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(Motion 5.) Diag. 16.

(Motion 6.) - Diag. 17.

MOTION 5. A movement downwards, parallel to the body. (Diagram 16.)

MOTION 6. A diagonal movement, downwards from right to left, or vice versa. (Diagram 17.)

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MOTION 7. A diagonal movement downwards from left to right, or vice versa. (Diagram 18.)

Motion 8. À curvilinear movement, inwards and upwards, then downwards, ending in downwards oblique. (Diagram 19.)

Motion 9. Commences with a circular movement of the wrist, and ends with an oblique motion of the hand. (Diagram 20.)

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(Motion 10.) — Diag. 21. (Motion 11.) Diag. 22. (Motion 12.)- Diag. 23. Motion 10. A horizontal movement. (Diagram 21.)

MOTION 11. Commences at elevated extended, marks its accent on downwards across, rebounds to horizontal across. (Diagram 22.)

MOTION 12. A circular movement, the hand supine generally performed by a motion of the wrist. (Diagram 23.)

(Motion 13.)—Diag. 24.

(Motion 14.)--Diag. 25. MOTION 13. A curvilinear movement upwards and downwards, commencing at horizontal across, and ending in downwards oblique. (Diagram 24.) By this movement the hand is generally returned from every point on the left side, or vice versa.

MOTION 14. A serpentine movement, horizontal. (Diagram 25.)


(Motion 15.)- Diag. 26.

(Motion 16.)—Diag. 27. MOTION 15. A circular movement commencing at horizontal oblique, sweeping downwards, inwards, outwards, and upwards, ending in elevated oblique. (Diagram 26.)

MOTION 16. Returns the hand from elevated oblique, by a circular movement, and ends in downwards oblique. By this, the hand is generally returned from every elevated point on the right side. (Diagram 27.)


(Motion 17.)-Diag. 28.

(Motion 18.)-Diag. 29. MOTION 17. A curvilinear movement, commencing at downwards across, sweeping downwards, outwards, and upwards, ending in elevated oblique. (Diagram 28.)

MOTION 18. A circular movement, commencing at elevated oblique, sweeping upwards, inwards, downwards, and outwards, ending in elevated extended. (Diagram 29.)

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(Motion 19.)-— Diag. 30. Motion 19. Contracts the arm at the height of the shoulder, the hand clenched; then propels it forward to horizontal extended. (Diagram 30.)

SECONDARY MOTION—THE RETIRED ARM. 49. When only one arm is in action, the retired hand performs a secondary motion, or takes a subordinate position, to that of the advanced arm.

50. In unimpassioned delivery, the retired arm should hang easily by the side; but, when any degree of energy or earnestness is expressed, the motion of the one arm should be slightly imitated by the other ; as in the following diagrams:

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In diagram 31, the right arm is elevated nearly to Z, and the left arm takes a secondary position (d); but when the emphatic stroke is made with the right to d), the left arm should fall easily into a closer position by the side. The extent of simple secondary motion may be understood by diagram 32.

51. The general rule is, that, where both hands do not perform the whole gesture, the retired arm should be about ONE POINT (i. e. 45°) less elevated than the advanced arm; and that, in the transverse direction, it should be kept apart about TWO POINTS, or a right angle.

52. Frequently the arm is taken from its downward position to assist more prominently in subordinate action. In the following diagrams, intending to denote aversion, the secondary gesture is more extensively and distinctly marked, as pervading the whole frame; but still in accordance with the rule stated above.

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53. The HANDS, which serve “as a common language to all men,” have great variety of position and motion. Quintilian remarks, that " the action of the other parts of the body assists the speaker; but the hands—I could almost say—speak themselves.” Respecting their general management:- the fingers should possess much flexibility and independent motion; while the thumb, in all open positions, should be kept apart from the hand. Even in contracted positions, the fingers and thumb should never be knit closely together.

54. The position of the hand defines the particular meaning of every motion, and should determine all bodily action. In narrating, in addressing, or in appealing, the hand should be held out in its natural position (i. e., supine): in forbidding, denying, or rejecting, the palm is prone and oblique; in pointing, warning, reproving, or impressing, the forefinger is extended, the other fingers being closed; in supplication, the hands are applied or clasped together in veneration, they are folded over the breast; in anguish, they arə wrung.

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