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DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES: "VOL. III.

GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE.

ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE PROGRESSIVE DEVELOPMENT AND CHIEF PERIODS OF ENGLISH GOTHIC.

ENGLISH Architecture from the eleventh century to the middle of the sixteenth century has been divided into the following periods or styles.

I. The Norman, round-arched or English Romanesque style, extending from the Conquest, 1066, or perhaps a year or two earlier, until the end of the reign of Henry II. in 1189, a period of about 123 years.

II. The Early ENGLISH GOTHIC, or first pointed, commencing with the reign of Richard I. (1189), and extending to the end of the long reign of Henry III. in 1272, a period of about 100 years, and answering pretty nearly to the thirteenth century.

III. The DECORATED ENGLISH GOTHIC, or second pointed, commencing with the reign of Edward I. (1272), and extending to the end of the reign of Edward III. in 1377; a period of about 100 years; but in some localities perhaps it continued for ten or fifteen years longer, thus agreeing generally with the fourteenth century.

IV. The PERPENDICULAR ENGLISH GOTHIC, or third pointed, from the beginning of the reign of Richard II. (1377), until the end of the reign of Henry VIII. in 1546, a period of about 169 years. But the architecture of the last two reigns (Henry VII. and VIII.) is usually designated the Tudor or Late Per. pendicular.

The architecture of the reigns of Elizabeth and James I., during which a large number of important buildings and mansions were erected, and in which forms of Classic Architecture became mixed with Gothic, is distinguished as Elizabethan and Jacobean respectively.

It must be distinctly understood that no definite line can be drawn between the successive styles; hence there exists a transitional period between each, partaking of the character of both styles, that between Norman and Early English being sometimes distinguished as semi-Norman; that between Early English and Decorated being sometimes called Geometrical or Early Decorated; and that between Decorated and Perpendicular Early Perpendicular or Late Decorated. There is, in fact, no period at which a positive line can be drawn between any of the styles.

During the Saxon era in England architecture was of a very rude and primitive character, but very few perfect specimens of it remain. Edward the Confessor, although an Englishman by birth, was educated in Normandy, and had a predilection for Norman manners and Norman customs. Westminster Abbey accordingly, which he founded, was erected in the Norman, or "new" style, and was consecrated on Dec. 28, 1065, only a few days before his death.

Norman Period.--The Normans were great church and castle builders, and upon the landing of William I. and his taking possession of the country, Saxon buildings were demolished and were replaced by others of a more majestic character and upon a grander scale until the whole country was covered with Norman churches and cathedrals. Many Norman castles were also erected. Of the Norman minster at Westminster very little now remains, but the churches throughout the country, or parts of churches erected at this time, are still very numerous, and nearly every cathedral retains large portions of Norman work-as at Durham, Can. terbury, Oxford, Peterborough, Norwich, Ely, Rochester, and others.

chester, Hampshire, is a particularly good example of a small Norman west front in good preservation. It was built within the castle of Porchester, and was a portion of a priory of canons of the order of St. Augustine, founded by Henry I. The date of its erection is ascertained to have been A.D. 1133. The early character of the Norman style was that of great massiveness and simplicity, with very few ornaments beyond the billet moulding and zigzag, as seen in the choir of Waltham Abbey, shown in fig. 2. The monastery of Waltham was founded by Harold in 1062, but of the work erected during his time probably no portion remains. The present church dates somewhat early in the twelfth century. It shows some of the most distinctive features of the style: massive cylindrical piers with spiral flutings, cushion capitals, and semicircular arches. Towards the end of the period pointed arches were used, and interlaced arcades forming pointed arches. These have been considered by some persons to have been the origin of the pointed arch. During the reign of Stephen the style became very much enriched by the use of a profusion of ornaments. This was particularly the case in doorways (see the small example fig. 1), of which many elaborate examples remain, as at Iffley Church, Oxfordshire; Ely, Lincoln, and Durham Cathedrals; besides a great number of others. In many churches where all else has been swept away to make room for alterations, the highly enriched Norman doorway has been carefully preserved.

The Norman architects were not distinguished for their science in construction. The walls of their buildings were of great thickness, and the piers supporting their arches were usually of an enormous size, yet notwithstanding this strength and massiveness the architects understood the thrust of their arches so little that their works frequently gave way. A notable instance of this occurred in the year 1107, when the central tower of Winchester Cathedral fell, although it had only been completed in 1093. Norman buttresses were flat and broad (see fig. 1) and of little projection from the wall. Their successors, by the use of boldly projecting buttresses (fig. 3) greatly reduced the thickness of their walls. The windows in this style are generally small, except in very large buildings, but a double window divided by a shaft is not uncommon in towers.

Transition to Early English.Of the transitional period between Norman and Early English a very valuable example remains in the Choir and Trinity Chapel of Canterbury Cathedral, of which the date is well known. A great fire occurred at Canterbury in 1174 by which the whole of the eastern portion of the cathedral was burned down. An account of this and of the rebuilding of the cathedral was written by Gervase, a monk of Cant ury, which has been preserved. He tells us that after the disastrous fire “French and English artificers were summoned," and among others there had come William of Sens. “Him therefore they retained on account of his lively genius and good reputation, and dismissed the others." By him the work was commenced in 1175, the year after the fire, and carried on until 1179, when he was severely injured by a fall, and another succeeded him in the charge of the works. “ William by name, English by nation, small in body, but in workmanship of many kinds acute and honest.” He carried the work to completion in 1184. It marks,

1 Translated by Rev. R. Willis in his “ Architectural History of

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although the work has somewhat of a French character, great progress in construction and also in the art of sculpture. The proportions are much lighter and higher than the former work, and the choir and transepts are vaulted in stone with elegant groining, a feat which had never been accomplished before this time. For although Norman aisles had been groined in stone, the paves, choirs, and wider parts in the cathedrals of the Norman period had flat ceilings of wood, frequently enriched by painting, as still to be seen over the nave of Peterborough Cathedral.

Another contemporary transitional work, but perhaps a little earlier, is that of Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford, consecrated in 1180. Here the proportions are not so good as at Canterbury, but both exhibit marked features which show them to be precursors of the Early English. Although in both examples the round arch is retained, yet there is no appearance of the cushion capital. The foliage is free and elegant, springing upright from the necking of the column and turning over gracefully under the abacus. That at Oxford in some cases very much resembles the Early English; but at Canterbury it has more of the Early French character. The dog-tooth ornament which is distinctive the Early English is used in both examples.

The hall of Oakham Castle, Rutlandshire (A.D. 1165-1191), is also an excellent specimen of transitional work. The capitals are very similar to some at Canterbury; the tooth ornament is freely introduced, and the windows are roundheaded within and pointed without.

Early English Style.-- Extreme lightness of proportion, height, and elegance was introduced by the Early English style. The grouping of windows, with acutely pointed or lancet arches, well-projecting buttresses and pinnacles, as in the North Transept of Beverley Minster (see fig. 3), were some of the principal characteristics of the style. The windows were, almost universally, long, narrow, and lancet-headed, and a variety of appearance and expression resulted from the combinations of the single window. Often two and three windows were combined, as at Beverley, and sometimes there are combinations of five and even of seven. On the circular windows, as in the gable and aisles of Beverley, much care was bestowed. York and Lincoln have very fine large windows of this kind, and that in the south transept of York, usually called the marygold window, is extremely rich and elegant.

The builders of the Early English period greatly excelled in scientific construction, and discontinued the use of the enormous masses of masonry found necessary by the Normans, thereby imparting great lightness and elegance to their work. Cathedrals were roofed with graceful stone groining, the lateral thrust of which was taken from the clere-story by Aying buttresses, which again transferred it to the heads of the aisle buttresses. These buttresses were well proportioned for the duty which they had to perform, and were frequently additionally strengthened by pinnacles or heavy buttress gablets.

Instead of the heavy cylindrical piers of the former period, those of the Early English usually consisted of a central shaft with four or more small detached shafts clustered round it. The small shafts were often of purbeck or other marble, and connected with the central shaft by one or more moulded bands. A good example of this is seen in the chapter-house of Lincoln Cathedral. (Fig. 5.) Others are to be found at Westminster Abbey and Salisbury Cathedral. The capitals were either richly moulded or filled with flowing foliage, rising directly from the necking, and the abacuses were invariably round instead of square as in the Norman. The leaves of the foliage consisted mostly of three rounded lobes, said to have heen taken from the Water Avens or Herba benedicta, but they were also frequently formed of four and five deeply divided lobes. Small and slender detached shafts were constantly introduced in the jambs of windows and doors, with long lines of the dog-tooth ornament between. These were repeated in the hollows of the mouldings above.

Doors in large buildings were frequently double under one general arch, the spandril being filled with a quatrefoil, as at Beverley, fig. 3, and Salisbury, fig. 4. Two-light windows towards the later period of the style were treated in the same manner, and in some instances the heads of the windows were trefoiled. These form the early indication of the traceried windows of the next period.

Early English chapter-houses were very elegant structures, usually groined internally with ribs springing from a central clustered pier, as at Lincoln, fig. 5. The form of the building is a decagon, and the central pillar is surrounded by ten purbeck shafts, held together by a central band and finished by a richly foliated capital. The vaulting springs from the walls from clustered shafts supported on foliated capitals. The intersections of the ribs are enriched by well-designed foliated bosses. The chapter-house at Westminster is of this period and is in advance of what had been seen in architecture up to that time. The windows are of four lights, separated by mullious, and not distinct windows; and have quatrefoils in the heads under one general arch, marking the transition to the Geometrical Period. Salisbury, which is somewhat later, has windows like those at Westminster, and with an entrance-door (fig. 4) which is one of the most perfect and elegant works of the period. Salisbury Cathedral is almost entirely in the Early English style, having been begun in 1220 and finished in 1258. The chapter-house is a little later than the cathedral itself; but the grandest work of this period was the work of Henry III. at Westminster Abbey, A.D. 1245-1269, and the beauty and elegance of the proportions of the choir and transepts are unsurpassed by any other work.

Decorated Style.-In early decorated buildings the spaces or piers between the groups of windows were reduced uutil they became mullions and the heads were filled with geometrical tracery, as seen in the example fig. 9, the west front of Howden Church, Yorkshire. Pinnacles and gables became crocketed, and triangular canopies were introduced, as may be observed over the central window in same example. In later decorated the lines in the tracery of windows became flowing, sometimes disti shed as flamboyant, and the number of ribs in groining were increased, as in the north aisle of St. Mary's Church, Beverley (fig. 7). Towers were often crowned with lofty octagonal stone spires, with the angles hipped, technically called "broach” spires, as at Anwick, Lincolnshire (fig. 6). The spire was enriched by lucarne windows placed alternately and diminishing in size towards the top. Buttress caps were frequently canopied and crocketed. This is seen more distinctly in the porch of Heckington Church, Lincolnshire (fig. 8), where the buttresses have also niches and ogee canopies above them. Sculptured foliage was no longer after the manner of the Early English, but was taken more directly from nature and was very rich and full of light and shade. The Hawthorn, Maple, and other natural foliage was treated with great skill and beauty. The west front and nave of York Cathedral, dating from 1348, and the nave of Exeter Cathedral (1331-1350) are good typical examples of the style. Piers were formed of groups of small shafts, but they were not detached as in the previous style. The characteristic ornament of the period was the ball-flower,” and in some buildings, as in the south aisle of Gloucester Cathedral, it was used in such profusion that the tracery as well as the janı bs and arches of the windows are literally covered with them. Castles of the Edwardian period are very numerous, and there are also numerous remains of monastic buildings of this period, especially gate-houses. The gateway of Battle Abbey, Sussex (fig. 10), is a good example, and from the abbot having obtained a license to fortify and embattle the monastery in 1339, which it was necessary to do at that time, we know within a year or two the date of the work.

Perpendicular Style.-The west front of Winchester Cathedral, fig. 11, gives a very interesting example of the Early Perpendicular style, for so rapid was the change from the

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Flowing Decorated that we already see the perpendicular lines in the great window and the upright panelling of the gable above as well as other parts. This is said to be the work of Bishop Edington, who died in 1366, but probably left the work incomplete. The alteration of the nave from the Norman to the Perpendicular style was carried out by William of Wykeham, who probably finished Bishop Eding ton's work. The porches are later than the other parts. Rushden Church, Northamptonshire, fig. 12, is an example of a Perpendicular tower and spire. The buttresses termin. ating at the bottom of the belfry, enriched parapet, pinnacles, flying buttresses, and crocketed spire-these are character. istic features of this style; but there are numerous examples of almost every description of tower appertaining to this period, from the plain short tower of a country church to the elaborate and richly panelled towers of Gloucester, Taunton, and the celebrated lantern-tower of Boston in Lincolnshire. Windows are easily distinguished from those of the preceding style by their mullions running in perpendicular lines through the tracery, and having horizontal transoms (fig. 11). They are often of great width, western windows of Cathedrals frequently occupying the whole breadth of the front between the buttresses. In Norman work the original windows were in many instances destroyed and large perpendicular windows inserted, as at Norwich Cathedral. Doorways, instead of triangular canopies, were surmounted by a square head over the arch, and the spandrils filled with tracery or foliage. Later in the style the arch was made four-centred, as in the porches of Winchester Cathedral (fig. 11), and usually called the “ Tudor arch." In piers the shafts were less detached from the central core; and the capitals were commonly octagonal, but much less important than previously, and seldom foliated, except occasionally by a four-leaved flower introduced upon each face. Bases of piers, however, were made much more important, octagonal and of great height, with high plinths below the moulded work. In elaborate buildings nothing is more conspicuous than the panelling, with tracery, all the plain surfaces of the building, as may be seen in Henry VII.'s chapel at Westminster. Niches with canopies

above them were of constant occurrence. Panelling was also carried into stone groining, and this, from radiating from its springing point, has been called fan-groining. A most intricate example of this with stone pendants is seen in the roof of Henry VII.'s chapel. Other examples of it exist at King's College Chapel, Cambridge, and St. George's Chapel, Wind

Enriched cresting to screen-work usually termed the “Strawberry-Leaf Ornament” or “Tudor Flower,” is a noticeable feature at this period. The timber roofs of churches and halls of this date were frequently very elaborate and ornamental, as in the celebrated example at Westminster. To this age also belongs the beautiful and richly carved rood-screens, many of which are still to be found, although often in a sadly mutilated state, in the churches of Norfolk and Suffolk.

Later Styles.-During the reign of Henry VIII. a new style was brought into the country, the Renaissance style of Italy. That monarch being fond of foreign, artists engaged Torrigiano to execute the monuments of Henry VII. and his mother the Countess of Richmond. These are the earliest examples (the monument of Henry VII. was finished in 1519) of revived classic architecture in England. The Elizabethan and Jacobean show how English artists attempted to apply these classic forms to our own architecture. In many instances the mixture is most incongruous, but with all its defects a most picturesque style was the result, and when applied to domestic purposes in an age when palatial mansions were required, the result was far from being ineffective and trivial. Many of these grand houses are still remaining, as in the example (fig. 13), Hatfield House, Hertfordshire, which was built by Robert Cecil, first Earl of Salisbury, between 1605 and 1611. Many other noble examples still remain, as Burleigh, Northamptonshire; Crewe, Cheshire; Penshurst, Kent; Audley End, Essex; &c. Framed houses of oak filled in with plaster, commonly called half-timbered houses, were largely erected during the reigns of Elizabeth and James. Great numbers of these still remain in Cheshire, and Chester itself is celebrated for many good examples of this character, some of which are very richly carved.

INSECTS.

ILLUSTRATIONS OF TERMS USED IN ENTOMOLOGY.

INSECTS--Insecta—belong to that great section of the animal kingdom which consists of the invertebrate animals, or animals without an internal skeleton, and to the sub-kingdom Annulosa (Ringed Animals) in that section, forming one of the classes of the division Articulata or Arthropoda, animals characterized by having jointed appendages articulated to the body. The other classes of the Arthropoda are the Arachnida or spiders, the Myriapoda or centipedes, and the Crustacea or crabs. The general characters of insects are: blood white; respiration effected by means of tracheæ or air-tubes; body divided into three chief portions, head, thorax, and abdomen; six jointed legs, and generally two or four winys, all attached to the thorax. The name insects (Lat. in, and seco, to cut) has been given to animals of this class from the fact of their bodies being deeply and noticeably divided into distinct portions. The outer integument of insects is firmi and horny, being chiefly composed of the substance called chitine, and it is to it that the muscles are attached. The head consists of several segments amalgamated together, and supports two antennæ or feelers, which assume a great variety of forms in different insects; also two compound eyes, besides in many cases several simple eyes. The mouth of some insects is adapted for biting or chewing, and is therefore called masticatory; others have a mouth adapted for suction, and hence called suctorial. The thorax is composed of three segments

(prothorax in front, mesothorax in middle, and metathorax), each of which supports a pair of jointed legs, and the two hinder segments generally carry, in addition, each a pair of wings. The under part of the thorax is called the sternum, and is similarly divided. One or both pairs of wings may be wanting, and the latter is the case in parasitic insects especially. The wings consist, generally speaking, of membranous expansions, supported by hollow tubes called nervures, but they vary greatly in form and texture. The orders into which insects are arranged are chiefly based on the number and nature of the wings. The abdomen consists normally of nine segments. It contains the principal viscera and the organs of reproduction, and is often furnished with such appendages as stings, ovipositors, &c. The alimentary canal varies greatly in different insects; when most fully developed it consists of the gullet, the crop, the gizzard, the stomach, the small intestine, and the large intestine. The respiratory apparatus consists of air-tubes or trachea, ramifying through every part of the body, and opening externally on the sides of the insect by apertures called spiracles. The circulation is chiefly carried on by means of a contractile tube called the dorsal vessel, which is placed along the back of the insect, and through which the blood passes from the posterior to the anterior extremity of the body. The nervous system consists mainly in a large ganglion (or nervous centre) above, and a ring round the

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oesophagus, connected with a chain of ganglia lying along the under side of the abdomen. Insects propagate their species by eggs. The young insect is in the majority of cases unlike the perfect insect, having to pass through a metamorphosis either complete or incomplete before attaining maturity. Those that pass through a complete metamorphosis are called IIolometabolic insects, and first appear as the larva, grub, or caterpillar, then as the pupa or chrysalis, and lastly as the imago or winged and perfect insect. Those that undergo the incomplete metamorphosis are called Hemimetabolic; while those that undergo no metamorphosis, but simply increase in size (such as lice and other parasites), are called Ametabolic. Insects are classified in various ways. The chief orders into which insects are usually divided are the following: the Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, and Diptera, which are holometabolic; the Hemiptera, Orthoptera, and Neuroptera, which are hemimetabolic.

Order I.-LEPIDOPTERA (Scale-winged), or Butterflies and Moths.

Characters: Insects having four wings, covered on the upper and under surfaces with minute coloured scales resembling dust or flour, and easily removed; mouth a suctorial tube, spiral; head, thorax, and abdomen more or less hairy. Figs. 1 to 9.

Fig. 1. ---American Swallow-tail Butterfly (Papilio podalirius).

A A Upper or superior wings. BB Lower or inferior wings. H & K Interior margins. a Head. b Antennæ. c Thorax. d Abdomen. e Humeral angle of wing. Scutellar angle or angle next the scutellum of the thorax. g Posterior or outer angle. h Border. i Anterior or upper margin. k Anal or inner angle. Posterior margin. m Cauda or tail.

n Strigæ or streaks. o Lunulæ or crescent-shaped markings. Fig. 2.- Buff-tip Moth (Pygæra bucephala), native of Britain

(natural size). a Antennæ. b Thorax. cAbdomen. d Wings, denticulated or with toothed edges. e Fringe. f Double posterior streak

or striga. g Double anterior streak or striga. h Band. Fig. 3.-Eyed Hawk-moth (Smerinthus ocellatus), native of

Britain (reduced). oc Superior wings, angulated. a Antennæ, fusiform, hooked at the end. b Pterygodes, or tippet-like appendages covered with scales. cc Ocelli or eye-like spots.

dd Inferior wings. Fig. 4.–Flame-shouldered Moth (Graphiphora plecta), native

of Britain (natural size). a Wings horizontal, in the position of rest. The butterflies

when at rest have the wings upright. Fig. 5.-Silver-studded Blue Butterfly (Polyommatus argus),

native of Britain (natural size).

h Wings erect, the insect being at rest. See fig. 4. Fig. 6.-Peacock Butterfly (Vanessa Io), native of Britain

(reduced). Wings with beautiful eye-like spots. Fig. 62.-Chrysalis of Peacock Butterfly.

a Under side of Chrysalis. b The same with the wings and

antennæ traced out. Fig. 66.-Head of Peacock Butterfly.

a Antennæ, with abrupt club-shaped extremity. Labial palpi. c Rudimentary or spurious legs. d Suctorial mouth, proboscis, or antlia. e The compound eyes. f The upper

wing. Fig. 7.-Head and Thorax of a Moth.

a a Eyes. b Palpi. cc Prothorax. d Pterygode. d' Pterygode denuded of its scales, to show its form. e Mesothorax denuded. f Scutellum. hh Upper wings. ii Lower wings.

k Abdomen. Fig. 8.-Caterpillar of Jasmine Hawk-moth(Sphynx Jasmin

orum), North America (natural size). a Head. a to b Thorax, three segments, the remaining nine segments forming the abdomen. d True legs, six in number, on the three segments of the thorax. eee e Abdominaí prolegs. f Anal prolegs. g Anal horn. h Oblique striga or streaks. Spiracles or breathing openings are shown (as small oval rings) on the first, fourth, and all the other seg

ments except the last. Fig. 9.– Antennæ of Lepidoptera.

Order II.--COLEOPTERA (Sheath-winged), or Beetles.

Characters: Insects having four wings, the two superior, called elutra, being horny or coriaceous, and serving not for flight but as a sheath or defence to the two inferior, which are membranous, folded transversely. Mouth formed for mastication, having a labrum or upper lip, two mandibles or upper jaws, two maxillæ or lower jaws (the jaws moving horizontally), and a lower lip or labium; also maxillary and

labial palpi or feelers. Figs. 10 to 20. Fig. 10.- A longicorn beetle (Acrocinus trochlearis) (natural

size). a a Antennæ. 6 Head. Thorax. d Scutellum. e Elytra or wing-covers. f Femur or second joint of leg. Tibia. h Tetramerous (four-jointed) tarsus or foot. i Suture of

wing-covers. Fig. 11. – Egyptian Scarabæus (Ateuchus Ægyptiorum)

(natural size). Fig. 12.-A Water-beetle (Dyticus Lherminieri), West Indies

(reduced). Fig. 12a.– Natatorial or Swimming Leg, Water-beetle. Fig. 13. — Staphylinus or Devil's Coach-horse (Staphylinus

tartaricus), native of Tartary (natural size).

A Part of anterior limb. a Tarsus. b Tibia, c Foot. Fig. 14.-Weevil (Cercidocerus nigrolateralis), Java (natural

size). Fig. 149.-Side view of same. Fig. 15.-Head of a Weevil.

a a Rostrum or beak. bb Antennæ. cc Eyes.

The beak and antenna are notable features in the weevils. Fig. 16.-Thorax of a Beetle (Buprestis gigantea), under side.

a Head. 6 Prosternum. c Mesosternum. dd Last pair of

legs. e Metasternum. f Elytra. 9 Wings. Fig. 162.—Thorax of a Beetle, upper side.

a Head. 6 Prothorax. c Scutellum. d Mesothorax.

e Metathorax. f Elytra. g Wings. h Abdomen. Fig. 17.-Antennæ of Coleoptera.

a Lamelliform or terminating in lamellæ, as in lamellicorn beetles. 6 Serrate or saw-toothed. c Pectinate (comb-like). d Clavate (club-shaped). e Capitate. f Geniculate (or knee

shaped). Fig. 18.-Eye of Cockchafer (magnified).

A Sectional view. a Optic ganglion. Secondary nerves. c General retina, in front of which is a pigment layer. de Optic nerves supplying the individual ocelli of the compound eye. B Group of ocelli (more highly magnified). f Bulb of optic nerve. g Layer of pigment. h Vitreous

humour. i Cornea. Fig. 19.-Mouth of a Beetle.

a Labrum. 6 Mandibles. cd e Labium, shaded to show it more clearly. c Palpiger (palpi-bearer). d Mentum or chin. e Stipes. f Labial palpi. g The maxillæ. h Maxillary palpi. The jugulum. " k The occipital aperture (insertion

of the neck). 1 The eyes. Fig. 190.-One of the maxillæ.

m Cardo. n Stipes. o Galea. p Palpifer (h the palpus).

q Lacinia. Fig. 20.-Head of Lamellicorn Beetle. a Face. 6 Clypeus. cc Eyes. dd Antenna.

e e Mandibular palpi.

Order III.-HYMENOPTERA (Membrane-winged), as bees, wasps, ants, &c.

Characters: Insects having four membranous wings, furnished with various nervures, but not giving the appear. ance of net-work; mouth always with biting jaws or mandibles, the maxillæ and labium also forming a suctorial organ; abdomen in the females with an ovipositor. Figs.

21 to 26. Fig. 21.- Ichneumon Fly (Ichneumon grossorius), Germany

(natural size).

a Abdomen, pedunculate or joined by a kind of stalk. Fig. 22.--Humble-bee (Bombus terrestris), Eritain (reduced).

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