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pate observation. Such a scrutiny operates it necessarily happens, that whenever a felike the violation of the dearest confidence male has no prevailing object or rather ob

- like the exposure of the secrets of the jects of steady pursuit, the hours cannot heart. For these reasons I have always pass otherwise than heavily. A very short considered that music is seldom intensely time will suffice to fulfil the essential felt, except amongst a society whose mu. duties of the task commonly allotted to tual relations embrace the affectionate as young females, in a sphere of life any thing well as the ceremonious intercourses of above that condition where the employment life. It will necessarily follow, that in of their time gains their livelihood. They proportion to the warmth and delicacy of cannot get on without variety of intellecthe natural sensibility and to the high cul- tual objects ; reading and work will both tivation of the art, will be the pleasures fatigue and

Manners are thus derived from its exercise. It is also changed. Formerly, woman was rather in this view, that music becomes the most the slave or the mistress, than the compadelightful solace of domestic hours—and if nion of man. Tent-stitch and tapestry to these general remarks I add, that a were preventive contrivances to stifle the slight accession of new stimulus, both in fancy and to murder time. But now pleathe selection of musical subjects and in the sures are chiefly domestic, they are enjoyed occasional addition of new auditors, greatly much by participation; and it is the duty tends to exalt and keep alive the pleasure of the wife and the mother to frame such a of the pursuit, I shall say nearly all that round of amusement as shall keep as well my experience prompts, in regard to the as win the husband, and mould him to creation and the communication of the sober that home which is not only to preserve yet intense gratification of private musical affection and to attract a circle of friends, society. The matter for the nicest adjust- but which is also to model a society fitted ment is in the judicious application of these to form their offspring for virtuous and stimuli, so as to hit the medium between amiable citizens, good sons and daughters, langour and exhaustion, for talent is but good husbands and wives, and, in their too liable to be affected by the danger inci- turn, good fathers and mothers. To the dent to both these causes of disorder and formation of such a home, as society is now decline. To preserve a constant progres- constituted, much various knowledge and sion, equal to the common desire, is the various accomplishment are necessary in capital difficulty. Sameness wearies, ex the female. “ It is the imagination that cess satiates the appetite.--(P. 106-109.) keeps the heart warm,' ” writes one who In the succeeding letter he con

well knew mankind. I will not say that trasts the ITALIAN and Esglisu music is so important as to be indispensable MANNER with much skill, and his

to such a plan ; but I will go so far as to

avow, that I think music, justly pursued, observations on Tone are the best is likely to assist most materially in fixing we have seen. The remaining letters, the attention, refining the taste, varying from which we cannot afford to make the powers, and warming the sensibility of extracts, will, like the preceding females. If, as has been affirmed with an papers, both interest and instruct approach to truth, none can sing with really the reader. The remarks on ORNA- fine expression till they have felt the pasMEnT should be read by every singer șion of love, it may be inferred, that there either public or private. Of the is a subtilizing, a refining power, inherent Prefatory Essay we have said no

in music, which cannot fail to be ultimatething, nor do we intend to speak— in the support of domestic happiness. I

ly connected with the affections concerned but the subjoined extract will, we firmly believe that it is so. I firmly be. have a notion, say a great deal.

lieve that music purifies and elevates and The most valuable end of education is endears wherever it is cultivated, not for that dependence upon ourselves, and that the superiority which is the prize of public independence of others, which a power to exhibition, but as the alternative amuse. occupy time worthily and happily bestows. ment and solace of private life; and it will This chiefest attribute belongs not to music

never fail to repay those who seek its satisonly, but ought to be the first consideration factions, with a pleasure that will be perin every part of a well-regulated plan for manent, because it must be always prothe formation of youthful habits. Occu- gressive.--(P. 7–9.) pation of this sort is more, far more ne

We feel with Mr. Bacon, that cessary to females than to men. Business, either public or private, employs the hours

singing has hitherto been treated of the latter. But in proportion as the time

too much like an art and too little as of the former is disengaged, are they likely a science,” and thank him for having to fall victims to frivolity or ennui, or to a corrected the error and advocated still worse fate. It is not that the fernale the claims of the jewel-crowned Godmind is more prone to idleness or weakness dess with so much talent and sucthan that of their lordlier companion--but cess.

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SCHILLER'S LIFE AND WRITINGS,

(PART III continued.)

FROM HIS SETTLEMENT AT JENA TO HIS DEATH (1790-1805). Among a number of fluctuating which originated partly, as it seems, engagements, one, which for ten years in the mean or irritating conduct of had been constant with him, was the various cotemporary authors. In editing of the Thalia. The principles spite of the most flattering promises, and performances of that work he had and of its own intrinsic character, the long looked upon as insufficient: in Horen, at its first appearance, inparticular, ever since his settlement stead of being hailed with welcome at Jena, it had been among his fa- by the leading minds of the country, vourite projects to exchange it for for whom it was intended as a rallysome other conducted on a more li- ing point, met in many quarters with beral scheme, uniting more ability in no sentiment but coldness or hostiits support, and embracing a much lity. The controversies of the day wider compass of literary interests. had sown discord among literary Many of the most distinguished per- men; Schiller and Goethe, associatsons in Germany had agreed to assisting together, had provoked ill-will him in executing such a plan; Goethe, from a host of persons, who felt the himself a host, undertook to go hand justice of such mutual preference, in hand with him. The Thalia was but liked not the inferences to be in consequence relinquished, at the drawn from it; and eyed this intel'end of 1793; and the first number of lectual duumvirate, however meek the Horen came out early in the fol- in the discharge of its functions, and lowing year. This publication was the wearing of its honours, with jeaenriched with many valuable pieces lousy and discontent. The cavilling on points of philosophy and criticism; of these persons, awkwardly consome of Schiller's finest essays first trasted with their individual absurappeared here: even without the fo- dity and insipidity, at length proreign aids which had been promised voked the serious notice of the two him, it already bade fair to outdo, illustrious associates: the result was as he had meant it should, every pre- this German Dunciad; a production vious work of that description. The of which the plan was, that it should Musen-ulmanach, of which he like- comprise an immense multitude of wise undertook the superintendence, detached couplets, each conveying a did not aim so high: like other works complete thought within itself, and of the same title, which are numer- furnished by one of the joint operaous in Germany, it was intended for tors. The subjects were of unlimited preserving and annually delivering to variety; "the most,"

as Schiller the world a series of short poetical says, “ wild satire, glancing at wrieffusions, or other fugitive composi- ters and writings, intermixed with tions, collected from various quar- here and there a flash of poetical or ters, and often having no connexion philosophic thought.”. It was at first but their juxta-position. In this intended to provide about a thousand work, as well as in the Horen, some of these pointed monodistichs; unity of Schiller's finest smaller poems made in such a work appearing to consist their first appearance ; many of these in a certain boundlessness of size, pieces being written about this pe- which should hide the heterogeneous riod, especially the greater part of nature of the individual parts: the his ballads, the idea of attempting whole were then to be arranged and which took its rise in a friendly ri- elaborated, till they had acquired the valry with Goethe. But the most proper degree of consistency and noted composition sent forth in the symmetry; each sacrificing somepages of the Musen-almanach, was the thing of its own peculiar spirit to Xenien; a collection of epigrams preserve the spirit of the rest. This

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* So called, we presume, from Euroy, munus hospitale. Aug. 1824.

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number never was completed : and, them a striking similarity; more
Goethe being now busy with his Wilon striking and more gratifying, when
helm Meister, the project of complet, it was considered from what diverse
ing it was at length renounced; and premises these harmonious conclu-
the Xenias were published as sions had been drawn. On such sub-
connected particles, not pretending jects they often corresponded when
to constitute a whole. Enough ap- absent, and conversed when together.
peared to create unbounded commo- They were in the habit of paying
tion among the parties implicated : long visits to each other's houses;
the Xenias were exclaimed against, frequently they used to travel in
abused and replied to on all hands : company between Jena and Weimar.
but as they had declared war not on Ai Triesnitz, half a mile from Je-
persons but on actions; not against na, Goethe and he,” we are told,
Gleim, Nicolai, Munso, but against“ might sometimes be observed sit-
bad taste, dulness, and affectation, ting at table, beneath the shade of a
nothing criminal could be sufficiently spreading tree; talking and looking at
made out against them. The Musena the current of passengers.”—There
almanach, where they appeared in are some who would have travelled
1797, continued to be published till fifty miles on foot” for the pleasure
the time of Schiller's leaving Jena: the of joining the party:
Horen ceased some months before. Besides this intercourse with

The co-operation of Goethe, which Goethe, he was happy in a kindly Schiller had obtained so readily in connexion with many other estimathese pursuits, was of singular use ble men, both in literary and in acto him in many others. Both possess- tive life. Dalberg, at a distance, was ing minds of the first order, yet to the last his friend and warmest constructed and trained in the most admirer. At Jena, he had Schütz, opposite modes, each had much that Paul, Hufland, Reinhold. Wilhelm was valuable to learn of the other, von Humboldt, also, brother of the and suggest to him. Cultivating celebrated traveller, had come thidifferent kinds of excellence, they ther about this time, and was now could joyfully adınit each other's me- among his closest associates. At rit; connected by mutual services, Weimar, excluding less important and now by community of literary persons, there were still Herder and interests, few unkindly feelings could Wieland to divide his attention with have place between them.

Goethe. And what to his affectionman of high qualities, it is rare to ate heart must have been the most find a meet companion; painful and grateful circumstance of all, his aged injurious to want one. Solitude ex- parents were yet living to participate asperates or deadens the heart; pere in the splendid fortune of the son verts or enervates the faculties : as whom they had once lamented and sociation with inferiors leads to dog- despaired of, but never ceased to matism in thought, and self-will even love. In 1793, he paid them a visit in affections. Rousseau never should in Swabia, and passed nine cheerful have lived in the Val de Montmo- months among the scenes dearest to renci; it had been good for Warbure his recollection ; enjoying the kindton that Hurd had not existed; for ness of those unalterable friends Johnson never to have known Bos- whom nature had given him; and the well or Davies. From such evils admiring deference of those by whom Schiller and Goethe were delivered: it was most delightful to be honourtheir intimacy seems to have been ed—those who had known him in equal, frank, and cordial; from the adverse and humbler circumstances, contrasts and the endowments of whether they might have respected their minds, it must have had pecu or contemned him. By the Grand liar charms. In his critical theories, Duke, his ancient censor and patron, Schiller had derived much profit from he was not interfered with; that communicating with an intellect as Prince, in answer to a previous apexcursive as his own, but far cooler plication on the subject, having inand more sceptical: as he lopped off directly engaged to take no notice of from his creed the excrescences of this journey. The Grand Duke had Kantism, Goethe and he, on com- already interfered too much with paring their ideas, often found in him, and bitterly repented of his in

For a

ness.

terference. Next year he died; an spicuous qualities, the single excess event which Schiller, who had long which he admitted being that of zeal forgotten past ill-treatment, did not in the pursuits of literature - the sin learn without true sorrow, and which all his life had most easily begrateful recollections of by-gone kind- set him. His health had suffered

The new sovereign, anxious much, and principally, it was thought, to repair the injustice of his prede- from the practice of composing by cessor, almost instantly made offer night: yet the charms of this pracof a vacant Tübingen professorship tice were still too great for his selfto Schiller—a proposal flattering to denial ; and, except in severe fits of the latter, but which, by the per- sickness, he could not discontinue it. suasion of the Duke of Weimar, he The highest, proudest pleasure of his respectfully declined.

mind was, that glow of intellectual Amid labours and amusements so production, that “fine frenzy," which multiplied, amid such variety of in- makes the poet, while it lasts, a tellectual exertion and of intercourse new and nobler creature; exalting with men, Schiller, it was clear, had him into brighter regions, adorned by not suffered the encroachments of visions of glorious beauty, and debodily disease to undermine the vi- lighting all his faculties by the ingour of his mental or moral powers. tense consciousness of their exerted No period of his life displayed in power. To enjoy this pleasure in stronger colours the lofty and deter- perfection, the solitary stillness of mined zeal of his character. He had night diffusing its solemn influence already written much; his fame stood over thought as well as earth and air, upon a firm basis; domestic wants had at length in Schiller's case grown no longer called upon him for inces- indispensable. For this purpose, acsant effort; and his frame was pining cordingly, he was accustomed, in the under the slow canker of an incurable present, as in former periods, to inmalady. Yet he never loitered, never vert the common order of things: by rested; his fervid spirit, which had day he read, refreshed himself with vanquished opposition and oppres- the aspect of nature, conversed or sion in his youth ; which had strug- corresponded with his friends; but gled against harassing uncertainties, he wrote and studied in the night. and passed unsullied through many And as his bodily feelings were too temptations, in his earlier manhood, often those of languor and exhausdid not now yield to this last and tion, he adopted, in impatience of most fatal enemy. The present was such mean impediments, the pernicithe busiest, most productive season ous expedient of stimulants, which of his literary life; and with all its yield a momentary strength, only to drawbacks, it was probably the hap- waste our remaining fund of it more piest. Violent attacks from his dis speedily and surely. order were of rare occurrence; and its constant influence, the dark vapours in a garden, which at length he purchased

During summer, his place of study was with which it would have oversha- in the suburbs of Jena, not far from the dowed the faculties of his head and

Weselhofts' house, where at that time was heart, were repelled by diligence and the office of the Allgemeine Litteraturzei. a courageous exertion of his will. In tung. Reckoning from the market-place other points, he had little to com- of Jena, it lies on the south-west border of plain of, and much to rejoice in. He the town, between the Engelgatter and the was happy in his family, the chosen Neuthor, in a hollow defile, through which scene of his sweetest, most lasting a part of the Leutrabach flows round the satisfaction; by the world he was city. On the top of the acclivity, from honoured and 'admired; his wants which there is a beautiful prospect into the were provided for; he had tasks valley of the Saal, and the fir mountains which inspired and occupied him; himself a small house with a single cham

of the neighbouring forest, Schiller built friends who loved him, and whom he

ber. * loved. Schiller had much to enjoy, hours of composition; a great part of the

It was his favourite abode during and most of it he owed to himself.

works he then wrote were written here. In In his mode of life at Jena, simpli- winter he likewise dwelt apart from the city and uniformity were the most con- noise of men; in the Griesbachs' house,

* The street leading from Schiller's dwelling-house to this was by some wags named the Xenien-gasse ; a name not yet entirely extinct.

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on the outside of the city-trench. . of being given up entirely. The
On sitting down to his desk at nights, he multitude of ideas which he wished
was wont to keep some strong coffee, or to incorporate in the structure of the
wine-chocolate, but more frequently a flask piece retarded him, and the difficulty
of old Rhenish, or Champaign, standing of contenting his taste respecting the
by him, that he might from time to time
repair the exhaustion of nature. Often

manner of effecting this retarded him the neighbours used to hear him earnestly

still more. In Wallenstein, he wished declaiming, in the silence of the night': to embody the more enlarged notions and whoever had an opportunity of watch- which experience had given him of ing him on such occasions,-a thing very men, especially which history had easy to be done from the heights lying op- given him of generals and statesmen ; posite his little garden-house, on the other and while putting such characters in side of the dell, -might see him now speak- action, to represent whatever was, or ing aloud and walking swiftly to and fro in could be made, poetical, in the stormy his chamber, then suddenly throwing him; period of the Thirty Years' War. As self down into his chair and writing; and he meditated on the subject, it condrinking the while, at times more than tinued to expand; in his fancy, once, from the glass standing near him. it assumed successively a thousand In winter, he was to be found at his desk forms ; and after all due strictness of till four, or even five o'clock in the morning; in summer, till towards three. He selection, such was still the extent of then went to bed, out of which he seldom materials remaining on his hands, rose till nine or ten.

that he found it necessary to divide

the play into three parts, distinct in Had prudence been the dominant their arrangement, but in truth formquality in Schiller's character, this ing a continuous drama of eleven practice would undoubtedly have acts. In this shape it was sent been abandoned, or rather, never forth to the world, in 1799 ; a work taken up. It was an error so to waste of labour and persevering anxiety ; his strength; but one of those which but of anxiety and labour, as it then increase rather than diminish our re appeared, which had not been bespect : originating, as it did, in ge- stowed in vain. Wallenstein is by nerous ardour for what was best and far the best performance he had yet grandest, they must be cold cen- produced; it merits a long chapter surers that can condemn it harshly. of criticism by itself; and we have For ourselves, we but lament and only a few sentences which we can honour this excess of zeal ; its effects spend on it. were mournful, but its origin was As a porch to the great edifice, noble. The lovers of the picturesque stands part first,

entitled Wallenwill not learn without regret, that stein's Camp, a piece in one act. It the small garden-house, which was paints with much humour and grathe scene of it, yielding to the hand phical felicity the manners of that of time, crumbled into ruin some rude tumultuous host which Walyears ago, and is not now at all to lenstein presided over, and had made be traced. This piece of ground is the engine of his ambitious schemes. hallowed with a glory that is bright, Schiller's early experience of a milipure, and abiding; but the literary tary life seems now to have stood pilgrim could not have surveyed him in good stead : his soldiers are without peculiar emotion the simple delineated with the distinctness of chamber in which Schiller wrote the actual observation ; in rugged sharpReich der Schatten, the Spaziergang, ness of feature, they sometimes rethe Ideal, and the immortal scenes mind us of Smollett's seamen. Here of Wallenstein.

are all the wild lawless spirits of The last-named work had cost him Europe, assembled within the cirmany an anxious, given him many a cuit of a single trench: violent, templeasant, hour. For seven years it pestuous, unstable is the life they had continued in a state of irregular, lead. Ishmaelites, their hands aand oft suspended progress; some- gainst every man, and every man's times “ lying endless and formless hand against them; the instruments, before him ; sometimes on the point of rapine ; tarnished with almost

Doering. S. 118–131.

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