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on the palate. The vocalized sound, thus interrupted in the mouth is returned into the pharynx, when, by the opening of the nasal pas sages, it passes with a head-murmur through the nostrils.
Noon, nine, linen, penance, nonentity, gnomon, condign, knack, iron, apron, nail, gnaw, knock, kneel, banner. In the terminational digraph En, the sound of E is generally sup. pressed, as in deaden, leaden, bidden, redden, hasten, chasten, given, even, heathen, heaven, broken, garden, seven, frozen, chosen, &c.; but in the following words it is thought elegant to retain the full sound of the En—aspen, sudden, kitchen, chicken, hyphen, sloven, pattens, mittens.
70. S is a breath-consonant, formed by bringing the tip of the tongue so close to the upper gum as merely to let the breath hiss. The breath is directed on the tip of the tongue, and passes through the crevices between the tongue and palate with a sibilant noise.
Sin, sign, design, suit, soot, gas, mass, dose, sceptre, transgress, transcend, conclusive, delusive, preside, desist, use (noun), rise (noun), psalm, schedule, scene, schism, exile, exit, tacit, Styx, mists, posts, flaccid, Chersonese, scintillate, exist'st, striv'st.
71. Z is the voice-consonant of the above formation. It is preceded by the initial part of a vowel sound, which is first directed and con. tinued into the pharynx, and then allowed to pass through the crevices between the tongue and palate.
As, has, is, was, seas, songs, zeal, zephyr, dissolve, possess, scissors, hussars, discern, present, damson, residue, crimson, resignation, observe, palsy, flimsy, result, clumsy, president, easy, greasy, presume, possess, exist, exert, mechanism, dismay, refusal, disloyal, anxiety.
72. L is a voice-consonant, formed by the initial part of a vowel sound being resounded in the pharynx, and then interrupted in its passage through the mouth, by bringing the tip of the tongue in contact with the upper gum. This interrupted vocalized sound is allowed to pass freely through the lateral openings betwixt the tongue and teeth.
Lull, bell, lark, isle, pale, oil, bale, lively, lovely, melon, needle, model, chapel, plant, blame, castle, nestle, epistle, thistle, jostle, rustle, victual. In the following words the vowel before L is suppressed, but the irregularity is not extended beyond this list : Devil, drivel, evil, grovel, hazel, novel, housel, ousel, ravel, sbovel, shrivel, swivel, weasel.
73. R (trilled) is either a voice or breath consonant. It is pronounced by depressing the root of the tongue and elevating its tip, which must be held, motionless, at a very slight distance from the upper part of the upper gum. The breath is then directed with such force against the tip of the tongue as to cause it to vibrate. R (smooth) is formed in the same manner as the above, but the trill is either omitted or feebly uttered.
(Trilled.) Roar, rough, whirring, spring, wrangle, raw,
wrap, bray, ray, wrack, wreck, shrill, wretch, wring, shriek, wrestle, rend, tremendous, trumpet, drum, shroud, priory, horary, contrary. (Smooth.) Power, gore, mayor, sir, fir, fur, pure, lure, quarter, bar, core, carp, bark, bear, here, our, pearl, arm, dark, garb, pardon, affair, expire, virtue, order, commerce, colonel, adore.
74. Sh is a breath-consonant, formed by raising the tip of the tongue to the palate about four or six lines farther inward than in pronouncing s. The tip of the tongue is brought near the palate, and barely touches it. Thus a considerable space is left for the breath, which, in its passage, produces the simple consonant noted by the digraph sh.
Shade, shall, shine, shawl, gash, rash, censure, sash, nauseate, associate, Asia, Persia, mansion, pension, accession, nation, anxious, obnoxious, crucifixion, ocean, Decii, chaise, chagrin, buxury, chivalry, association, pronunciation (but by modern speakers as if asso-se-ation and pronun-se-ation). Tsh. March, chair, each, vouch, match, wretch, truncheon, chamber, charity.
75. Zh is the voice-consonant of the above formation. It is commenced by the initial part of a vowel sound, which is continued, while the vocalized breath is directed into the pharynx, before it finds egress through the mouth.
Pleasure, leisure, occasion, persuasion, vision, confusion, roseate, razure, fusion, explosion. Dzh. Judge, jury, joy, perjure, giant, gibe, oblige, pledge, gelid, age, doge.
76. W is a rapid and forcible formation of the vowel-sound oo, as in 00-ine, 00-ater, for wine, water.
War, waft, wall, wonder, one, once, swan, swagger, sweet, twig, twine, dwarf, dwell, buoy, buoyance, quotation, quality, choir, thwart, wormwood, suite, weather, cuirass, cuirassier.
77. Y is a rapid and forcible formation of the vowel-sound ee, as ee-es (yes), ee-onder (yonder).
Year, young, yawn, yield, you, use, huge, utility, bugle, beauty, human, duty, constitution, duke, tune, yield, humour, Tuesday, feodal, youth, spaniel, million, studious.
GUTTURALS. 78. K is a breath-consonant, formed by pressing the back part of the tongue on the velum or soft palate. The breath, thus checked, is afterwards abruptly propelled into the mouth by the sudden cessation of organic contact.
Car, coil, seek, ache, music, talk, vaccine, flaccid, vaccinate, chameleon, chasm, echo, choler, choir, chord, chorus, anarchy, distich, hemistich, Pentateuch, archives, coquette, etiquette, masquerade, conquer, quadrille, exile, exercise, quay, comic, quake.
79. G (hard) is the voice-consonant of the preceding formation. It superadds a vowel-sound, directed into the pharynx; whence, by the actions of expansion and contraction, the breath is exploded through the mouth.
Gate, game, bag, gag, bigot, plague, vague, ghost, guerdon, guinea, guarantee, guilt, prologue, epilogue, gew-gaw, burgh.
80. Ng is a voice-consonant, formed by a vowel-sound directed through the pharynx into the nasal passages; while the velum and tongue gently come in contact, to prevent the passage of any portion of the vocalized air through the mouth.
King, fang, ring, flinging, ringing, singing, singer, hanger, length, strength, sting. Ng-9. Anger, anguish, strangle, finger, distinguish, extinguish, congregate, congress, England. Ng-k. Banquet, bank, blank, thank, shrunk, wink.
81. H is not a sound, but merely a propulsion of the breath, which may be prefixed to any vowel. The formation of this letter may be easily attained by desiring the pupil to cough out either of the vowelBounds.
Hate, haunt, hall, high, whole, hair, huge, cohort, hot-house, hartshorn, harmony, vehement, human, behemoth. Wa=H00. Whale, where, when, what, why, whether, whither, whig, whirlwind. The following words, exclusive of derivations from them, are the only words in which initial h is silent:-Heir, honest, bonour, hostler, hour, humour, and, by many speakers, humble.
DOUBLE ARTICULATIONS. 82. In producing double consonant articulations, the most rapid exercise of the organs should be employed; the breath-consonants should be audibly distinguished from the voice-consonants, and the transitions to different sounds must be made with rapidity and smoothness. Care should be taken to prevent any vowel-sound being intro duced, as tur-ue for true, sul-ight for slight, &c.
83. W. Wh, whale, what, when, while, where, whirl, whist, which, whether, whirlwind. Sw, swan, sweet, swagger, swell, swoon. Thw, thwack, thwart. Tw, twin, twig, twain, twelve, twine, twist. Dw, dwell, dwarf, dwindle. Sw, sway, swell, sweet, persuade, assuage, dissuade. Bw, buoy, buoyance. Kw, quill, queer, quantity, quality, question, qnote, quotation, choir, querulous. Gw, language, languid, languish.
84. Ng. Ngg, anger, angler, anguish, finger, banquet, linger, distinguish, stronger, younger. Ngk, bank, blank, sank, thank, ink, drink, sink, shrunk, thankful, anxious. Ngks, banks, blanks, thanks, inks, minx.
85. P. Sp, span, spear, speech, asp, grasp, lisp, spine. Lp, help, scalp, gulp. Mp, lamp, stamp, damp, limp. Rp, harp, sharp, chirp, carp.
86. B. Lb, alb, bulb. Rb, verb, herb, superb, disturb. 87. F. Lf, shelf, delf, gulf, wolf. Rf, scarf, wharf, turf, dwarf.
88. V. Lv, twelve, delve, solve, revolve. Rv, nerve, deserve, observe.
89. M. Lm, elm, realm, whelm, film. Rm, arm, farm, harm, storm, form, term. Thm, rhythm, logarithm, algorithm. Zm, spasm, chasm, cataplasm, mechanism, paroxysm, Anglicism, Gallicism.
90. T. Kt, act, racked, blocked, hacked, knocked. Pt, stopped, slept, wept, crept, heaped. St, stay, steer, store, stop, best, bust, dust, must, rust, unjust. Sht, lashed, washed, hashed, hushed. Ft, tuft, laughed, waft, left. Lt, felt, melt, dealt, belt. Mt, tempt, exempt. Nt, sent, went, rent, meant, wont, hunt. Rt, hurt, part, start, depart. Rst, burst, first, reversed. Lst, callst, heal'st, fill'st, roll'st. Mst, arm’st, charm'st, form'st. Nst, canst, runn'st, against. Dst, midst, call’dst, roll’dst. Rdst, heard'st, guard'st, reward'st. Mdst, arm’dst, form’dst, charm’dst. Ndst, learn’dst, scorn'dst, burn'dst, turn’dst. Ngst, hang'st, sing'st, wrong'st. Ngdst, wrong’dst, throng'dst.
91. D. Ngd, banged, twanged, harangued, wronged. Zd, buzzed, whizzed, pleased, praised, amused, abused, exercised. Dzhd, raged, caged, waged, obliged, edged, lodged, judged, divulged, changed, ranged, avenged. Vd, halved, calved, delved. Tad, bathed, clothed, smoothed. Ld, bald, told, gold, beheld, called, appealed, oiled, schooled. Bld, troubled, disabled, enabled, fabled. Kld, wrinkled, tickled, chronicled, sparkled. Sld, muscled, tussled, jostled. Dld, handled, fondled, dwindled, huddled. Fid, baffled, trifled, ruffled. Gld, juggled, struggled, waggled. Pid, grappled, peopled, tripled. Tld, titled, nettled, bottled. Zld, dazzled, drizzled, muzzled. Md, condemned, armed, esteemed, formed, named, calmed. Nd, hand, land, stand, command, find, bond, planned, impugned. Fnd, roughened, toughened. Pnd, happened, deepened, shapened. Dnd, saddened, inaddened, burdened, widened. Knd, likened, quickened, blackened. Sud, hastened, fastened, christened. Ind, heightened, brightened, fattened. Znd, cozened, bedizened. Rd, bard, card, word, bird, board, reward, guard, bewildered, heard. Bd, stabbed, rubbed, curbed, daubed. Gd, bagged, twigged, plagued, fatigued.
92. S. Fs, strifes, staffs, muffs, coughs. Ths, laths, deaths, months. Ps, dupes, stupes, tops, slaps, traps. Ks, quakes, shakes, flakes, cakes, stacks, packs, thwacks, lax, six, fix, exile, dexterous. T's, lutes, brutes, imputes, suits, refutes,
blots. Sts, posts, fists, mists, lists, divests, persists. Ls, false, else, pulse. Ns, once, trance, chance, dance, lance, immense, sense. Rs, hearse, coarse, verse, worse, force, scarce, farce, tierce, nurse, reverse.
93. Z. Bz, webs, ribs, stabs, robs, babes, glebes. Dz, beds, toads, fades, strides. Gz, bags, legs, figs, whigs, rogues, dialogues, exist, exert, exhibit, exulting. Lz, swells, tells, mills, vessels, dwells. Mz, seems, hams, hymns, limbs, drachms. Nz, dens, means, fens, impugns. Rz, roars, boars, peers, shares. Ngz, rings, wings, fangs, sings, anxiety. Thz, baths, paths, caths, mouths.
94. Th. Ngth, length, strength, lengthen, strengthen. Sth, sixth. Fth, fifth, twelfth. Ith, stealth, wealth, filth. Mth, warmth. Nth, month. Rth, birth, mirth, north, earth. Dth, width, breadth, hundredth.
95. Sh. Nsh, branch, wrench, pinch, haunch. T'sh, beech, vouch, church, porch, attach, witch, filch, belch, milch.
96. ZH. Dzh, gesture, jailor, soldier;-verdure, grandeur, individual, Indian, odious. (Colloquially, but careful utterance requires the pure sound of D.)
97. L. Si, slight, slant, sleeve, slate, castle, nestle, thistle, axle. 21, muzzle, drizzle, weasel, ousel. Fi, flight, flow, fling, flame, baffle, muffle. Pl, plan, plight, please, pleasure, apple, grapple. BI, blame, blight, bless, blade, able, agreeable, bubble. Kl, claim, clear, oracle, class, clever, treacle. Gl, glade, glut, glove, gloze, eagle, juggle. Di, saddle, middle, twaddle. Vi, evil, devil. Tl, victual, victuals. Ri, marl, hurl, whirl, world.
98. N. Sn, snatch, sneer, mason, lesson, parson, vixen, hasten, fasten. Zn, dozen, cousin, reason, season, poison, crimson. Rn, barn, fern, born, turn, iron, apron. I'n, brighten, tighten, whiten. Dn, deaden, leaden, madden, sudden, golden, garden, pardon, widen, burden. Fn, roughen, toughen. Kn, blacken, oaken, taken, sicken, broken, bacon. Ln, fallen, swollen, stolen, Pn, open, shapen, ripen, cheapen, weapon. Vn, heaven, seven, raven. Tun, heathen. Thn, lengthen, strengthen.
99. R.* Shr, shrine, shrift, shred. Fr, fright, frail, fry, free, France. Thr, throne, throw, threw, three. Pr, pride, prance, prawn, prayer. Br, bride, brown, brace, brave, brine. Kr, cry, create, crave, crest, crawl. Gr, grow, grave, grass, green, grew. Tr, try, tray, trauce, trout. Dr, dram, dress, drink, droll. Spr, spray, spring, sprightly. Str, stray, street, strife, stream, strength.
* The r should, in these exercises, be pronounced distinctly, but free from any syllabic prominence.