a lire plant.—2. Containing fire; ignited; not extinct; as, a lice coal. A sepoy who, with several others, were hiding in a rootn from which they were only driven by live shells. -- JP. H. Russell. 3. Vivid, as colour. Now from the virgin's cheek a fresher bloom Shoots, less and less, the live carnation round. - Thomson. 4. In engin. under pressure and imparting power, as steam; communicating motion, as

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a spindle of a lathe.—Live boar, a cell in which living objects are confined for microscopic observation.—Live feathers, feathers which have been plucked from the living fowl, and are therefore more strong and elastic.—Live hair, hair from a living animal.-Live salesman, a person whose business it is to sell live stock. —Live stock, the quadrupeds and other animals kept on a farm for the purpose of being employed in farm labour, for breeding, for being fattened, or for other purposes of profit. In the farming of Britain and similar climates the principal description of live stock are horses, cattle, sheep, and swine, but to these are generally added poultry, and sometimes oats, rabbits, fish, and bees. ve,t n. Life.—On live, in life; alive.—Lives creature, a living creature. Chaucer. Lived (livd), a. Having a life; existing: used in composition; as, long-lived, short-lived. Liveless t (liysles), a., Same as Lifeless. Livelihed to (liv'li-hed), n. Same as Livelihood. Spenser. Livelihood (liv'li-hud), n. [A. Sax. lif-láde, O.E. liflode, livelode, sustenance, maintenance, livelihood; lit. lead or course of life. The termination therefore is not the ordinary suffix -hood but the word lode — the same element as in lodestone or loadstone, &c.] Means of maintaining life; support of life; maintenance; as, trade furnishes many people with an honest livelihood.— SYN. Maintenance, support, subsistence, sus

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The remembrance of her father never approaches her heart but the tyranny of her sorrows takes all five.'ihood from her cheek. Shak. Livelily (liv'li-li), adv. In a lively manner; briskly; vigorously. Liveliness (livoli-nes), n. The quality or state of being lively or animated; sprightliness; vivacity; animation; spirit; briskness; activity; effervescence; as, the liveliness of youth contrasted with the gravity of age; the liveliness of beer; the liveliness of the eye or countenance in a portrait. Livelode,t m. Same as Livelihood, in sense of maintenance. Spenser. Livelong o a. That lives or endures long; lasting; durable. Thou hast built thysclf a livelong monument. Jazzrow. —Licelong day, day throughout its whole length; entire day. How could she sit the livedong day, Yet never ask us once to play? Swift. Liyelong (liv'long), n. A plant, Sedum Tele#. m, nat. order Crassulaceae. vely (livoli), a. 1. Brisk; vigorous; vivacious; active; as, a lively Šoš But mine eneinies are lively, and they are strong. *s. xxxviii. 19. 2. Gay; airy; animated; spirited; as, a lively strain of eloquence; a lively description. From grave to gay, from lively to severe. Pope,

3. Endowed with or manifesting life; representing life; living; lifelike; vivid; as, a lively imitation of nature. “Chaplets of gold and silver resembling lively flowers and leaves.” Holland. Had I but seen thy picture in this plight, It would have madded me; what joi I do Now I behold thy Zitely body so? Sha&. Such perplexity of mind As dreams too lively leave behind. Coleridge. 4. Strong; o: keen; as, a lively faith or hope; a lively persuasion. The gratitude of place-expectants is a litely sense of future favours. Sir R. J.I apole. t oth vivid; bright: said of colours and in In the spring a livelier iris changes on the burnished dove. Tennyson. SYN. Brisk, vigorous, vivacious, blithe, gleeful, airy, gay, jocund, quick, nimble, smart, active, alert, sprightly, animated, spirited, keen, strong, energetic, vivid, fresh, bright. Lively (liv'li), adv. In a lively manner: (a) briskly; vigorously. They brought their men to the slough, who discharging lively almost close to the face of the enemy, did much amaze them. Hayward. (b) With strong resemblance of life. [Rare.] That part of poetry must needs be best, which describes most lively our actions and *... ryanent. Live-oak (liv’āk), n. A species of oak (Quercits virens) which grows in the southern states of North America. It is of great folio, and is highly esteemed for shipInn ber.


Liver (liv'êr), n. One who lives: (a) one who has life. And try if life be worth the liver's care. Prior. (b) One who resides; a resident; a dweller; as, a liver in Glasgow. (c) One who lives in a certain manner, the manner being expressed by an adjective; as, an evil liver; a fast liver; a loose liver; that is, a person of evil, fast, loose, or immoral habits; a good liver, a hearty liver, one addicted to good living or high feeding. Liver (liv'ér), n. [A. Sax. lifer, D. and Dan. lever, Icel. lifr, G. leber; probably allied to G. lab, rennet, E. lopper, Sc. lapper, to coagulate, from its resemblance to a mass of clotted blood.] The glandular structure which in animals secretes the bile. In man it forms the largest gland of the body, weighing from 50 to 60 oz. The liver is not confined to vertebrates, all of which, with the exception of the Amphioxus or lancelet, possess a well-developed liver, but is found in many invertebrates. In the vertebrates the liver is a bilateral organ, and in early life it exhibits a perfect two-sided symmetry, extending to either side of the body; but as development advances the left lobe decreases in size, j}'} the right lobe to form the larger half of the organ. The under surface of the liver shows a further subdivision of its parts into five lobes, separated by four fissures or clefts. The #. fissure forms a deep groove dividing the fiver into right and left lobes. The fissure for the gall-bladder forms a second cleft on the under surface of the organ. The third is the fissure of the inferior vena cava, lying in the same line as the fissure of the gall-bladder. The fourth is known as the transverse or portal fissure, which in a manner unites the other fissures and runs at right angles into the longitudinal fissure. The transverse fissure transmits three vessels—the hepatic artery, the portal vein, and the hepatic duct—all of importance in the structure and functions of the liver. The two former vessels enter the organ and supply it with blood; the latter duct leaves the liver by the fissure, and carries the biliary secretion from the gland. In man the liver $o. a position in the right .. side and towards the front of the abdominal cavity. The liver is of a reddishbrown colour.—Liver of antimony, an oxysulphuret of antimony.—Liver of sulphur, fused sulphuret of potassium:so called from its liver-colour. Liver (liv'ér), v. t. To deliver. [Old and provincial English.] Liver-colour (liv'êr-kul-ćr), a. Of the colour of the liver; reddish-brown. Liver-coloured (liv'êr-kul-ćrd), a. Of the colour of the liver; as, a liver-coloured dog. Liver-complaint (liv'êr-kom-plant), n. Disease of the liver. Livered (liv'èrd), a. Having a liver: used in composition; as, white-livered. But I am pigeon-livered and lack gall To make oppression bitter. -Sorro. Liver-fluke go) m. Distoma hepaticum. See DISTOMA. Livergrown (hiv'êr-grón), a. Having a large liver. Liveried (liv'êr-id), a. Wearing a livery, as servants. A thousand liveried angels lackey her. Milton. Livering (liv'êr-ing), n. A kind of pudding or sausage made of liver or pork. Liverings, white-skinned as ladies. Chapman. Liver-spots (liv'ér-spots), A popular term for the disease *}. called pityriasis versicolor, which chiefly affects the arms, breast, and abdomen. See PITYRIASIS. Liverstone (liv'êr-stön), n. (G. leber-stein, liverstone..] A stone or †. of earth, of a gray or brown colour, which, when rubbed or heated to redness, emits the smell of liver of sulphur, or alkaline sulphuret. - Liverwort (liv'êrwört), m. [From the appearance of the plants.] One of a nat. order (Hepaticae) of cryptogamic plants, differing from mosses, to which they are o allied, in their capsule never ...i a distinct lid, and consequently in the to absence of a peristome. Live iv'êr-i), n. [Fr. livrée, from livré, pp. of livrer, to deliver, because the livrée

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was originally a thing remitted or given, and particularly clothes for dependants or provender for horses. Fr. liprer is L. libero, to liberate.] 1. In law, (a) the act of giving possession of property: chiefly used in the phrase liceru of so sin, that is, the putting a person in corporal possession of a freehold by giving him the ring, latch, or key of the door; or, if land, by delivering him a turf or twig; or, in either case, doing any act before witnesses which clearly places the party in possession. It formerly accompanied all conveyances of land, but is now confined to that conveyance called a feoffment. (b) The writ by which possession is given.--2. Release from wardship; deliverance. Death fewer liveries gives Than life. Chapman. It concerned them first to sue out their livery from

the unjust wardship of his encroaching prerogative. - Afzztoft.

3. An allowance of food at a certain rate; an allowance of food statedly given out; a ration, as to a family, to servants, to horses, &c.; hence, the state of being kept at a certain rate and regularly fed and tended; as, to keep horses at livery. What fivery is, we by common use in England know well enough, namely, that it is allowance of horse-meat, as they commonly use the word in stabling; as to keep horses at Živory, the which word, I guess, is derived of livering or delivering forth their nightly food. Spenser. 4. (a) The badge or uniform clothing given by barons and others to their retainers when in military service; and hence, sometimes a division of an army distinguished from another division by such badge or uniform. (b) The peculiar dress by which the servants of a nobleman or gentleman are distinguished; as, a claret-coloured livery. (c) The peculiar dress or garb assumed by any class or association of persons to their own use; as, the livery of the tradesmen of London, of a priest, of a charity-school, and the like; also, the whole body or association of persons wearing such a garb; as, the whole lirery of London. From the periodical deliveries of these character. istic articles of servile costume (blue coats) came our word ... ery. De Quincey. (d) Any characteristic dress, or a dress assumed for or worn upon a particular occasion; hence, characteristic covering or outward appearance; as, the livery of May or of autumn. Now came still evening on, and twilight gray Had in her sober 11cery all things clad. Milton. Hoery (liv'ér-i), c.t. To clothe in, or as in, very. o rudeness so with his authorized youth Did livery falseness in a pride of truth. Shak. Livery (liv'ér-i), a. Resembling the liver; as, a livery colour, texture, &c. Livery-coat (liv'ér-i-köt), m. A coat worn by servants in livery. Livery-com (liv'êr-i-kum-pa-ni), n. The company of London liverymen. Livery-gown (liv'êr-i-goun), n. The robe worn by a London liveryman. Liveryman (liv'êr-i-man), n. One who wears a livery; specifically, a freeman of the city of London, who, having paid certain fees, is entitled to wear the characteristic dress or livery of the company to which he belongs, and also to enjoy certain other privileges, as the right to vote in the election of the lord-mayor, sheriffs, chamberlain, &c. Livery-man (liv'ér-i-man), n. A person who keeps a livery-stable. Livery-servant (liv'êr-i-sér-vant), n. Aservant who wears a livery. Livery-stable (liv'êr-i-stä-bl), n. A stable where horses are kept, or kept and maintained for hire. Livid (liv'id), a. [L. lividus, from liveo, to be black and blue.] Black and blue; of a lead colour; discoloured, as flesh by contuslon. Upon my livid lips bestow a kiss. Dryden. Lividity, Lividness (li-vid'i-ti, liv'id-nes), m. The state of being livid; a dark colour, like that of bruised flesh. The signs of a tendency to such a state, are darkness or divia'izz of the countenance. .1 routh not. Living (living), p. and a. 1. Having life or the vital functions in operation; not dead. 2. Having the appearance of animation; in motion; flowing; running; as, a living spring or fountain: opposed to stagnant.—3. Producing action, animation, and vigour; quickening: as, a tiring principle ; a living faith. Living force L. ris vival, in physics, the

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force of a body in motion, estimated by the distance to which the body goes.—Liring rock, rock in its native or original state or location. I now found myself on a rude and narrow stairway, the steps of which were cut out of the avano rock. .1/acre. —The liring, one who is or those who are alive : usually with a plural signification; as, in the land of the living. The Irving will lay it to his heart. Eccl. vii. 2. Living (living), n. 1. Means of subsistence; estate; livelihood. He divided unto them his litting. Luke xv. 12. She of her want did cast in all that she had, even all her fiving. Mark xii. 44Thus earn'd a scanty living for himself. Tennyson.

2. Power of continuing life; the act of living, or of living comfortably. There is no sizing without trusting somebody or other in some cases. I'Estranse. 3. The benefice of a clergyman; an ecclesiastical charge which a minister receives. Rather than grant to the civil magistrate the absolute power of nominating spiritual pastors, the ministers of the Church of Scotland in our own time resigned their livings by hundreds. ..!/acazo y. 4. Manner of life. Dr. Parker, in his sermon before them, touched them so near for their living, that they went near to touch him for his life. Assay to art. Livingly (living-li), adv. In a living state. Livingness (living-nes), n. State of being alive; quickness; possession of energy or }*: animation; as, the livingness of his alth. Livonian (li-vö'ni-an), a. Of or pertaining to Livonia; Lettish. Livonian (li-vö'ni-an). m. 1. A native or inhabitant of Livonia.-2. The language spoken by the Livonians. Livor (li’vér), n. [L. J. Malignity. “The utmost that livor and malice can invent." Burton. Livraison (lé-vrā-zof), m. [Fr., from lirrer, to deliver.] A part of a book or literary composition printed and delivered before the work is completed. Livre (le-vr), n. [Fr. ; L. libra. ] An old French money of account, not now in use, having been superseded by the franc. The livre tournois was worth 20 sous, about 10d. sterling; the livre parisis, 25 sous, about 18. oli Lixivious (liks-iv'i-al, liks-iv'i-us), a. [L. līcivium, from liar, ashes.) 1. Obtained by lixiviation; impregnated with alkaline salt extracted from wood-ashes, –2. Containing or consisting of salt extracted from the ashes of wood.-3. Of the colour of lye; resembling lye. —4. Having the qualities of alkaline salts from wood-ashes. – Liarivial salts, in chem. salts obtained by passing water through ashes, or by pouring it on

them. Lixiviate (liks-iv'i-āt), v. t. [L. liaririum o see) ) To subject to the process of ixiviation; to form into lye ; to impregnate with salts from wood-ashes; as, water is liziwiated by passing through ashes. viate, Lixiviated (liks-iv'i-āt, liks-iv'iàt-ed), a. 1. Pertaining to lye or lixivium; of the quality of alkaline salts.-2. Impregnated with salts from wood-ashes. Lixiviation (liks-iv'i-à"shon), n. The operation or process of extracting alkaline salts from ashes by pouring water on them, the water passing through them taking up the salts. Lixivious, a. See LIXIVIAL. Lixivium (liks-iv'i-um), n. [L., from liz, wood-ashes, lye.] Water impregnated with alkaline salts taken up from wood-ashes: sometimes applied to other extracts. Lizard (liz'êrd), n. . [Fr. legard, from L. lacerta, lacertus, a lizard.] 1. The popular English name of all the lacertilian reptiles, but specifically restricted to the members of the family Lacertidae. The true lizards have four legs, with five toes each, a scaly exoskeleton, a slender bifid protrusible tongue, and a heart with two auricles and one ventricle, The only true British lizards are the sand-lizard and the viviparous lizard. The fo little green lizard of the Continent s the Lacerta viridis. It occurs also in Jersey. The Megalosaurus and other large fossil saurians are lizard-like, though in several points they resemble the crocodile. The monitors, iguanas, geckos, and chameleons are also commonly included under this term. See SAURIA, LACERTIDAE. –2. Naut. a piece of rope, sometimes with two legs, and one or more iron thimbles or blocks spliced into it: used in a vessel for various purposes.


Lizard-seeker (lizerd-sek-er), n., one of a genus of exotic cuckoos (Saurothera), so called because the birds live much on lizards, which they seek on the ground. Lizard-stone (liz’érd-stön), n. A name for the serpentine marble stone obtained in Cornwall, in the vicinity of the Lizard Point. It is worked up into chimney-pieces, ornaments, &c. Simmonds. Lizard-tail (liz’érd-tál), n. A plant of the genus Saururus (S. cernutus), having a terminal spike of white flowers somewhat resembling a lizard's tail in form. It grows in marshes in North America, and is the #!" of a small order, Saururaceae, allied to the pepper family. Llama (la'ma or lyā'mâ), m. [A Peruvian word.) An ungulate ruminating quadruped of the genus Auchenia (A lamna), closely allied to the camel, from which it is distinguished chiefly by the absence of a hump, by being smaller, by the separation of the toes, and by having claws. It was the only beast of burden in America before the arrival of the Spaniards, and is still used as such in the Andes, the conformation of its feet enabling it to walk on slopes too rough or steep for any other animal. It is about 3 feet high at the shoulder, and has a longish neck. It is so closely allied to the alpaca that the latter is sometimes regarded as a finer-woolled variety of it. Llan. [W., an inclosure, and hence, a church. ) A very frequent element in place-names in Wales, and occurring also in England and Scotland; as, Llandaff; Llangollen; Llanidloes; Lanlivery; Lanark; Lamrick; Lhanbryde; &c. Llandeilo Beds (lan-dioló bedz), In geol. the name of one of the lower Silurian rock Fo consisting of calcareous, dark-coloured flags, with sandstone, and containing molluscs, trilobites, and many graptolites. It is so named from the town of LlandeiloFawr, in Caermarthen, near which it occurs. It is 5000 feet thick in North Wales. Llandovery Rocks (lan-dò'vér-i roks), [From Llandovery, where these rocks are best developed. J. In geol. certain beds of sandstones and shales in Wales, the upper series of which belongs to the upper Silurian, being unconformable on }. lower, which goes with the lower Silurian. Both series are sandy. Llanero (lyan-er'ö), n. [Sp., from llamo.] An inhabitant of the llanos of South Annerica. The llaneros are principally converted Indians or descendants of Indians and whites, and are distinguished for activity, ferocity, ignorance, and semi-barbarous habits. They are almost all shepherds or cattle herds. Llanos (lan'āz or lyā'nöz), n. pl. [Sp., from L. planus, level.] Vast and almost entirely level steppes or plains in the northern part of South America. Many portions of them are covered with little or no vegetation, except on the banks of rivers and during the seasons of inundation; others again, as the Fo of Venezuela, furnish pasture for arge herds of cattle; while others are covered with forests. Lloyd's (loidz), n. [Because the headquarters of the underwriters was originally Lloyd's coffee-house from 1716. 1 1. A society of underwriters and others in London for the collection and diffusion of marine intelligence, the insurance, classification, and certification of vessels, and the transaction of business of various kinds connected with shipping. They have agents in various quarters of the world. –2. Rooms in the Royal Exchange, London, for the use of underwriters, &c. — Lloyd's List, a London daily publication, containing full and early information as to shipping matters. – Lloyd's Register, a register of British and foreign shipping, published yearly. The names of the vessels are alphabetically arranged, and ranked in different classes. (as A1, &c.) according to their qualifications, their title to be in any class being determined by the report of surveyors, and by certain rules as to their construction, the nature of the materials, their state of repairs,

age, &c. Lloyd's Bond (loidz' bond), n. [After John Horatio Lloyd, a barrister, who first introduced them.] A species of security devised for the purpose of enabling corporate bodies, as railway companies, whose powers of borrowing money are regulated and limited by statute, to incur greater money liabilities than statutory enactment permits them to do by

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