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THE

IMPERIAL DICTIONARY

OF

THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE:

A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPEDIC LEXICON, LITERARY, SCIENTIFIC,
AND TECHNOLOGICAL.

BY

JOHN OGILVIE, LL.D., i

Author of “The Comprehensive English Dictionary,” “The Student's English Dictionary,” &c. &c.

NEW EDITION,
CA REFULLY REVISED AND GREAT L y A U G. M. ENTED.

ED ITED BY

CHARLES ANNANDALE, M.A.

I
LLUSTRATED By ABOVE THREE THOUSAND ENGRAVINGS PRINTED IN THE TEXT.

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E X PLAN ATION S

REGARDING PRON UN CIATION AND CHEMICAL SYMBOLS.

PRON UN CIATION.

IN showing the pronunciation the simplest and most easily understood method has been adopted, that of re-writing the word in a different form. In doing so the same letter or combination of letters is made use of for the same sound, no matter by what letter or letters the sound may be expressed in the principal word. The key by this means is greatly simplified, the reader having only to bear in mind one mark for each sound.

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Accent.-Words consisting of more than one syllable receive an accent, as the first syllable of the word labour, the second of delay, and the third of comprehension. The accented syllable is the most prominent part of the word, being made so by means of the accent. In this dictionary it is denoted by the mark '. This mark, called an accent, is placed above and beyond the syllable which receives the accent, as in the words la'bour, delay', and comprehen'sion.

Many polysyllabic words are pronounced with two accents, the primary and the secondary accent, as the word excommunication, in which the third, as well as the fifth syllable is commonly accented. The accent on the fifth syllable is the primary, true, or tonic accent, while that on the third is a mere euphonic accent, and consists of a slight resting on the syllable to prevent indistinctness in the utterance of so many unaccented syllables. Where both accents are marked in a word, the primary accent is thus marked ", and the secondary, or inferior one, by this mark', as in the word excommu'nica"tion.

CHEMICAL ELEMENTS AND SYMBOLS.

By means of chemical symbols, or formulas, the composition of the most complicated substances can be very

easily expressed, and that, too, in a very small compass.

An abbreviated expression of this kind often gives, in a

single line, more information as to details than could be given in many lines of letterpress.

Elements, Symbols, Elements. Symbols, Aluminium, . . . . . . Al Mercury (Hydrargyrum), . Hg Antimony (Stibium), . . . Sb Molybdenum, . . . Mo Arsenic, . . . . . . . As Nickel, . . . . . . . Ni Barium, . . . . . . . Ba Niobium, . . . . . . . Nb Bismuth, . . . . . . . Bi Nitrogen, . . . . . . N Boron, . . . . . . . . B Osmium, . . . . . . . 03 Bromine, . . . . . . . Br Oxygen, . . . . . . . O Cadmium, . . . . . . . Cd Palladium, . . . . . . Pd Caesium, . . . . . . . Cs Phosphorus, . . . . . P Calcium, . . . . . . . Ca Platinum, . . . . . . Pt Carbon, . . . . . . . C Potassium (Kalium), . . K Cerium, . . . . . . . Ce Rhodium, . . . . . . R. Chlorine, . . . . . . . Cl Rubidium, . . . . . . Rb Chromium, . . . . . . Cr Ruthenium, . . . . . Ru Cobalt, . . . . . . . . Co Selenium, . . . . . . Se Copper (Cuprum), . . . . Cu Silicon, . . . . . . . Si Didymium, . . . . . . D Silver (Argentum), . . . Ag Erbium, . . . . . . . E Sodium (Natrium), . . . Na Fluorine, . . . . . . . F Strontium, . . . . . . Sr Gallium, . . . . . . . Ga Sulphur, . . . . . . . S Glucinium, . . . . . . G. Tantalum, . . . . . . Ta Gold (Aurum), . . . . . Au Tellurium, . . . . . . Te Hydrogen. . . . . . . . H Thallium, . . . . . . TI Indium, . . . . . . . In Thorium, . . . . . . Th Iodine, . . . . . . . . I Tin (Stannum), . . . . Sn Iriduum, . . . . . . . It Titanium, . . . . . . Ti Iron (Ferrum), . . . . . Fe Tungsten (Wolfram), . . W Lanthanium, . . . . . . La Uranium, . . . . U Lead (Plumbum), . . . . Pb Wanadium, . . . . . . W Lithium, . . . . . . . L Yttrium, . . . . . . . Y Magnesium, . . . . . . Mg | Zinc, . . . . . . . . Zn Manganese, . . . . . . Mn Zirconium, . . . . . . Zr

When any of the above symbols stands by itself it indicates one atom of the element it represents. Thus, H stands for one atom of hydrogen, O for one atom of oxygen, and Cl for one atom of chlorine. (See ATOM, and Atomic theory under ATOMIC, in Dictionary.)

When a symbol has a small figure or number underwritten, and to the right of it, such figure or number indicates the number of atoms of the element. Thus–0. signifies two atoms of oxygen, S: five atoms of sulphur, and Clo ten atoms of carbon.

When two or more elements are united to form a chemical compound, their symbols are written one after the other, to indicate the compound. Thus–H2O means water, a compound of two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen; Cls H2O11 indicates cane-sugar, a compound of twelve atoms of carbon, twenty-two of hydrogen, and eleven of oxygen.

These two expressions as they stand denote respectively a molecule of the substance they represent, that is, the smallest possible quantity of it capable of existing in the free state. To express several molecules a large figure is prefixed, thus: 2 H2O represents two molecules of water, 4(C12H22O11) four molecules of cane-sugar.

When a compound is formed of two or more compounds the symbolical expressions for the compound are usually connected together by a comma; thus, the crystallized magnesic sulphate is MgSO, , 7 H2O. The symbols may also be used to express the changes which occur during chemical action, and they are then written in the form of an equation, of which one side represents the substances as they exist before the change, the other the result of the reaction. Thus, 2 H2 + 0,-2 H2O expresses the fact that two molecules of hydrogen, each containing two atoms, and one of oxygen, also containing two atoms, combine to give two molecules of water, each of them containing two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen.

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