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the inflammable gas (carburetted hydrogen) outside. In some forms of the lamp a glass cylinder is placed inside the gauze cage; this resists air currents and ensuresasteadier light. Safety-lintel (sāf’ti-lin-tel), n. A name given to the wooden lintel which is placed behind a stone lintel in the aperture of a door or window. Safety-pin (sāf'ti-pin), n. A pin having its point fitting into a kind of sheath, so that it may not be readily withdrawn or prick the wearer or others while in use. Safety-plug (sāfti-plug), n. In steam-boilers, a bolt Thaving its centre filled with a fusible metal screwed into the top of the fire-box, so that when the water becomes too low the increased temperature melts out the metal, and thus admits the water to put the fire out, and save the tubes and fire-box from injury by too great heat. Safety-tube (sāf'ti-tūb), n. An arrangement adapted to a gas-generating vessel, to prevent the liquid into which the delivery tube dips from passing back into the vessel in consequence of diminished internal pressure. The simplest form consists of astraight tube passing through the cork of the generating vessel and dipping below the surface of the liquid, or of a tube bent twice at right angles, passing just through the cork, so that a portion of liquid may remain in the lower bend and form a liquid joint, cutting off the communication between the inside of the vessel and the external air. Safety-valve (sāf'ti-valv), n. A contrivance for obviating or diminishing the risk of ex

Fig. 1.

Lever Safety-valve.

plosions in steam-boilers. The form and construction of safety-valves are exceedingly various, but the principle of all is the same: that of opposing the pressure within the boiler by such a force as will yield before it reaches the point of danger, and permit the steam to escape. The most simple and obvious kind of safety-valve is that in which a weight is placed directly over a steam-tight §. fitted to an aperture in the boiler. When, however, the pressure is high, this form becomes inconvenient, and the lever safety-valve is adopted. This form is represented in fig. 1, where a is the valve, fitted to move vertically, and guided by a stem passing through the seat; b, the boiler; c, the valve-seat, usually, as well as the valve itself, formed of gun-metal (the same letters indicate the corresponding parts in fig. 2); d, the lever, working upon a fixed centre at e, and pressing upon the valve by a steel point; fis a guide for the lever, and g a weight which may be adjusted to any distance from the centre, according to the pressure required. In locomotive engines, where the lever and weight would occupy too much space, it is usual to adopt the spring safety-valve, one form of which is shown at fig. 2. A series of bent springs, h h h, are placed alternately

Fig. 2.

Spring Safety-valve.

in opposite directions, their extremities sliding upon the rods i i, and are forced down upon the valve a by means of a cross bar k, which may be o: by means of the nut *... to to give the right pressure upon the waive.

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Safflower (safflou-er), m. [From saffron and saffron,

flower; comp. G. safflor.] Bastar a composite plant of the genus Carthamus, the C. tinctorius. It is cultivated in China, India, Egypt, and also in the south of Europe, on account of its flowers, which in their dried state form the safflower of commerce. An oil is expressed from the seeds, which is used by the Asiatics as a laxative medicine. It is also most extensively used as a lampoil. The dried flowers afford two colourin matters (also calle safflower), a yellow and a red, the latter (carthamine), being that for which they are most valued. They are chiefly used for dyeing silk, affording various shades of pink, rose, crimson, and scarlet. Mixed with finely-powdered talc, safflower forms a common variety of rouge. It is also used for adulterating saffron, a much more expensive dye-stuff. Saffron (saffron), n. [Fr. safran, from Sp. azafrano, from Ar. and Per. zaferan, saffron; with the article, az-zaferán. The plant was cultivated by the Moors in Spain.] A plant of the genus Crocus, the C. sativus. It is a low ornamental plant, with grass-like leaves and large crocus-like flowers of a purple colour. It is a native of Greece and Asia Minor, but extensively cultivated in Austria, France, Spain, and also formerly in England. The dried stigmata form the saffron of the shops, which, when good, has a sweetish, penetrating, diffusive odour; a warm, pungent, bitterish taste; and a rich deep orange colour. Saffron is employed, especially on the Continent, as a . and flavouring ingredient in culinary preparations, liqueurs, &c.; in medicine it is now only applied for similar purposes, but formerly it was considered to possess stimulant, emmenagogue, cordial, and antispasmodic properties. It gives to water and alcohol about three - fourths of its weight of an orange-red o: yo. 18 *ly ena

Safflower (Carthamus timatorius).

ploye in painting and dyeing. It is

often adulterated with the petals of other plants, especially with those of the safflower and marigold. The name bastard saffron is given to safflower; meadow-saffron is Col. chicum autumnale; hay-saffrom consists of the stigmas of the Crocus satirus, with part of the style, carefully dried; and cake-saf. Jron, of cakes made of safflower and gumwater. Saffron (saffron), a. Having the colour of saffron flowers; yellow. "Saffrom flame.’ Choo id this companion with the saffrom face Revel and feast it at my house to-day. Shak. Aurora now had left her saffron bed. Dryden. Saffron (saffron), v. t. To tinge with saffron; to make yellow; to gild. Saffrony (saffron-i), a. Having the colour of saffron. The woman was of complexion yellowish or saf. Arony, as on whose face the sun had too freely cast his beams. Ilord

Saffron (Crocus sativus).

Sag (sag), v.i. pret. sagged; ppr. sagging. [Sc. seg, to sink, to subside, perhaps from A. Sax sigan, to sink; allied to L.G. sacken, D. zakken, to sink down.] 1. To sink, incline, or hang away owing to insufficiently supported weight; to settle; to sink in the

middle; as, a building sags to the north or south; the door sags; a beam sags by means of its weight. The party returned home as it came, all tired and happy, excepting little Alfred, who was tired and cross, and sat sleepy and sagoing on his father's knee. Longfellow. Hence—2. To yield under the pressure of care, difficulties, trouble, doubt, or the like; to become unsettled or unbalanced; to waver or fluctuate. The mind I sway by, and the heart I bear, Shall never sag with doubt, nor shake with fear.

Shać. 3. Naut. to incline to the leeward; to make leeway. Sag (sag), v. t. To cause to bend or give way; to load or burden. Sag (sag), n. The state or act of sinking, bending, or sagging. Saga (saga), n. [Icel. saga, a tale, a history; from sega, E. to o: See SAY.] An ancient Scandinavian legend or tradition of considerable length, relating either mythical or historical events; a tale; a history; as, the Völsunga saga; the Knytlinga saga, &c And thus had Harold, in his youth, Learn'd many a raga's rhyme uncouthOf that sea-snake tremendous curl’d, hose moonstrous circle girds the world. Sir Jo". Scott. And then the blue-eyed Norseman told A saga of the days of old. Longyellow. In the true Saga age the Icelanders had no ‘habit of writing;' they simply told their stories, which were handed down with scrupulous fidelity by word of mouth, and without the use of either pen or ink. When the art of writing came in, the true Saga period perished. . Just as the printing press extin§. manuscripts, so did manuscripts extinguish agas in Iceland and the North. Aidin. Rev. Sagacious (sa-gå'shus), a. [L. sagar, sagacis, keen-scented, acute, sagacious, from sagio, to perceive keenly, from a root signifying to be sharp, seen in Gr. sagaris, a battle-axe, and Skr. saghnomi, to kill.] 1 Quick of scent; able to scent or perceive by the senses. So scented the grim Feature, and upturn'd His nostril wide into the murky air; Sagacious of his quarry from so far. Milton. 2. Intellectually keen or quick; acute in discernment or penetration; discerning and judicious; shrewd; as, a sagacious mind. Only sagacious heads light on these observations.

orce, 3. Full of or informed by wisdom; sage; wise; as, a sagacious remark. In Homer . . . we find not a few of these sagaciorts, curt sentences, into which men unaccustomed with books are fond of compressing their experience of human life. Pry. Blackie. 4. Showing a great amount of intelligence; acting or endowed with almost human intelligence: said of the lower animals. Sagaciously (sa-gå'shus-li), adv. In a sagacious manner. “Lord Coke sagaciously observes.” Burke. Sagaciousness (sa-gā’shus-nes), n. The quality of being sagacious; sagacity. Sagacity (sa-gas'i-ti), m. [Fr. sagacité; L. sagacitas, from sagaar, sagacis. See SAGACIOUS..] The quality of being sagacious; sagaciousness; as, (a) quickness or acuteness of discernment or penetration; readiness of apprehension with soundness of judgment; clear-headedness; shrewdness and common sense. Sagacity finds out the intermediate ideas, to discover what connection there is in each link of the chain. Locke. (b) Intelligence resembling that of mankind; as, the sagacity of a dog or an elephant. solo (sag'a-mór), n. 1. Among some tribes of American Indians, a king or chief. Some writers regard sagamore as synonymous with sachem, but others distinguish between them, regarding sachem as a chief of the first rank, and sagamore as one of the second. ‘Sagamore, sachem, or powwow.' L ellow. — 2. A juice sometimes used medicinally. Johnson. Sagapen (sag'a-pen), n. See SAGAPENUM. Saga penum (sag-a-pê'num), n. . [Gr. sagapêmon, the Ferula persica and its gum.] A fetid gem-resin brought from Persia and Alexandria, generally believed to be furnished by some species of the genus Ferula. It occurs either in tears or irregular masses of a dirty brownish colour, containing in the interior white or yellowish grains. It has an odour of garlic, and a hot, acrid, bitterish taste. It is occasionally used in medicine as a nervine and stimulating expectorant. Sagathy (sag'a-thi), n. [Fr. sagatis; Sp. sagati, sagathy, from L. sagum, a blanket or

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Sage (sāj), n. [Fr. sauge, from L. salvia, sage, from salvus, safe, sound—on account of the reputed virtues of the plant.] The common name of plants of the genus Salvia, a very large genus of monopetalous exogenous plants, nat. order Labiatae, containing about 450 species, widely dispersed through the temperate and warmer regions of the globe. They are herbs or shrubs of widely varying habit, usually with entire or cut leaves and various-coloured (rarely yellow) flowers. The best known and most frequently used in this country is the S. of. ficinalis, or garden sage, a native of various parts of the south of Europe. This plant is much used in cookery, and is supposed to assist the stomach in digesting fat and luscious foods. It was formerly in great repute as a sudorific, aromatic, astringent, and antiseptic. It possesses stimulant properties in a high degree, and sage tea is commended as a stomachic and slight stimulant. Two species, S. pratensis (meadow-sage) and S. Verbenaca (wild sage or vervain clary), are natives of Great Britain.—Sage apple, an excrescence upon a species of sage (Salvia omnifera) caused by the puncture of an nsect.—Sage brush, a low irregular shrub (Artemisia Ludoviciana) of the order Compositae, growing in dry alkaline soils of the American plains. The name is also given to other American species of Artemisia.-Sage cheese, a kind of cheese, flavoured, and coloured green with the juice of sage. The uice of spinage is also usually added to eighten its colour.—Sage cock, a bird belonging to the Tetraonidae (Centrocercus wrophasianus), resembling the prairie-fowl, but much larger. It is found in the Rocky Mountain region, and feeds on the leaves of the sage brush. Sage (sāj), a. [Fr. e, from L. sapius (extant only in ne-sapius, imprudent), later form sabius, wise, from root of sapio, to taste whence o 1. Wise; having nice scernment and powers of judging; prudent; sagacious; as, a sage counsellor. ‘Sage, grave men." Shak. Most men (till by losing render'd rager) Will back their own opinions with a wager. Byron. 2. Proceeding from wisdom; well-judged; well adapted to the purpose; as, sage counsels. “Under show of sage advice.’ Milton. 3. Grave; solemn; serious. ‘Sage and solemn times.’ Milton. —SYN. Wise, sagacious, sapient, grave, prudent, judicious. Sage (sāj), n. A wise man; a man of gravity and wisdom; Fo a man venerable for years, and known as a man of sound judgment and prudence; a grave philosoher. ‘Groves where immortal sages taught.” ope A star,

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about an inch. The head carries a series of setae or bristles surrounding the mouth, and the hinder margin of the body is fringed. A single nerve-mass lies in the abdomen. The species are found living in the open sea, in the Mediterranean, and in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The affinities of this animal are with the worms, but it is anomalous in respect of its variations from the worm type. —3. The keystone of an arch. [Rare.]—4. In geom. (a) the versed sine of an arc. (b) The abscissa of a curve.

[Rare.] Sagittal (saj'i-tal), a. [L. sagittalis, from sagitta, an arrow.] Pertaining to an arrow; resembling an arrow. In anat. applied to the suture which unites the parietal bones of the skull. His wound was between the sagittal and coronal sutures to the bone. JWiseman. Sagittaria (saj-i-tä'ri-a), n. [From L. sagitta, an arrow—the leaves resembling an arrowhead..] A genus of plants, nat. order Alismaceae. The species are water-plants, and are found in the hotter and temperate of the globe, and are frequently remarkable for the beauty of their white three-petalled flowers. S. sagittifolia, or common arrowhead, is indigenous in this country. The rhizomes of many of the species contain * matter, and form a nutritious 0001. Sagittarius (saj-i-tä'ri-us), m. [L., an archer.] One of the zodiacal constellations which the sun enters Nov. 22. It is represented on celestial globes and charts by the figure of a centaur in the act of shooting an arrow from his bow. Sagittary (saj'i-ta-ri), n. [See above.) 1. An old name for a centaur.—2 t The arsenal at Venice, or the residence there of the commanders of the army and navy: so called from the figure of an archer over the gate. Shak. Sagi (saj-i-ta-ri), a. Pertaining to an arrow. Sir T. Browne. Sagittate (saj'i-tät), a. [L. sagitta, an arrow.] Shaped like the head of an arrow; triangular, hollowed at the base, with angles at the hinder part; sagittal: used Sagittate Leaf. especially in bot. Sago (sā'gö), n. [Malay and Javanese s sago, from Papuan sagu, bread..] A kind of starch, produced from the stem or cellular substance of several palms and palm-like vegetables, the chief of which are the Sagus lapwis, S. Rumphii, the Phoenix farinifera, Corypha Gebanga, Caryota wrens, Saguerus saccharifer, and some cycads, but these last yield a very inferior sort. Sagus laevis, from which the finest sago is prepared, forms immenseforests on nearly all the Moluccas, each tree yielding from 100 to 800 lbs. of sago. The tree when at maturity is about 30 feet high, and from 18 to 22 inches in diameter. The sago or medullary matter, which is prepared by the plant for the use of the flowers and

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ing, and the meal laid to dry. For exportation, the finest sago meal is mixed with water, and then rubbed into small grains of the size and form of coriander seeds. This is the kind principally brought to England. The Malays have a process for refining o; and giving it a fine pearly lustre, the meth of § is not known to Europeans; but there are strong reasons to believe that heat is employed, because the starch is partially transformed into gum. The o so cured is in the highest estimation in all the European markets. Sagoforms alight, wholesome, nutritious food, and may be used as a pudding, or prepared in other ways as an article of diet for children and invalids when a farinaceous diet is required.— Portland sago. See under ARUM. Sagoin, Sagouin (sa-goin', sag'3-in), n. [The native South American name.] A genus (Callithrix) of Brazilian platyrhine monkeys of small size, and remarkably light, active, and graceful in their movements. Both the body and tail are covered with beautiful fur, and the latter they use as a protection against cold. . When tame they are verygentle and much attached to their masters. Their tail is non-prehensile. Called also Squirrel Monkey and Saimaris. Saguerus (sā-gü-č'rus), n. A genus of plants, nat. order Palmaceae or palms, inhabiting the Indian Archipelago and some parts of the Asiatic continent. S. saccharifer (the arenga or gomuti-palm) is of great value to the natives of the Indian islands, yielding a valuable fibre, palm-wine, and sugar, and considerable quantities of sago, of a rather inferior quality. See GomuTI. (sā'gum), n. [L] The military cloak worn by the Roman soldiers and inferior officers, in contradistinction to the paludamentum of the superior officers. It was the garb of war, as the toga was the garb of peace. (sā'gus), n. . A genus of palms from which sago is obtained. See SAGo. Sagy (sā’ji), a. Full of sage; seasoned with

Sage. Sahib (sā’ib), n. [Hind., from Ar. sahib, lord, master.] A term used by the natives of India or Persia in addressing or speaking of Europeans; as, the sahib did so and so; Colonel sahib. Sahibah is the corresponding feminine form. Sahlite (sah'lit), n. Same as Malacolite. Sai (sā'i), n. A species of sapajou or South American platyrhine monkey, the Cebus capucinus, found in Brazil. Called also the Weeper Monkey. See SAPAJou. Saic(sā'ik), n.[Fr. saique, from Turkishaika, a saic.] A Turkish or Grecian vessel, v common in the Levant, a kind of ketch which has no top-gallant-sail nor mizzentop-sail. Said (sed), pret. & pp. of say: so written for sayed. 1. Declared; uttered; reported.— 2. Aforesaid; before mentioned: used chiefly in legal style. “King John succeeded his said brother." Sir M. Hale. Saiga (sā'ga), n. A species of antelope (Colus or Antilope Saiga) found on the steppes of Russia and on the Russian borders of Asia. It forms one of the two European species of antelopes; the other being the chamois. The nose is of peculiar structure, the openings being very large and covered by a soft cartilaginous arch. The saiga of Tartary (S. Tartarica) is presumably a distinct species from the above. Sail (sāl), n. [A. Sax. segel, segl, a sail; cog. Icel. segl, G. and Sw, segel, Dan. seil, D. zeil; the term. no doubt denotes an agent, and the word is probably from an Indo-European root (sagh) meaning to check, to resist J 1. A piece of cloth or a texture or tissue of some kind spread to the wind to cause, or assist in causing, a vessel to move through the water. The sails of European vessels are usually made of several breadths of canvas, sewed together with a double seam at the borders, and edged all round with a cord or cords called the bolt-rope or bolt-ropes. A sail extended by a yard hung (slung) by the middle and balanced is called a square sail; a sail set upon a gaff, boom, or stay is called a fore-and-aft sail. The upper part of every sail is the head, the lower part the foot, the sides in general are called leeches; but the weather side or edge (that is, the side next the mast or stay to which it is attached) of any but a square sail is called the #: and the other edge the after leech. re lower two corners of a square sail are ingeneral clues; the weather clue of a fore-and

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aft sail, or of a course while set, is the tack. Sails generally take their names, partly at least, from the mast, yard, or stay upon which they are stretched; thus, the maincourse, main-top sail, main-topgallant sail are respectively the sails on the mainmast, main-topmast, and main-topgallant mast. The principal sails in a full-rigged vessel are the courses or lower sails, the topsails and topgallant sails. The cut shows the sails of a ship, which are not greatly different from those of a barque. The vessel represented might, however, carry additional sails to those shown; thus she might have staysails

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—Under sail, having the sails spread. Sail (sāl), v.i. [From the noun..] 1. To be impelled or driven forward by the action of wind upon sails, as a ship on water; hence, to move or be impelled, as a ship or boat, by any mechanical power, as by steam, oars, &c.; as, a ship sails ten knots an hour; she sails well close-hauled.—2. To be conveyed in a vessel on water; to pass by water; as, we sailed from London to Canton. And when we had sailed over the sea of Cilicia and Pamphylia, we came to Myra, a city of Lycia. Acts, xxvii. 5.

3. To swim, as a fish or swimming bird. Little dolphins, when they sail In the vast shadow of the British whale. Dryden. 4. To set sail; to begin a voyage. There yet were many weeks before she rail'd, Sail'd from this port. Tennyson. 5. To fly without striking with the wings; to glide through the air without apparent exertion: to move smoothly through the air. “Sails upon the bosom of the air.’ shak. ‘Sails between worlds and worlds with steady wing." Milton. the owlet Atheism Sailing on obscene wings athwart the noon, Drops blue-fringed lids. C 6. To pass smoothly along; to glide; to float; as, the clouds sail; she sailed into the room.

9. Fore-royal studding-sail. 10. Fore-topgallant studding-sail.

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11. Fore-topmast studding-sail. 12. Main-course. 13. Main-top sail. 14. Main-topgallant sail. 15. Main-royal.

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16. Main-sky-sail.
17. Main-royal studding-sail.

£ Main-topgallant studding-sail.
19. Main-topmast studding-sail.
20. Mizzen-course.

5. A ship or other vessel; as, we saw a sail and gave chase: used as a plural with the sin form; as, the fleet consisted of 20 sail. Sometimes collectively, a fleet. We have descried, upon our neighbouring shore, A portly sail of ships make hitherward. Sha&. 6. A journey or excursion upon water; a passage in a vessel or boat. Here is my journey's end, here is my butt, And very sea-mark of my utmost sail. Shak. —Full sail, with all sails set.—To loose sails, to unfurl them.—To make sail, to extend an additional quantity of sail. — To set sail, to expand or spread the sails; and hence, to

21. Mizzen-top-sail. 22. Mizzen-topgallant sail 23. Mizzen-royal. 24. Mizzen-sky-sail. 25. Spanker or driver.

habit of swimming on the surface of the water with its dorsal fin exposed, somewhat like the sail of a ship. Farrell. Sail-hook (sāl'hök), n. A small hook used for holding the seams of a sail square in the act of sewing. Sail-hoop (sāl’hôp), n. One of the rings by which fore-and-aft sails are secured to masts and stays. *ś n. 1. The act of one who or that which sails.-2. The art or rules of navigation; the art or the act of o: a ship on a given line laid down in a chart. The term is also applied to the rules by which in F. circumstances a ship's place and its motion are computed.—Current sailing, the method of determining the true course and distance of a ship when her own motion is combined with that of a current. —Globular sailing. See GLOBULAR.—Great circle sailing, the manner of conducting a ship between one place and another, so that her track may be along or nearly along the arc of a great circle, that is a circle whose plane would pass through the two places and the centre of the earth, the arc of a great circle being the curve of shortest distance between any two places.—Mercator's sailing, that in which problems are solved according to the Pool. applied in Mercator's projection. See MERCAtoR's CHART.-Middle-latitude sailing. See under MIDDLE-Oblique sailing. See OBLIQUE.— Parallel sailing. See PARALLEL.--Traverse sailing. See TRAVERSE. -master (sāl'ing-mas-tér), n. See MASTER, 1. (e). Sailless (sāl’les), a. Destitute of sails. Sail-loft (sal'loft), n. A loft or apartment where sails are cut out and made.

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Jatiwi. At Sain, Sane (sān), v. t. [A. Sax. senian, segnian, to sign, to bless, from segem, segm, a sign; G. segen, a sign, segmen, to sign, to bless; from L. signum, the sign of the cross.] To bless with the sign of the cross; to bless so as to protect from evil influence. Sir W. Scott. [Scotch..] Sainfoin, Saintfoin (sān’soin, sånt'foin), n. [Fr. sainfoin, from sain, wholesome, and foin, hay. Another derivation is from Fr. saint, holy, and foin, which gives the German name heilig-hew (holy hay).] A plant, Onobrychis satira, nat. order Leguminosae, a native of calcareous soils in central and south Europe. It has been in regular cultivation for upwards of two centuries for the purpose of supplying fodder for cattle either in the green state or when converted into hay. In England it is extensively cultivated on the Cotswold Hills, and on the chalk soils of Dorset, Hants, Wilts, &c. It does not thrive well except when the soil or subsoil is calcareous. It is a pretty plant with narrow pinnate leaves and long spikes of bright pink flowers. Saint (sānt), n. [Fr., from L. sanctus, sacred, holy, pp. of sancio, to render sacred.] 1. A person sanctified; a holy or godly person; one eminent for piety and virtue. It is particularly applied to the apostles and other holy persons mentioned in Scripture. “A hypocrite may imitate a saint." Addison. 2. One of the blessed in heaven. Rev. xviii. 24. 3. An angel. Deut. xxxiii. 2; Jude 14.—4. One canonized by the Church of Rome. Often contracted St. when coming before apersonal name. —St. Agnes' flower, the snow-flake (Erinosma). —St. Andrew's cross, (a) a cross shaped like the letter X. (b) A North American shrub (Ascyrum Cruz Andreae).-St. Anthony's fire, erysipelas. – St. Barnaby's thistle, the Centauria solstitialis, a plant sometimes found in cornfields in the south of England.—St. Catherine's flower, the Nigella damascena. —St. Christopher's herb, the royal fern (Osmunda regalis), also a name given to the baneberry (Actaea spicata). —St. Cuthbert's beads, the detached and perforated joints of the fossil stem of Encrimitis moniliformis. Called also Wheelstones and Lily-stones.—St. Cuthbert's duck, the eider-duck (Somateria mollissima) –St. Elmo's light, corposant (which see).-St. George's ensign, the distinguishing badge of ships of the royal navy, consisting of a red cross on a white field, with the union-flag in the upper quarter next the mast.—St. Helen's beds. See OSBORNE-SERIES.–St. Ignatius' bean, the seed of a large climbing shrub, of the nat. order Loganiaceae, nearly allied to that which produces nux vomica. The seeds were formerly considered a remedy for cholera. —St. James' wort, ragwort or ragweed (Senecio Jacoboea).-St. John's bread. See CERATONIA.—St. John's pear. See MADELINE-PEAR.—St. John's wort. See HYPERICACEAE –St. Martin's herb, a mucilaginous tropical plant (Sauvagesia erecta), used for medicinal purposes.—St. Peter's fingers, a familiar term for belemnites, many of which have a finger-like form.—St. Peter's wort, a plant of the genus Ascyrum, and Hypericum *g. um; also, in old herbals, the cowslip. —St. Thomas' tree, a small tree (Bauhinia tomentosa), a native of

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SAL

paifera, used in Demerara as a wood for furniture. Sake (sāk), n. [A. Sax. sacu, contention, strife, a cause or suit at law; Icel. sok, sake, cause, suit; L.G. sake, G. &ache, suit-at-law. cause, affair, thing; A. Sax. sacan, Goth sakan, Icel. saka, to contend, accuse, &c. From the same root as seek, L. sequor, to follow. Comp. as to meaning cause, because..] 1. Final cause; end; purpose; purpose of obtaining; as, the hero fights for the sake of glory; men labour for the sake of subsistence or wealth. –2. Account; reason; cause; interest; regard to any person or thing. The plural is regularly used in such phrases as: “For your fair sakes." Shak. ‘For both our sakes.” Shak. The sign of the genitive (possessive) is often omitted. Thus Shakspere has “For heaven sake;’ ‘For fashion sake,’ &c. I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake. n. viii. 21. The word seems only to occur in such of: as the above, having always for beore 11. Saker (sā’kër), n. [Spelled also sacre, from Fr. sacre, a falcon, then a piece of ordnance: Sp. and Pg sacre, from Ar saqr, a sparrowhawk. It was customary to give the names of hawks to muskets and pieces of artillery.] 1. A hawk; a species of falcon. The name has sometimes been given to the lanner, but }}. belongs to a distinct species, the Falco sacer, a European and Asiatic falcon, still used in falconry among the Asiatics — | 2. A small piece of artillery. The cannon, blunderbuss, and raker, He was the inventor of and maker. Hudsorror.

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part long and bushy tails, and thus have obtained the name of Fox-tailed Monkeys. In its general acceptation the term denotes any American monkey whose tail is not prehensile. Saki (sā'ki), n. [Japanese.] The native beer and common stimulating beverage of the Japanese. It is made from rice, and is drunk warm, producing a very speedy but transient intoxication. Sakta (sāk'ta), n. (Skr. sakti, §§ energy.] A member of one of the great divisions of the Hindu sects, the Saktas, comprising the worshippers of the female principle according to the ritual of the Tantra. They are divided into two branches, the followers of the right-hand and left-hand ritual. The latter practise the grossest impurities. Sakur (sa'kur), n. An Indian name for small rounded astringent s formed on some species of Tamarix, which are used in medicine and dyeing. Simmonds. Sal (sal), n. [See SALT.] Salt: a word much used by the older chemists and in pharmacy.—Sal aeratus. See SALERATUS.–Sal alembroth, or salt of wisdom, a compound of corrosive sublimate and sal ammoniac, once used in medicine, but now discarded. —Sal ammoniac, hydrochlorate or muriate of ammonia, a salt of a sharp acrid taste, much used in the arts and in pharmacy The name is derived from the temple of Jupiter Ammon, in Egypt, where it was go; made by burning camels' dung.— Sal de Duobus, an ancient chemical name

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applied to sulphate of potash.-Sal diureticus, an old name for acetate of potash.Sal gem, or sal gemmae, native chloride of sodium, or rock-salt.—Sal mirable, sulphate of soda; Glauber's salt.—Sal prunella, nitrate of potash fused into cakes or balls, and used for chemical purposes.—Sal seignette, tartrate of potash and soda; Rochelle salt.—Sal volatile, carbonate of ammonia. The name is also applied to a spirituous solution of carbonate of ammonia flavoured with aromatics. Sal (sāl), n. [Native name.] One of the most valuable timber trees of India, Shorea robusta, nat. order Dipteraceae. Extensive forests of it used to clothe the base of the southern slope of the Himalayas, but these have been much destroyed by tapping for the sake of a whitish, aromatic, transparent resin, used to caulk boats and ships, and also for incense. The sal forests are now protected by government. See SHOREA. Salaam (sa-lām"), n. [Per. and Ar, salom, Heb. shalom, peace.] A ceremonious salutation or obeisance among orientals. In the East Indies the personal salaam or salutation is an obeisance executed by bending the head with the body downwards, in extreme cases nearly to the ground, and placing the palm of the right hand on the forehead. —Sending a person your salaam is equivalent to presenting your compliments. Salaam (sa-lân’), v.i. To perform the salaam; to salute with a salaam. (See the noun.) W. H. Russell. Salable (sāl'a-bl.), a. See SALEABLE. Salacious (sa-lä'shus), a, [L. salaz, salacis, salacious, from salio, to leap..] Lustful; lecherous. One more radarious, rich, and old, Outbids, and buys her pleasure with he'; ryden

Salaciously (sa-lä'shus-li), adv. In a salacious manner; lustfully; with eager animal appetite. Salaciousness (sa-lä'shus-nes), n. The quality of being salacious; lust; lecherousness; strong propensity to venery. Salacity (sa-las'i-ti), n. [L. salacitas.] Salaciousness. Salad (sal'ad), n. [Fr. salade, It. salata, a salted dish, from salare, to salt, from L. sal, salt..] 1. A general name for certain vegetables prepared and served so as to be eaten raw. Salads are composed chiefly of lettuce, endive, radishes, green mustard, land, and water cresses, celery, and young onions. They are usually dressed with eggs, salt, mustard, oil, vinegar, or spices.—2. A dish composed of some kind of meat, such as chicken or lobster, chopped and mixed with uncooked herbs, seasoned with some condiment; as, chicken salad; lobster sadad. – 3. In the United States, a lettuce. Bartlett.—Salad cream, a prepared dressing for salads.-Salad days, green, unripe age; days of youthful inexperience. My salad days, When I was green in judgement. shak. —Salad oil, olive-oil–Salad spoon, a spoon, usually of wood or ivory, for mixing and serving salads. Salad-burnet (sal'ad-bér-net), n. A British plant of the genus Poterium, the P. SanguiSorba. See POTERIUM. Salade (sal'ad). See SALLET. so:d ng (sal'ad-ing), n. Vegetables for Salads, Salad-oil (sal'ad-oil), n. Olive-oil, used in dressing salads and for other culinary purses. Salal-berry (sā'lal-be-ri), n. A fruit about the size of a common grape, of a dark colour and sweet flavour. It is the fruit of Gaultheria Shallon, a small shrubby plant growing in the valley of the Oregon, about 1} foot high. (sa-lām"), n. Same as Salaam. Salamander (sal-a-man'dër), m. [Fr. salamandre, L. and Gr. salamandra, Skr. salamandala, salamander.] The popular name of a genus (Salamandra) of amphibian reptiles, order Urodela, very closely allied to the newts, differing from them chiefly in having a cylindrical instead of a compressed tail, and by bringing forth their ...i alive. The salamanders have an elongate lizard-like form (but differ from lizards in having gills in their early stages), four feet, and along tail. The head is thick,the tongue broad, and the palatal teeth in two long series. The skin is warty, with many glands secreting a watery fluid, which the animal exudes when alarmed. As this fluid is injuri

ous to small animals the salamanders have the reputation of extreme venomousness, though they are in reality entirely harmless. The best known species is the S. vulgaris, the common salamander of the south of Europe.

Common Salamander (Salamandra vulgaris).

It is about 6 to 8 inches long, is found in moist places under stones or the roots of trees, near the borders of springs, in deep woods, &c., and passes its life in concealment except at night or during rain. It is sometimes called the Spotted Salamander (S. maculosa), from the bright yellow stripes on its sides. There are various other species in Europe, Asia, and America. In America the name is often given to the menopome (Menopoma alleganiense). Salamanders feed on worms, slugs, snails, and insects. Accord

ing to a superstition once very prevalent,

salamanders sought the hottest fire to breed in, o: it with the extreme frigidity of their body. Pliny tells us he tried the experiment, and the creature was burned to powder. It is probable that the absurd belief is due to the moisture above referred to as exuding from the skin. The salamander of the middle ages was a being in human shape which lived always in fire; a kind of firespirit. By some the newts are regarded as salamanders, under the name of Water or Aquatic Salamanders. —2. A pouched rat (Geomys pinetis) found in Georgia and Florida.-3. A large iron poker; also, an iron plate used for cooking purposes. [Provincial.]–4. A piece of metal fixed in a suitable handle, and heated, formerly used on board ships for the purpose of firing uns. —Salamander's wool or salamander's hair, a name sometimes given to fibrous asbestos from its incombustibility. dra (sal-a-man'dra), m. A genus of amphibian vertebrates. See SALAMANDER. Salamandridae (sal-a-man'dri-dé), m. pl. A family of amphibians, comprehending the salamander. alamandrine (sal-a-man'drin), a. Pertaining to or resembling a salamander; enduring fire. Laying it into a pan of burning coals, we observed a certain salamanorine quality; that made it capable of living in the midst of fire, without being consumed or singed. Aectator. Salamandroid (sal-a-man'droid), a. [Gr. salamandra, salamander, and eidos, form.] Resembling salamanders. Salamanquese (sā-la-man'kéz), a., Of or pertaining to Salamanca or its inhabitants. quese (sā-lā-man'kéz), m. sing, and l. A native or inhabitant of Salamanca; in the pl. the people of Salamanca. Salamba (sa-lam"ba), n. A kind of fishing

Salamba of Manilla.

apparatus used on the banks near Manilla, fitted upon a raft composed of several tiers of bamboos. It consists of a rectangular

net, two corners of which are attached to the upper extremities of two long bamboos tied crosswise, their lower extremities being fastened to a bar on the raft, which acts as a hinge; a movable pole, arranged with a counterpoise as a sort of crane, supports the bamboos at the point of junction, and thus enables the fishermen to raise or depress the net at pleasure. The lower extremities of the net are guided by a corol. which, being drawn towards the raft at the same time that the long bamboos are elevated by the crane and counterpoise, only a small portion of the net remains in the water, and is easily cleared of its contents by means of a landing-net. Salamstone (sa-lām‘stön), n. A variety of sapphire, which consists of small transparent crystals, generally six-sided prisms of palereddish and bluish colours. It is brought from Ceylon. Salary (sal'a-ri), n. [L. salarium, from sal, salt, originally salt-money, money given to buy salt, as part of the pay of Roman soldiers; hence, stipend, pay. ]. The recompense or consideration stipulated to be paid to a person periodically for services, usually a fixed sum to be paid by the year, half-year, or quarter. When paid at shorter periods the recompense is usually called pay or wages: thus, a judge, governor, or teacher receives a salary; a labourer receives wages. O, this is hire and salary, not revenge. Shak. (sal'a-ri), v.t. pret. & pp. salaried; ppr. salarying. To pay a salary or stipend to; to attach a salary to; as, a salaried post." As long as public teachers are salarred and removeable by the people there is very little danger of their becoming tyrants by force. Asarazzw. Salaryt (sal'a-ri), a. Saline. Sir T. Browne. Sale (sāl), n. [Icel. sal, sala, sale, bargain; this word stands in same relation to sell as tale to tell.] 1. The act of selling; the exchange of a commodity for an agreed on price in money paid or to be paid ; a transfer of the absolute or general property in a thing for a price in money. —2. Opportunity of selling; demand; market; as, there is no sale for these goods at present. The countrymen will be more industrious in tillage, and rearing of all husbandry commodities, knowing that they shall have a ready sale for them at those towns. Spenser. 3. Public sale to the highest bidder, or exposure of goods in a market or shop; auction. Those that won the plate, and those thus sold ought to be marked, so that they may never return to the race or to the sale. Sir IP. Temple. –Sale by inch of candle, a sale or auction where persons are allowed to bid during the time that a small piece of candle takes in burning.—On sale, for sale, to be bought or sold; offered to purchasers. Salet (sāl), n. [A, Sax. sealh, seal, a sallow or willow.] A wicker basket; also, a basketlike net. Spenser. Saleable (sāl'a-bl), a. Capable of being sold; finding a ready market; in demand. “Any saleable commodity. . . . removed out of the course of trade.” Locke. Saleableness (sāl'a-bl-nes), n. The state of being saleable. The relative agreeableness, and therefore saleablertess, of 'a pot of the smallest ale, and of." Adonis painted o a running brook, depends virtually on the opinion of Demos, in the shape of Christopher Sly.

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