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EXAMPLES OF RHETORICAL PAUSES.
120. SHORT PAUSE, QUAVER REST, 7
Riches 7pleasure and healthy are evils to those who know not7 how to use them i
Nations7 like men7 fail in nothing which they boldly, and virtuously) attempt i
Let but one brave great7 active disinterested many arise and he will be received 7 followed 7 and venerated ,
A people 7 once enslaved may groan 7 ages in bondage i
Add to your faith7 virtuel and to virtue knowledge and to knowledge 7 temperancer and to temperance patience i
121. MIDDLE PAUSE, CROTCHET REST, P
This pause is chiefly employed To divide the principal parts of a sentence:My heart7 was wounded 7 with the arrow of affliction i and my eyes 7 became dim 7 with sorrow I
Man 7 that is born of a woman hath but a short time to liver and is full of misery i
There can be nothing more prejudicial to the great interests of a nation than unsettled, and varying policy i
Before and after all parenthetic clauses:Beauty like a flower soon fades away I
Geniusthe pride of many as man is 7 of the creations has been possessed but by few 1
In connecting sentences closely allied in sense :Logicians7 may reason about abstractions but the great mass of mankind cannot feel an interest in them? They must have images 1
In his own view| Napoleon 7 stood apart from other men He was not to be measured by the standard of humanity? He was not to be subjected to laws 7 or obligations7 which all others7were expected to obey | Nature 7 and the human will7 were to bend to his power 1
122. LONG PAUSE, MINIM REST,. This pause is used at the close of every proposition that conveys complete sense. When perfect rhetorical meaning is not conveyed at the close of a grammatical sentence, the crotchet rest should be used
:23. LONGEST PAUSE, SEMIBREVE ETST.
www be employed at the close of every otrosim os te 'in cucu he employed at the close EUFE .) new train of ideas.
new tuin of ideas, or a course of amment : $
Ingression, or from excited decksumaton esim SIND . Useission.
GENERAL EXERCISE IN PAUSE. et length Hyder Alii found that he had to do with idher would sign no convention or whom to treaty7
e could bindr and who were the determined human intercourse itselfr he decreed to make the
possessed by those incorrigible and predestinated INSI memorable example to mankind. He resolved
loomy recesses of a mind1 capacious of such things to T h e whole Carnatic7 an everlasting monument of ven
sud to put perpetual desolation as a barriert between sud those against whom 7 the faith 7 which holds the elements of the world together was no protection became lat lengthy so confident of his forceland so col
in his might that he made no secret whatever7 of his adful resolution-Having terminated his disputes with every my and every rival who buried their mutual animosities7
their common interest against the creditors of the Nabob og reethe drew7 from every quarter7 whatever a savage N ey could add7 to his new rudiments7 in the art of deruation and compounding all the materials of fury into One Dlack cloudt he hung7 for a while on the declivities of
e mountains - Whilst the authors of all these evils 7 were7 dy and stupidly gazing on this menacing meteor7 which ockened all the horizont it suddenly bursti and poured dwu the whole of its contents 7 upon the plains of the
ratie Thon ensued a scene of woel the like of which i no eye7 had ou mor hearty conceived and which no tongue7 can adeQue tall. All the horrors of warbefore known 7 or heard
a mercy to that new havoc - A storm of universal fire
e very field consumed every house Tand destroyed every what the miserable inhabitantsi flying from their flaming
in party were slaughteredt others7 without regard to w a mamky or macredness of functioni" fathers torn Whetikrenr husbands 7 from wives" enveloped in a
Favalry and amidst the goading spears of the trampling of pursuing horses were swept
an unknown Yand hostile land - Those 7 who Bite this tempest 7 ded to the walled citiesť but
escaping from fire 7 sword7 and exiler they fell into the jaws of famine 1
So completely did these masters in their art7 absolve themselves of their impious vowl that when the British armies7 traversed as they did 7 the Carnatic7 for hundreds of miles in all directions through the whole line of their march 7 they did not see one man 7 not one woman7 not one child 7 not one fourfooted beast7 of any description whatevers One dead7 uniform silencel reigned over the whole region 1 -Burke.
124. Perhaps the readiest mode of acquiring a correct idea of rhetorical punctuation is, to consider every cluster of words so connected as to admit of no separation, and containing a distinct primary or modifying idea, only as one oratorical word. These oratorical words must be separated from each other by pauses of greater or less duration.
125. The division of sentences into oratorical words is equally necessary to present a composition in intelligible groups to the ear of the auditor, and to enable the speaker to replenish his lungs for the easy delivery of the words (secs. 17, 119.) The necessities of respiration are thus combined with the partial developments of sense, till the completion of the proposition, or of the period, is made. They also give time the most important adjunct of effect in expression and action.
126. The following may serve as a specimen of the system recommended : analogous groupings may be formed on every page:
Reason guides-a-man to-an-entire-conviction of-the-historical-proofs of-the-Christian-religion ; after-which it-delivers aud-abandons-him to-another-light which thoughnot-contrary is-entirely-different-from-it and-infinitely-superior-to-it. 127. Marked thus, according to the musical notation.-Sec. 117.
Reason 7 guides a man to an entire conviction 7 of the higtorical proofs7 of the Christian religion after which 7 it delivers and abandons him to another light? which 7 though not contrary, is entirely different from it and infinitely superior to it i
EMPHATICAL PAUSE, 128. A sudden pause, introduced where the rhetorical sense does not require it, is frequently a very effective mode of giving expression to emotion:
Oh, pardon me, thou bleeding piece of earth,
ACCENTUATION OF ORATORICAL WORD8. 129. As an oratorical word may consist of a far greater number of syllables than a grammatical word, it becomes necessary to introduce new degrees of stress, that the relative value of the various groups may be effectively presented to the ear and to the mind. The principal part of the oratorical word must be distinguished in the same manner as the accented syllable of the grammatical word, but with greater organic force.
130. Stress, applied to the accent of grammatical words, is called Syllabic; applied to oratorical words, being determined by meaning, it may be called Sentential.
131. The sentential accent of oratorical words always coincides (unless in certain cases of emphasis) with the syllabic accent, but it is uttered with greater respiratory chest-effort. In general, emphatic words are distinguished by an increased degree of accent: thus, the words iynoble, angel, temperance, have a syllabic accent, which coincides with the emphatic accent heard in the following lines:
Rising to the IGNOBLE call.
As if an ANGEL spoke.
Health consists with TEMPERANCE alone. 132. The accents of oratorical words are distinguished from those of grammatical words by being employed in determining the meaning, or in denoting the relative value, of the various groups; sentences thus forming compound oratorical words, having the primary accent on the principal word.
133. It is impossible to assign invariably the position of the sentential accents, for it constantly changes with the sense ; so that the proper application of these accents, being left wholly to the speaker, becomes, in some manner, the best test of the accuracy or comprehensiveness of his judgment. The general principle of sentential accents is, that qualifying words require a stronger accent than the words which they qualify. The grouping of the several oratorical words is denoted by hyphens; the marks for the primary (") and secondary ( sentential accents have no connexion with the marks employed in the after-part of this work to denote Inflexion.
Their-great-Orig'inal proclaim". 135. The simile, or illustrative phrase, takes the primary accent.
Be-thou' as-a-light" to-direct-my-steps.
Hope', the balm"-of-life', soothes-misfortune. The-earth', like-a-ten'der-mo"ther, nourishes-her-children.
136. Sameness of expression requires to be concealed and relieved by variety of accent. “ Come'-back"! come"-back'!” he cried-in-grief.
None" but-the-brave' None' but”-the-brave", deserves'-the-fair". 137. Words, which in ordinary use are unaccented, may be made ruggestive of antithesis, or emphatic, * by being accented.
My' book is torn. Did you" not speak to it? It is past" six o'clock. I” will not say so. It is not your" business. He did not flee to the of"ficer.
133. Syllabic stress (i. e. verbal accent) is sufficient to denote antithesis, when the word is, in its natural expression, unaccented; as, on the table (not under it).
139. All emphatic* words are best expressed by the primary accent.
All'-par'tial-e"vil's univer"sal-good". They'-that-sow intears”, shall-reap" in-joy". Rend-your-heart", and-not-yourgar"ments. If-to-do" were-as-ea'sy as-to-know what-weregood"-to-do, chap"els had-been-chur" ches, and-poor"-men'scot'tages prin"ces’-pal"aces. Who' steals'-my-purse", steals'trash".
Unblem"ished, let-me-live"; or-die",-unknown" !
Oh, grant-me hon"est-fame', or" grant'-me none". 140. Antithesis may be suggested by the primary accent.-Section 137.
I fight not for" Cæsar. We can do nothing against” the truth. No man can form a just estimate of his own" powers. Strength and majesty belong to man". He is one of Na"ture's noblemen. The awful now", asks us but once to embrace it.
* To make an accented syllable emphatic, a greater degree of respiratory effort from the chest should be given on its utterance. The syllabic accent has, for its principal machine, the pharynx. But emphatic syllables may be distinguished by many other modes.--Vide EMPHASIS.