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tained in the spore-cases of Lycopodium clavatum and L. Selago. Lycopodiaceae (li'kö-pô-di-à"sé-é), m.pl. The club-moss tribe; a natural order of vascular acrogens, chiefly inhabiting boggy heaths, moors, and woods. They are intermediate in their general appearance between the mosses and the ferns, and are in some respects allied to the Coniferae. They are fur. nished with a branched, often spreading and creeping stem, and numerous small imbricated leaves. Their mode of reproduction is similar to that of ferns. There are six genera and about 200 species. The only British genus is Lycopodium (which see). Some of the species are violent purgatives. The powder contained in the seed-vessels of all the species is so highly inflammable as to be employed occasionally in the manufacture of fireworks. The lycopods occur in all parts of the globe, but grow most luxuriantly in tropical or mild climates. They vary greatly in size, but the largest of the present day are comparatively small plants. In the carboniferous era they attained a very large size, rivalling trees in their height, and the thickness of their stems, as in the case of the Lepidodendron. i; oão (li'kö-pô-di-à"shus), a. Be Copodiaceous (li'kö-pô-di-à"shus), a. §§ to the Lycopodiaceae; resembling the Lycopodiaceae. Lycopodite (li-kop'o-dit), n. of the genus Ly§§ (l Copodium (liH. pó' di-um), m. [Gr. lykos, a wolf, and pous, podos, a foot, because of the resemblance of the roots.] A enus of plants of he nat. order Lycopodiaceae, to which it gives the name, occurring in cold, temperate, and tropical &, Sporangium, in the axil of countries. Six spe-bract; c, Spores—magnified. cies are found in Britain, of which the most conspicuous is the L. clavatum or common club-moss, the yellow powder in the spores of which burns explosively, and is used for producing theatrical lightning. It is also used for rolling up pills, and for dusting infants. It is known as lycopode or vegetable brimstone. L. Selago, or fir-moss, is a powerful irritant and counter-irritant. L. catharticum, a native of equatorial America, is a hypercathartic, and is used in elephantiasis. Lycopsis (li-kop'sis), n. (Gr. lykos, a wolf, and opsis, the face, from some resemblance in the flowers.] A genus of rough annual herbs, nat. order Boraginaceae, natives of Europe, North Africa, and West and Central Asia. The flowers are small, blue or violet, in terminal scorpioid racemes: the curved corolla-tube distinguishes the genus from Anchusa, to which it is allied. L. arvensis grows in cornfields and by road-sides in Britain. Lycopus (li'kö-pus), n. [Gr. lykos, a wolf, and pous, a foot, in allusion to the resemblance of the leaves to the foot of that animal.] A genus of herbs of the nat. order Labiatae, found in marshy places in Europe, Asia, North America, and Australia. L. europaeus is popularly called gypsy-wort, because gypsies are said to stain {{...}. skins with its juice. It has acute dentate or pinnatifid leaves, with small sessile whitish flowers in dense axillary whorls. Lycosis (li'kó-sis), n. See ACNE. Lycotropal (li-kot'rö-pal), a [Gr, lykos, a wolf, and tropos, a turning.] In bot. the term applied to an orthotropalovule curved downwards like a horse-shoe. Lydian (lidi-an), a. [From Lydia,] ...Pertaining to Lydia, a country of Asia Minor, or to its inhabitants, who were a voluptuous, effeminate race; hence, soft; effeminate. Hence—2. A term applied to one of the ancient Greek modes, the music in which was of a soft pleasing character. And ever, against eating cares, Lap me in soft Lydian airs. Milton. —Lydian stone, a jasper-like siliceous rock used by the ancients as a touch-stone, for which purpose it was originally brought from Lydia. It is found in many countries. Lye (li), n., [A. Sax: leah, G. lauge, D. loog, lie, allied to Icel. lawg, a bath, and proba

A fossil plant

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[Gr, lyö, to loose, and enkephalos, the brain.) A primary division of mammals, according to Owen, characterized by the fact that the cerebral hemispheres are without folds, and leave the cerebellum, the olfactory lobes, i. of the optic lobes uncovered. The hemispheres are not connected together by a corpus callosum. The Lyencephala comprise the Monotremata and Marsupialia.

ing to the Lyencephala, having the cerebral hemispheres without folds. See LYENCEPHAL.A. odea (li-gé-6'dé-a), n. [Gr, lygaios, ark, shadowy, and term. Ödes, pertaining to, from their habit of secreting themselves.] A tribe of land-bugs distinguished by their beautiful scarlet colour. They belong to the section Geocorisae, sub-order Heteroptera, of the class Insecta.

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The act of bearing

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name of plants of the genus Elymus, belonging to the tribe Hordeae, distinguished by the inflorescence being in simple spikes, very rarely branched; spikelets two to three together; glumes two, both on the same side of the spikelet, without awns, inclosing one to seven florets. The species have an extensive geographical range; nearly all are inhabitants of the temperate zones. One species, E. arenarius, is a native of Britain. They are all coarse grasses.

plague, an

arylon, wood, timber.] A genus of serricorn beetles, nearly allied to Elateridae and Buprestidae. The grubs are very destructive to oaktrees, especially those of

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Lymexylon navale.

the Lymea:ylon

navale. This species receives its name from the damage caused by the grubs in the Swedish dockyards in the time of Linnaeus.

m limnē, a marsh.) A genus of pulmoniferous gasteropodous mollusca, found abundantly in our rivers and ponds, particularly the latter; the pond-snails. They inhabit a thin oval or oblong shell, and feed on waterplants.

snail found fossil. [Fr. lymphe, L. lympha, allied to limpidus, clear, limpid, or to Gr. nymphé, a nymph, a goddess of moisture, springs, &c.) 1. Water, or a clear transparent fluid like water. A fountain bubbled up, whose £ymph serene Nothing of earthy mixture might distain. Trench. 2. In so a fluid in animal bodies contained in certain vessels called lymphatics. Lymph is, like the blood, an alkaline fluid, consisting of a plasma and corpuscles, and coagulates by the separation of fibrin from the o The lymph differs from the blood in its corpuscles being all of the

colourless kind, and in the very small proportion of its solid constituents, which amount to only about 5 per cent. of its weight. Lymph may, in fact, be regarded as blood minus its red corpuscles, and diluted with water so as to be somewhat less dense than the serum of blood, which contains about 8 per cent. of solid matter.—Waccine lymph, the matter collected in a cow-pox vesicle, and which, when transferred either from the cow or a person having the disease from being vaccinated, produces the same disease in others, and gives comparative immunity from #. # l) Probabl

Lymphad (lim'fad), n. [Probably a corrupp tion of Gael. longshada, agalley.] An ancient ship with one mast, not unfrequent in the heraldry of Scotland. The lymphad is the feudal ensign of the lordship of Lorne, and is borne by the family of Pll and others of the clan Campbell.

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Lymphy (limfi), a. Containing or like lymph.

Lyn (lin), n. A waterfall; a linn. cean (lin-sé'an), a. [L. lynceus, from #: lyncis. See LYNX.] Pertaining to the ynx. # (linsh), v.t. [See LYNCH-LAW.] To flict pain or punishment upon, without the forms of law, as by a mob, or by unauthorized persons. Lynch-law (linsh'la), n. The practice of punishing men for crimes or offences by private unauthorized persons without a legal trial. It is said to have been so called from a Virginian farmer of the name of Lynch, who took the law into his own hands on some occasion by chasing a thief, tying him to a tree, and there flogging him. Lyndet (lind), n. The linden or lime-tree. den-tree (lin'den-tré), n. Same as Linen-tree.

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European Lynx (Felis lynx).

popular name of several, species of the genus Felis, resembling the common cat,

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ncil of hair, and tail shorter. The lynxes H. been long famed for their sharp sight, which character they probably owe to their habit of prowling about at night, and their brilliant eyes. The European lynx is the F. lynx, the Canadian lynx is the F. canadensis. In Asia lynxes are tamed for hunting—2. One of the northern constellations, situated directly in front of Ursa Major. oved (lingks'id), a. Having acute sight. n-court (lion-kört), n. One of the inerior courts of Scotland, having jurisdiction in questions rding coat-armour and precedency, and also in certain matters coull with the executive part of the law. It is presided over by the lyon-kingat-arms §: to: ) In Scotland Lyon-king-at- (or of ) arms. In Scotland, an officer who takes his title of Lyon from the armorial bearings of the Scottish kings, the lion rampant. The officers serving under him are heralds, pursuivants, and messengers. The jurisdiction given to him empowers him to inspect the arms and ensignsarmorial of all the noblemen and gentlemen in the kingdom, to distinguish the arms of the younger branches of families, and to give proper arms to such as deserve them; to matriculate such arms, and to fine those who use arms which are not matriculated. He also o messengers-at-arms, superintends them in the execution of their duty, takes cognisance of complaints against them, and fines, suspends, or deposes them for malversation. Called also Lord Lyon. o li'ra), n. [Land Gr., a lyre.] 1. In astrom. the Lyre, a constellation of the northern hemisphere, surrounded by Cygnus, Aquila, Hercules, and the head of Draco. Its principal star is a Lyrae, of the first magnitude.—2. In anat. a portion of the brain, the medullary fibres of which are so arranged as to give it somewhat the appearance of a lyre.

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shaped like a lyre; divided transversely into several sinuses, the lower ones smaller and more remote from each other than the upper ones; as, Lyrate Leaf. a lyrate leaf. Lyre (lir), n. [Fr. lyre, L. and Gr, lyra. Etymology uncertain.) 1. One of the most ancient stringed instruments of music, differing from the cithara in that the neck of the former runs behind the upper part of the strings, while the strings of the latter are free on both sides. It was used by the Egyptians, Assyrians, and Greeks. It is said to have had originally only three strings. The number was afterward increased to

M is the thirteenth letter and tenth consonant of the English alphabet, and one of the consonants of the original Indo-European alphabet. It represents a labial and nasal articulation, the compression of the lips being accompanied with the fall of the uvula so as to allow the voice to form a humming sound through the nose, which constitutes the difference between this letter and b. Though this sound might seem to us one of the most simple and natural that the human organs can utter, there are peoples, as the Mohawks and other tribes of North America, who never give utterance to this or any other of the labials (Maz Müller). The sound of this letter is quite uniform, being always that heard in man, time, rim. It is never silent in English words proper, though in some words from forei sources it is not sounded, mnemonic som the Greek) being one of the few examples. In a good *...* it represents an original n, as in hemp = A. Sax. henep, hanep, G. hans: hamper-hanaper; tempt-L, tentare, lime (the tree)=line (linden). On the other hand, an original misin some words changed to n, as in count (n.)=L. comes, count (v.)= L. computare, ant–emmet (A. Sax. aemete), &c. This letter is rarely doubled except in

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Lyret (lir), n. [A. Sax. hlcor, Icel. hlyr, the

ace, the countenance, the cheek.] The face; the countenance; the cheek; the skin; the complexion. Written also Lire, Lere,

er. bird (lirbèrd), n. The Menura super. See MENURA. Lyric, Lyrical (lir’ik, lir’ik-al), a. [L. lyricus; Gr. lyrikos, from lyra, a lyre..] Pertaining to a lyre or harp.– Lyric poetry, among the ancients, poetry sung to the lyre; in modern usage, commonly poe coinposed for musical recitation, but distinctively that class of poetry which has reference to and is engaged in delineating the poet's own thoughts and feelings, as opposed to epic or dramatic poetry, which details external circumstances and events. Lyric (lir'ik), n. 1. A composer of lyric poems. Addison.—2. A lyric composition or poem.–3. A verse of the kind commonly used in lyric poetry. Lyrichord (lir’i-kord), n. The name formerly given to a vertical harpsichord. Lyricism (lir’i-sizm), n. A lyric composition; a lyrical form of language. They must have our lyricisms at their fingers' ends. Gray. Lyrie (liri), n., [Icel. Alori.] A name given in Scotland to the fish more commonly known as the armed bull-head. o: (lir’ist), n. A musician who plays on the lyre or harp.

Lysimachia (li-si-mā'ki-a), n. . [Gr., perhaps from Lysimachus, general of Alexander the Great, and afterwards king of Thrace,

M.

composition and inflection, as immortal, dim, dimmed. After m, however, b sometimes forms a kind of doubling of the letter, as in number (L. numerus). timber (G. zimmer). , Mumm is almost the only English word that ends in double m. —M as a numeral stands for 1000. With a dash or stroke over it, M, it stands for a thousand times a thousand, or 1,000,000. —In F.' M is a quadrate the face or top of which is a perfect square. It is the unit or measurement for the species of type used. See EM.–It stands in abbreviations for various words: as, A.M. or M.A. stands for Artium Magister, Master of Arts; M.D. for Medicinae Doctor, Doctor of Medicine; A.M. for Anno Mundi, the year of the world; MS. for manuscript; MSS. for manuscripts; M.P. Member of Parliament; &c. —M was formerly a brand or stigma impressed on one convicted of manslaughter and admitted to the benefit of clergy. Ma (mā) ...[It..] In music, but, as in the phrase, allegro, ma non troppo —fast, but not too much so. Ma (mà), n. A childish or shorter form of Mamma. Ma'am (mām), n. A common colloquial contraction for Madam.

MAC

or from a physician of this name. Pliny, however, speaks of the soothing and pacifying effects of the plant lysimachia upon oxen that will not draw in the same yoke, so that it may be directly from lysis, a loosening, and maché, strife, which in any case are the ultimate elements.] A genus of herbs, nat. order Primulaceae, containing about sixty species, which differ widely from each other in habit. They have entire, opposite, alternate, or whorled leaves, and axillary or terminal solitary or panicled white, yellow, or red flowers. Four species occur in Britain, known by the name of loosestrife,andone(L. nummularia) is called moneywort. They are chiefly natives of the temperate regions of the northern hemi

sphere. Lysis (li'sis), n. (Gr.] In arch. a plinth or step above the cornice of the podium which surrounds the stylobate. Lyssa (lis'sa), n. (Gr. lyssa, ness.] The madness of a dog; hydrophobia. rian (li-té'ri-an), a. (Gr. lytërios, from yö, to loosen.] In med. terminating a disease; indicating the solution of a disease. Lyth t (lith), v.i. Same as Lithe. Lythe f(lith), a. Same as Lithe. Lythe (lith), n. A fish, the coal-fish or whiting pollack at its fourth year. L ae (li-thră'sé-6), m. pl. [See LythRUM.] The loosestrife tribe, a nat. order of polypetalous exogens, containing about thirty genera of herbs, trees, and shrubs, of various habit, often with square branches; the leaves usually are opposite or whorled, entire, and shortly petiolate; the inflorescence is usually cymose or paniculate, the flowers being often large and showy. Some, belonging to the genera Lagerstroëmia, Diplusodon, &c., are handsome large-flowered bushes in India and South America. The true Lythraceae are European, North American, and natives of the tropics of both hemispheres. The tulipwood of the cabinetmaker is the trunk of Physocalymna floribunda, and Lawsonia inermis produces the henna of oriental ladies. The leaves of Ammannia vesicatoria have a strong muriatic smell; they are extremely acrid, and are used by the native practitioners of India to raise blisters, in rheumatism, &c. hrum (li'thrum), n. (Gr. lythron, blackblood—in allusion to the purple colour of most of the flowers.] A genus of plants, the type of the order Lythraceae. There are about twelve species, widely spread throughout the world. L. Salicaria (spiked purple loosestrife or willow-herb) is one of the most beautiful of our British native plants, frequent on the margins of brooks and rivers. It is astringent, and is reputed to be useful in inveterate cases of diarrhoea. Lytta (lit.'ta), n. Another name for the genus Cantharis (which see).

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2. See MACACUS. Macacus (ma-kā'kus), n. A genus of Asiatic and African monkeys, belonging to the group Cercopithecina,characterized by short tails and prominent eyebrows. M. sinicus is the bonnet-macaque (which see). M.Inuus is the Barbary ape or magot, the only monkey found in Europe. It inhabits Egypt and Barbary and the rock of Gibraltar. Macadamization (mak-ad'am-iz-à"shon), n. The act or art of macadamizing. Macadamization consists in covering the roadway or forming the road-crust with small broken stones to a considerable depth, and consolidating them by carriages working upon the road, or by rollers, so as to form a hard, firm, and smooth surface. cadamize (mak-ad'am-iz), v.t. pret. & pp. macadamized; ppr. macadamizing. [From Macadam, the inventor.] To cover, as a road, way, or path, with small broken stones. See MACADAMIZATION. Macadam-road (mak-ad'am-röd), n. A road or path formed by macadamization (which

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the genus Macacus (which see). Macarize (mak’a-riz), v. t. [Gr. makarizã, to bless, from makar, blessed.] To bless; to pronounce happy; to wish joy to ; to congratulate. [Rare.] The word macarize has been adopted by Oxford men who are familiar with Aristotle to supply a word wanting in our language. . . . It may be said that men are admired for what they are, commended for what they do, and macarized for what o; raategy. Macaroni (mak-a-ro'ni), n. pl. Macaronis or Macaronies (mak-a-ro'niz). [Fr. and Prov. It macaroni, It. maccheroni, originally a mixture of flour, cheese, and butter. The use of the word in the 3d and 4th senses (as also of Macaroon, 2) is illustrated by the fact that in several countries a droll or comical fellow is called by the name of a favourite article of food; thus, the English Jack-pudding, the German Hanswurst (Jack ;"|} and the French Jean Farine (John Flour).] 1. A dough of fine wheaten flour made into a tubular or pipe form, varying from the thickness of a goose quill to an inch in diameter, which was first prepared in Italy, and introduced into commerce under the name of Italian or Genoese paste. It is a favourite food among the Italians.—2. A medley; something extravagant or calculated to please an idle fancy. 3. A sort of droll or fool.—4. A fop; a beau; an exquisite; a dandy. The short period that the macaronies led the fashion dates from 1770 to about 1775. They were distino by an immense knot of artificial air, a ... small cocked hat, a walkingstick with long tassels, and a jacket, waistcoat, and small-clothes cut to fit the person as closely as possible. (See fig. in next col.) You are a delicate Londoner; you are a macaroni; you can't ride. Postwell. Hence—5. [American.] One of a body of Maryland troops in the revolution remarkable for their showy uniforms. These were Haslet's Delaware and Smallwood's Maryland regiments; the latter the Macaronis, in scarlet and buff, who had outshone, in camp, their yeoman fellow-soldiers in homespun. W. Irving.

Macaronian (mak-a-ro'ni-an). Same as Macaronzc. Macaronic (mak-a-rū'nik), a. 1. Of or pertaining to the food macaroni.-2. Pertaining to or like a macaroni; hence, empty; trifling; vain; affected.—3. Consisting of a mixture or jumble of ill-formed or ill-connected words, or expressed in words of a barbarous or burlesque coinage, as of vulgar words Latinized or Latin words modernized; as, macaronic verse.—Macaronic verse or poetry, properly, a kind of humorous poetry in which, along with Latin, words of other languages are introduced with Latin inflections and construction. The name, however, is sometimes applied to verses which are merely a mixture of Latin and the unadulterated vernacular of the author. [The term was first employed to designate such verse by Teofilo Folengo, a Benedictine, who was born at Mantua 1484 and died 1544, and was Selected with reference to the mixture of ingredients in the dish macaroni.] Macaronic (mak-a-ré'nik), n. 1. A confused heap or mixture of several things.-2. Macaronic verse. Macaroon (mak-a-ron"), m. [Fr. macaron. See MACARONI.] 1. A small sweetcake, with

almonds in it.—2 t A finical fellow or macaroni; a fop. A macaroon, And no way fit to speak to clouted shoon. Donne.

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Macassar-oil (ma-kas'ar-oil), n. An oil used for I'..."; the growth of the hair, so named from Macassar, a district in the island of Celebes, in the Eastern Archipelago, from which it was originally procured. The name is very commonly given to a perfumed mixture of castor-oil and olive-oil.

Macaw (ma-ka'), n. [The native name in the Antilles.]... One of a genus (Macrocercus) of beautiful birds of the parrot tribe. The macaws are magnificent birds, distinguished by having their cheeks destitute of feathers, and their tail-feathers long (hence their generic name). They are all natives of the tropical regions of South America. The largest and most splendid in regard to colour is the great scarlet or red and blue macaw (M. Aracanga or macao). Its colour is scarlet with blue markings on The great green macaw (M. militaris) and the

Red and Blue Macaw (Macrocercus Aracanga).

blue-and-yellow macaw (M. ararauna) are

somewhat smaller. Written also Macao. Macaw-tree (ma-ka'tré), n. The name given

to several species of trees of the genus Ac

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among savage tribes. It was a favourite weapon with knights, with the cavalry immediately succeeding them, and at all times with fighting priests, whom a canon of the Church forbade to wield the sword. It consisted of a staff of about 5 feet long, with a metal head frequently in the form of a spiked ball. The heads, however, assumed a variety of forms, but all were constructed so as to inflict severe injury upon an opponent.—2. An ornamented staff of copper, silver, or other metal, resembling the warlike instrument, borne before magistrates and other persons in authority.—3. The heavier rod used in billiards. – 4. Fig. a mace-bearer.

He was followed by the maces of the two houses.

Afacaulay.

5. A currier's mallet with a knobbed face, made by the insertion of pins with eggshaped heads, used in leather-dressing to soften and supple the tanned hides and enable them to absorb the oil, &c. Mace (mäs), m. [Fr. macis, It mace, L. macis, macir, the same with Gr. maker, an Indian spice..] A spice, the dried aril or covering of the seed of the nutmeg (Myristica fragrams), this covering being a fleshy net-like envelope somewhat resembling the husk of a filbert. When fresh it is of a beautiful crimson hue. It is extremely fragrant and aromatic, and is chiefly used in cooking or in pickles. See MYRISTICA. Mace-ale (mäs'āl), n. Ale spiced with mace. Mace-bearer to n. A person who carries a mace before public functionarles. Macedonian (mas-e-dò'ni-an), m. 1. A native or inhabitant of Macedonia.-2. A follower of Macedonius, bishop of Constantinople, who, in the fourth century, denied the distinct existence and godhead of the Holy Spirit, which he conceived to be merely a divine energy diffused through the universe. onian (mas-e-dò'ni-an), a. Belonging or relating to Macedonia. -proof (màs'prof), a. Secure against arrest. Shirley.

rocomia, natives of tropical America, as Macer (màs'ér), n. A mace-bearer; specifi

A. fusiformis and A. sclerocarpa, the fruit of which last yields an oil of a yellowish colour of the consistence of butter, with a sweetish taste and an odour of violets, used by the natives of the West Indies as an emollient in painful affections of the joints, and largely imported into Britain, where it is sometimes sold as palm-oil, to be used in the manufacture of toilet soaps. The great macaw-tree is the A. lasiospatha. They belong to the same tribe as the cocoanut palm.

cally, in Scotland, an officer attending on the courts of session, teinds, justiciary, and exchequer. Macers are, properly o: the servants of the courts, and the attendants on the judges on the bench, and it is their duty to preserve silence in the court, to execute the orders of the judges, to call the rolls of court, and to execute such warrants for the apprehension of delinquents, &c., as are addressed to them.

The chancellor took on himself to send the oracers of the privy-council round to the few printers and MACER black points.-Mackerel gale, either a gale that ripples the surface of the sea, or one which is suitable for catching mackerel, as this fish is caught with the bait in motion. — Mackerel unint, spearmint (Mentha viridis). Mackerel sky, a sky in which the clouds have the form called cirro-cumulus, that is, are broken into fleecy masses. Called also a Mackerel-back Sky. Mackerelt (mak’ér-el), n. [0. Fr. maquerel, maquereau, a mackerel, and also a pander, there being a French popular belief that the mackerel follows the female shads, called vierges or maids, and brings them to the males. If the sense of pander or broker is the original sense, the word is probably derived, as Mahn thinks, from D. maker, makelaar, G. makler, a broker, an agent, O. H. G. mahhari, an agent, from mahhön, to do, to transact.) A pander or pimp. Mackerel-guide (mak’ér-el-gid), n. A name of the garfish (which see). Mackerel-midge (mak’ér-el-mij), n. Motella or Couchia glauca, a minute fish common round the British coasts, and little more than 1 inch in length. Mackintosh (mak' in-tosh), n. A term applied, from the name of the inventor, to a garment, particularly an overcoat, rendered waterproof by a solution of india-rubber. Mackle (mak’l), n. Same as Macule (which

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booksellers who could then be found in Edinburgh, charging them not to publish any work without §: License. Macaulay. Macer (màs'êr), n. [See MACE, spice..] A medicinal bark described by ancient authors, said to be useful in dysentery. Macerate (mas'êr-āt), p.t. pret & pp. macerated; ppr. macerating. [L. macero, maceratum, to make soft, to emaciate, from macer, lean, whence meagre.] 1. To make lean; to wear away. Recurrent pains of the stomach, megrims, and other recurrent headaches macerate the parts and render the looks of patients consumptive and pining. arrowey. 2. To subject to hardships; to ho’or mortify. Sorrow which contracts the heart macerates the soul. Azarton. 3. To steep almost to solution; to soften and separate the parts of a substance by steeping it in a fluid, or by the digestive process; as, food is macerated in the sto

Ill Maceration (mas-er-ā'shon), n. [L. maceratio, macerationis, from macero. See MACERATE.] The act or process of macerating or state of being macerated: (a) the act of making thin or lean. o act of harassing or mortifying. (c) The act, process, or operation of softening and almost dissolving by steeping in a fluid. The saliva serves for a maceration and dissolution of the meat into a chyle. ay. Mace-reed (màs'réd), n. A plant of the nus Typha; reed-mace (which see). us (ma-ki'rö-dus), n. (Gr. machaira, a sabre, and odous, a tooth.) A genus of extinct Carnivora, family Felidae, whose remains are met with in miocene, pliocene, and post-tertiary formations. The name is derived from the formidable canines of the upper jaw. Several species have been found, varying in size from a lion to a leopard. Machete o m. [Sp.] A Spanish implement, resembling a large chopping knife or cutlass, often 2 or 3 feet in length, used for cutting canes, corn, vines, &c. Machetes (ma-ké'téz), n. (Gr. machétés, a combatant.) Cuvier's name for a genus of wading birds, including the ruff. Machiavelian (maki-a-vél"i-an), a. Of or pertaining to Machiavel (Nicolo Machiatelli), *itia. writer, secretary and historiographer to the republic of Florence; in conformity to Machiavel's supposed principles; cunning in political management; us: ing duplicity or bad faith; crafty... ‘A most barbarous fellow, using Machiavelian atheism." Bp. Morton. See MACHIAVELIANISM. Machiavelian (mak’i-a-vél"i-an), m. One who adopts the principles of Machiavel. Machiavelianism, Machiavelism (mak’ia-vél"i-an-izm, mak’i-a-vel-izm), m. The principles or system of statesmanship of Machiavel, who inculcated the systematic subordination of right to expediency, maintaining that all means may be resorted to, however unlawful and treacherous, for the establishment and maintenance of the authority of the ruler over his subjects; political cunning and artifice intended to favour arbitrary power; political immorality. o France: what in such singular circumstances could poor Rohan's creed and so be that he could “perform" thereby 7 Atheism? Alas, no; not even atheisin; only Machiavesirou. Caroyle.

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the corbelled parapet was frequently used where machicolations were not required for the purpose of defence, and the apertures so called were omitted. Machicolations do not appear to have been used earlier than the end of the twelfth century.—2. The act of hurling missiles or of pouring burning liquids through such apertures upon the enemy beneath. chicoulis(mà-shëkö-lé), n. [Fr. machicoulis. See MACHIcollation.]. A pro- jecting gallery...over Machicolations, Herst. gateways or walls in- monceux Castle. sufficiently flanked, open at the bottom between its supporting corbels, to allow of defending the foot of the wall. Machinal (ma-shën'al), a. Pertaining to a machine or machines. Machinate (mak’i-nāt), v.t. pret. & pp. machinated; ppr. machinating. [L. machinor, nachinatus, from machina. See MACHINE.] To plan; to contrive; to form, as a plot or scheme. Machination (mak-i-nā"shon), m. [Fr. See MACHINE.] 1. The act of machinating, or of planning or contriving a scheme for executing some purpose, particularly an evil purpose.—2. That which is planned or contrived; a plot; an artful design formed with deliberation; a hostile or treacherous scheme. She was forced to carry on, for fear of discovery, machinations which she had at first resorted to in mere wantonness. Sir JP. Scott. Machinator (mak’i-nāt-er), n. One who machinates or forms a scheme, or who plots with evil designs. He hath become an active and earnest agitator, a murmurer and a machinator. Sir JP. Scott. Machine (ma-shën'), m. [L. machina, Gr. mêchanë, machine, device, contrivance, from , méchos, means, expedient.] 1. Any contrivance or thing which serves to increase or regulate the effect of a given force or to produce motion; or any object by the intervention of which a moving power is made to act upon anybody and overcome the force by which the latter resists the effort to change its state of rest or of motion. Machines are divided into simple, and compound, complex, or complicated. The simple machines are the six mechanical powers, viz. the lever, the pulley, the wheel and axle, the wedge, the screw, and the inclined plane. Compound machines are such as combine two or more of these powers for the production of motion or the transmission and application of force. Compound machines are classed under different denominations according to the forces by which they are put in motion; as, hydraulic machines, pneumatic machines, &c.; or according to the purposes which they are intended to serve; as, agricultural machines, printing machines, so machines, &c. The powers employed to give motion through machines to any object are produced by the muscular strength of men and animals, the actions of weights, springs, wind, water, steam, fired gunpowder, gas, air, electricity, &c. The initial force which puts a machine in motion is called the first or prime mover, the point at which that force is applied is called the acting or impelled point, and that in which the effect is produced is the working point.—2. A term of contempt applied to a person whose actions do not appear to be under his own control, but to be directed by some external agency; one who does not appear to act intelligently; a person who acts at the will or bidding of another; a tool.-3. An engine; an instrument of force. With inward arms the dire machine they ...; ent

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4.Any organization by which poweris applied and made effective, or a desired effect produced; the whole complex system by which any organization or institution is carried on. The whole machine of government ought not to bear upon the people with a weight so heavy and oppressive. Ilaridor. 5. Šiponatural agency in a poem, or a superhuman being introduced into a poem to per

form some exploit; machinery. The changing of the Trojan fleet into water-nymphs is the most §: machine in the whole AEneid. Addison.

MACKEREL

The actions, sentiments, conversation, of the heroes and heroines of ancient days were as unnatural as the machines employed to put them in motion. Aror. Morooze. 6. In England, a public coach; in Scotland, any sort of light vehicle, generally for carrying travellers. The machine started within a few minutes of the time appointed; the coachman smacked his whip. Southey, He had taken a seat in the Portsmouth machine, and proposed to go to the Isle of Wight. Thackeray. Machine(ma-shën'), v. t. To apply machinery to; to effect by the aid of machinery; especially, to print by means of a printingmachine. Machine (ma-shën'), v.i. To be employed upon or in machinery. Machineel (mach-i-nēl'), n. Same as Manchineel. Machine-made (ma-shën'mad), a. Made by a machine or machinery, as distinguished from hand-made. Machiner (ma-shën'êr), n. 1. One who tends or works a machine; a machinist.—2. A horse that runs in a machine. Machine-ruler (ma-shën' rúl-ér), n. A machine which lines or rules paper according to patterns. Simmonds. ery (ma-shën'êr-i), m. 1. A complicated apparatus, or combination of mechanical powers, designed to increase, regulate, or apply motion and force; as, the machinery of a watch or other chronometer. —2. Machines in general; as, the machinery of a cotton-mill is often moved by a single wheel.—3. Any complex system of means and appliances designed to carry on any particular work, or keep anything in action, or to effect a specific purpose or end; specifically, the agencies, especially supernatural, by which the plot of an epic or dramatic poem, or other imaginative work, is carried on and conducted to the i.; as, the machinery of the Iliad; the machinery of Pope's Rape of the Lock. “An almost indispensable part of the machinery of state.” Macaulay. The machinery, madam, is a term invented by the critics to signify that part which the deities, angels, or daemons are made to act in a poem. Pope. Machine-shop (ma-shën'shop), n. A workshop in which machines are made, and metals, &c., dressed for machinery. Machine-tool (ma-shën'tól), n. An adjustable machine, with an automatic feed, for cutting metals into any required shape. Called also Engine-tool. Machine-work (ma-shënswerk), n. Work done by a machine, as distinguished from that done by hand or manual labour. t(ma-shën'ist), n. [Fr. machiniste. See MACHINE.] 1. A constructor of machines and engines, or one well versed in the principles of machines. –2. One who tends or works a machine. Macigno (mà-chèn'yū), n. [It...] A species of siliceous sandstone, of two varieties, one of a grayish-yellow colour, the other of a bluish-gray colour. It belongs apparently to the cretaceous age. Macilency (mas'i-len-si), n. [See MACILENT.] Leanness. Bailey. Macilent (massi-lent), a. [L. macilentus, from macies, leanness, maceo, to be lean, from root of macer, lean. J. Lean; thin; having little flesh. Bailey. Mackerel (mak’ér-el), n. [O.Fr. maquerel, Fr. maquereau, D. makreel, G. makrele, Dan. makrel, W. macrell, generally explained as from L. L. macarellus, from L. macula, a spot—in allusion to the blue blotches with which the fish is marked. Comp. W. brithyll, a trout, from brith, speckled, variegated. Mahn, however, prefers to derive it from D. makelaar, a broker, from the popular belief mentioned under next article.] A fish of the genus Scomber, the S. scomber of Linnaeus. It is a well known and excellent table fish, and inhabits al

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see ). Macle (mak’l), m. [Fr. ; L. macula, a spot, the mesh of a net.] 1. In mineral. (a) a term applied to twin-crystals, which are united by simple contact of their faces by interpenetration, or by incorporation. These twin forms are often repeated so as to form groups or compound macles. (b) Chiastolite, cross-stone, or hollow-spar, a variety of andalusite, the crystals of which have the axis and angles of different colours. (c) A tesselated appearance in other crystals. – 2. In her. same as Mascle. Maclurea (mak-lur'é-a), n. [After William Maclure, a North American geologist.) A genus of fossil spiral, operculated shells, characteristic of the lower Silurian. They are of large dimensions. Maclurite, Maclureite (mak-liir'it), n. [After William Maclure, a North American geologist.] A name common to two minerals: (a) a dark-green variety of pyroxene, a bisilicate containing alumina, lime, iron, and magnesia. (b) A fluosilicate of iron and magnesia, also called Chondrodite, Brucite, and Humite. Both minerals are found in metamorphic and igneous rocks. te (mak-mil'an-it), n. One of a body, also known as the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Scotland, after the Rev. John Macmillan, minister of Balmaghie, who, on his deposition from his charge in the Church of Scotland, became their first ordained clergyman. See CAMERONIAN. Macon (ma-coil), n. [From Macon, on the Saone, where the grapes grow. J A celebrated red French wine, remarkable for its strength and keeping qualities. Macouba (mak’o-ba), n. Same as Maccouba. Macrauchenia (mak-ra-ké'ni-a), n. [Gr. makros, long, and auchén, the neck.) A genus of extinct perissodactyle mammals, occurring in the tertiaries of South America, closely allied to the llamas, but of more gigantic dimensions. The dentition resembles that of the horse and rhinoceros; the skull is equine, but the neck bones are like those of the llamas and camels. Macrobiotic (mak’ro-bi- ot” ik), a [Gr. makros, long, and bios, life.] Long-lived. Macrobiotidae (mak’ro-bi-ot'i-dé), n pl. (Gr. makros, long, bios, life, and eidos, likeness.] A family of minute vermiform Arachnida, without respiratory organs, known to microscopists as sloth or bear animalcules, or water-bears. They are usually found in moss or in fresh water, and were formerly classed with the rotifers. Their form is usually an elongated oval, and they are furnished with four pairs of short legs, each of which usually bears four little claws. Little or nothing is known of their habits; and the most singular circumstance connected with them is their power of returning to life, like rotifers, when moistened, after having been for a consider* time in a dry and apparently lifeless state. Macrocephalous (mak-ro-sef'al-us), a. (Gr. makros, large, and kephale, the head.) 1. Having a large head. –2. In bot. having the cotyledons of a dicotyledonous embryo confluent, and forming a large mass compared with the rest of the body.

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M (mak-ro-sis' tis), n. [Gr. anakros, long, and kystis, a bag..] A genus of marine plants, belonging to the nat. order Algae. The M. pyrifera exceeds all other vegetable productions in the length of its fronds, some of which have been estimated on reasonable grounds to attain a length of 700 feet. The leaves are long and narrow, and at the base of each is placed a vesicle filled with air for the purpose of enabling the plant to support its enormous length in the water, as its stem is not thicker than the finger, and its upper branches as slender as common packthread. It is found in the southern temperate zone, and along the Pacific as far north as the arctic regions. Macrodactyl (mak-ro-dak'til), n. An individual of the Macrodactyli (which see). Macrodactyli (mak-ro-dak'ti-li), m.pl. [Gr. makros, long, and daktylos, a finger.) A family of birds, of the order Grallatores, having very long toes; it comprises the coot, rail, water-hen, the jacana, &c. Macrodactylic, Macrodactylous (mak’ro-dak-til'ik, mak-ro-dak’til-us), a. Having long toes: applied to a tribe of wading birds. See MACRODACTY LI. Macr onal (mak’ro-di-ag” on-al), n. [Gr, makros, long, and E. diagonal.] The longer of the diagonals of a rhombic prism. Macrodome (mak’ro-dûm), n. (Gr. makros, long, and domnos, a house, dome. ). In crystal, a dome parallel to the longer lateral axis in the trimetric system. Goodrich. Moology (mak-rol'o-ji), n. (Gr. makros, great, and logos, discourse.] Long and tedious talk; prolonged discourse without matter; superfluity of words. Macrometer (mak-rom'et-ér), n. (Gr. makros, long, and metrom, measure.] A mathematical instrument contrived to measure inaccessible heights and objects by means of two reflectors on a common sextant. Macron (mā‘kron), n. Same as Macrotone. Macropetalous (mak-ro-petal-us), a (Gr. makros, long, and petalon, a petal.] In bot. having large petals, as some species of Ranunculus. Macrophyllous (mak-ro-fil'us or mak-rofillus), a. [Gr. makros, long, and phyllon, a leaf.] In bot, having large leaves. Macropiper (mak’ro-pi-pér), n. (Gr. makros, long, and piperi, pepper.] A genus of dicotyledonous shrubs of the nat. order Piperaceae, natives of the islands of the Pacific, now more usually regarded as a section of the genus Piper. One species, M. methysticum, furnishes a root called ava or kara, possessing narcotic and stimulant properties, a beverage prepared from which is the national drink of the Polynesians, and is always partaken of before entering upon any imFo business or religious rite. It is also runk as a specific for rheumatism. The approved mode of manufacturing the beverage is to extract the juice by chewing, collecting the spittle for use. Macropod (mak’ro-pod), n. An individual of the family Macropodia. Microok Macropodous (mak-rop'odal, mak-rop'od-us). a. [Gr, makros, large, and pows, foot.] 1. Large-footed.—2. In bot a term applied by Richard to the embryo of rasses, whose cotyledon was mistaken by im for an embryo. Macropodia (mak-ro-pô'di-a), m. pl. (Gr. makros, and pous, a foot..] Latreille's name for a family .# brachyurous decapod crustaceans (crabs), remarkable for the enormous length of their feet, which has obtained for them the name of sea-spiders. They generally remain at considerable depths in the sea, and are also found on oyster-banks. Macropodian (mak-ro-pô'di-an), a. as Macropod. Macropodidae, Matropido (mak-ro-pod'i-dé, mak-rop'i-dé), n. pl. (See MACROPUs.] A family of non-placental mammals, of which the genus Macropus is the type. The family formerly comprised kangaroos, kan

Same

MACULATE

garoo - rats or potoroos, tree-kangaroos, phalangers, flying-squirrels, koalas, bandicoots, wombats, opossums, &c., animals widely varying in habit and form, some being vegetable-feeders and some carnivorous, but, with the exception of the opossums, all Australasian. Owen restricted the family to the kangaroos proper, and their close congeners belonging to the section Poephaga (grass-eaters) of the order MarsuF. and his classification has generally en adopted. See KANGA Roo. Macropoma (mak’ro-po-ma), n. (Gr. makros. long, and pøma, operculum. J A genus of fossil ganoids with homocercal tails, belonging to the cretaceous system : so named from the large operculum. Full-grown specimens are about 2 feet long. Macropterous (mak-rop' ter-us), a... [Gr. makros, long, and pteron, a wing.] In zool. having long wings or fins. Macropus (mak’ro-pus), n. (Gr. makros, long, and pous, a foot.) A genus of marsupial mammals, the type of the family Macropodidae; the kangaroos. They have elongated hinder limbs with four toes, fore-feet with five toes, and a well-developed tail. See MACROPODIDAE, KANGAR00. Macroscelides (mak-ro-sel'i-déz), n. (Gr. makros, long, and skelos, the thigh.) A genus of mammals belonging to the order Insectivora, containing several species, all South African, save one found on the coast of Barbary. M. proboscideus, the typical species, a native of the Cape, is about 1 foot in length, and its fur of the colour of that of the hare. It has a long nose, long hind-legs, and the habits of the jerboa. It feeds on insects. Macrotherium (mak-ro-thé'ri-um), n. (Gr. makros, long, and thorion, a wild beast.] A fossil genus of gigantic mammals, the oldest representatives of the Edentata, found in the miocene tertiaries of France, and intermediate between the pangolin or African ant-eater and the aardvark. It appears to have been destitute of dermal armour, and the teeth are rootless and without enamel. Macrotone (mak’ro-tūn), n. (Gr. makros, long, and tomos, line.] In gram. a horizontal line placed over vowels to show that they have their long or name sound; as, a in năme, e in mé, i in line, Ö in hôme, ti in tube. Macrotous (mak-rū’tus), a. [Gr, makros, long, and ous, otos, the ear.] In zool. longeared. Macrotypous (mak-rot'i-pus), a. (Gr., makros, long, and typos, form.] In mineral. having a long form. Macroura (mak-rou'ra), n. See MACRURA. ural, Macrourous (mak-rou’ral, mak-rou'rus), a. See MACRURAL. Macrouran (mak-rou'ran), n. See MACru ran. Macrura (mak-ru'ra), n. pl. [Gr. makros, long, and oura, a tail.] A family of stalkeyed decapod crustaceans, including the lobster, prawn, shrimp. They are so called in contrast to the Brachyura (crabs), in which the abdomen, usually called the apron, is rudimentary and turns forward, lying close below the cephalothorax, while in the Macrura the flexible abdomen is as fully developed as the cephalothorax, and extends straight backward, and is used in swimming.

Ma Macrurous (mak-ru'ral, makru'rus), a. Belonging to the family Macrura.

Macruran (mak-ru'ran), n. An individual of the family Macrura.

Mactation o m. [L. mactatio, from macto, to kill.) The act of killing a victim for sacrifice. Mactatort (mak-tät’ér), n. A murderer. Mactra (mak’ tra), n., [L., a kneadingtrough..] A genus of lamellibranchiate molluscs, the type of the family Mactridae. They live in the sand, and are universally diffused. The genus includes many rare and beautiful species. Mactridae (mak’tri-dé), m. pl. A family of lamellibranchiate molluscs, having lon respiratory siphons and a sinuated palli line. The shell is equivalve, trigonal, hinge with two diverging cardinal teeth, mantle open in front, siphons united with fringed orifices, foot compressed. See MACTRA. Macula (mak’ū-la), n. pl. Maculae (mak’ūle). (L.) A spot, as on the skin, or on the surface of the sun or other luminous orb. Maculate (mak' il-lāt), v. t. [L. maculo,

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