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An organ which is not to be used, a apart, through his own reason.-Na-
natural arrangement that misses its ture does nothing superfluously: and
purpose, would be a contradiction in in the use of means to her ends does
physics. Once departing from this not play the prodigal. Having given
fundamental proposition, we have a to man reason, and freedom of the
nature no longer tied to laws, but will grounded upon reason, she had
objectless and working at random ; hereby sufficiently made known the
and a cheerless reign of chance steps purpose which governed her in the
into the place of reason.

choice of the furniture and appoint-
ments, intellectual and physical, with

which she has accoutred him. Thus
'In man, as the sole rational creature provided, he had no need for the
upon earth, those tendencies which have guidance of instinct, or for know-
the use of his reason for their object are ledge and forethought created to his
destined to obtain their perfect develope- hand: for these he was to be in-
ment in the species only and not in the debted to himself. The means of
individual.Reason in a creature is a providing for his own shelter from
faculty for extending the rules and the elements—for his own security,
purposes of the exercise of all its and the whole superstructure of de-
powers far beyond natural instinct, lights which add comfort and embel-
and it is illimitable in its plans. It lishment to life, were to be the work
works however not instinctively, but of his own hands. So far indeed has
stands in need of trials—of practice she pushed this principle, that she
—and of instruction in order to as seems to have been frugal even to
cend gradually from one degree of niggardliness in the dispensation of
illumination to another. On this ac- her animal endowments to man, and
count either it would be necessary to have calculated her allowance to
for each man to live an inordinate the nicest rigor of the demand in the
length of time in order to learn how very earliest stage of his existence:
to make a perfect use of his natural as if it had been her intention hereby
tendencies; or else, supposing the to proclaim that the highest degree
actual case that nature has limited of power-of intellectual perfection
his term of life, she must then require —and of happiness to which he should
an incalculable series of generations ever toil upwards from a condition
(each delivering its quota of know- utterly savage, must all be wrung
ledge to its immediate successor) in and extorted from the difficulties and
order to ripen the germs which she thwartings of his situation-and the
has laid in our species to that degree merit therefore be exclusively his
of developement which corresponds own: thus implying that she had
with her final purpose. And the pe- at heart his own rational self-estima-
riod of this mature developement tion rather than his convenience or
must exist at least in idea to man as comfort. She has indeed beset man
the object of his efforts : because with difficulties; and in no way could
otherwise his own natural predis- she have so clearly made known that
positions must of necessity be re- her purpose with man was not that
garded as objectless; and this would he might live in pleasure; but that
at once take away all practical prin- by a strenuous wrestling with those
ciples, and would expose nature difficulties he might make himself
the wisdom of whose arrangements worthy of living in pleasure. Un-
must in all other cases be assumed as doubtedly it seems surprising on this
a fundamental postulate to the sus- view of the case that the earlier ge-
picion of capricious dealing in the nerations appear to exist only for the
case of man only.

sake of the latter-viz. for the sake
of forwarding that edifice of man's

grandeur in which only the latest geIt is the will of nature that man nerations are to dwell, though all should owe to himself only every thing have undesignedly taken part in raiswhich transcends the mere mechanic ing it. Mysterious as this appears, constitution of his animal existence; it is however at the same time necesand that he should be susceptible of no

sary, if we once assume a race of raother happiness or perfection than what tional animals, as destined by means he has created for himself, instinct of this characteristic reason to a per

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fect developement of their tendencies, must suffocate and stifle all talents and subject to mortality in the indi- in their very germs. Men, as gentle vidual but immortal in the species. as the sheep they fed, would com

municate to their existence no higher PROPOSITION THE FOURTH.

value than belongs to mere animal The means, which nature employs to life ; and would leave the vacuum of bring about the developement of all the creation which exists in reference to tendencies she has laid in man, is the the final purpose of man's nature as antagonism of these tendencies in the a rational nature, unfilled. Thanks social state-no farther however than therefore to nature for the enmity, for to that point at which this antagonism the jealous spirit of envious compebecomes the cause of social arrange- tition, for the insatiable thirst after ments founded in law.---By antago- wealth and power! These wanting, nism of this kind I mean the unsocial all the admirable tendencies in man's sociality of man; that is, a tendency nature would remain for ever undeto enter the social state combined veloped. Man, for his own sake as with a perpetual resistance to that an individual, wishes for concord : tendency which is continually threat- but nature knows better what is good ening to dissolve it. Man has gre- for man as a species; and she ordains garious inclinations, feeling himself discord. He would live in ease and in the social state more than man by passive content: but nature wills means of the developement thus that he shall precipitate himself out given to his natural tendencies. But of this luxury of indolence into lahe has also strong anti-gregarious in. bors and hardships, in order that he clinations prompting him to insulate may devise remedies against them himself, which arise out of the unso- and thus raise himself above them cial desire (existing concurrently with by an intellectual conquest-not sink his social propensities) to force all below them by an unambitious evathings into compliance with his own sion. The impulses, which she has humor; a propensity to which he with this view laid in his moral connaturally anticipates resistance from stitution, the sources of that antihis consciousness of a similar spirit sociality and universal antagonism of resistance to others existing in from which so many evils arise, but himself. Now this resistance it is which again stimulate a fresh 'rewhich awakens all the powers of action of the faculties and by conseman, drives him to master his pro- quence more and more aid the devepensity to indolence, and in the shape lopement of the primitive tendencies, of ambition-love of honor-or ava- --all tend to betray the adjusting rice impels him to procure distinction hand of a wise Creator, not that of for himself amongst his fellows. In an evil spirit that has bungled in the this way arise the first steps from the execution of his own designs, or has savage state to the state of culture, malevolently sought to perplex them which consists peculiarly in the social with evil. worth of man: talents of every kind are now unfolded, taste formed, and

PROPOSITION THE FIFTH. by gradual increase of light a pre The highest problem for the human paration is made for such a mode of species, to the solution of which it is thinking as is capable of converting irresistibly urged by natural impulses, the rude natural tendency to moral is the establishment of a universal civil distinctions into determinate practical society founded on the empire of politi. . principles, and finally of exalting a cal justice.-Since it is only in the sosocial concert that had been patho- cial state that the final purpose of logically extorted from the mere ne nature with regard to man (viz. the cessities of situation into a moral developement of all his tendencies) union founded on the reasonable can be accomplished -and in such a choice. But for these anti-social pro- social state as combines with the utpensities, so unamiable in themselves, most possible freedom, and consewhich give birth to that resistance quent antagonism of its members, which every man meets with in his the most rigorous determination of own self-interested pretensions, an the boundaries of this freedom-in Arcadian life would arise of perfect order that the freedom of such inharmony and mutual lore such as dividual may coexist with the free

dom of others; and since it is the quires a master therefore to curb his will of nature that this as well as all will, and to compel him into submisother objects of his destination should sion to a universal will which may be the work of men's own efforts,- secure the possibility of universal freeon these accounts a society in which dom. Now where is he to find this freedom under laws is united with master? Of necessity amongst the huthe greatest possible degree of irre- man species. But, as a human being, sistible power, i.e. a perfect civil con- this master will also be an animal stitution, is the highest problem of that requires a master. Lodged in one nature for man: because it is only by or many, it is impossible that the suthe solution of this problem that na- preme and irresponsible power can ture can accomplish the rest of her be certainly prevented from abusing purposes with our species. Into this its authority. Hence it is that this state of restraint man, who is other- problem is the most difficult of any; wise so much enamored of lawless nay, its perfect solution is imposfreedom, is compelled to enter by sible: out of wood so crooked and pernecessity-and that the greatest of verse as that which man is made of, all necessity, viz. a necessity self- nothing absolutely straight can ever be imposed; his natural inclinations wrought. An approximation to this making it impossible for man to pre- idea is therefore all which nature enserve a state of perfect liberty for joins us. That it is also the last of all any length of time in the neighbour- problems, to which the human species hood of his fellows. But, under the addresses itself, is clear from this— restraint of a civil community, these that it presupposes just notions of the very inclinations lead to the best nature of a good constitution-great effects : just as trees in a forest, for experience—and above all a will favorthe very reason that each endeavours ably disposed to the adoption of such to rob the other of air and sun, com a constitution; three elements that pel each other to shoot upwards in can hardly, and not until after many quest of both; and thus attain a fine fruitless trials, be expected to concur. erect growth : whereas those which

PROPOSITION THE SEVENTH. stand aloof from each other under no mutual restraint, and throw out their The problem of the establishment of boughs at pleasure, become crippled a perfect constitution of society depends and distorted. All the gifts of art upon the problem of a system of interand cultivation, which adorn the national relations adjusted to law ; human race,-in short the most beau- and, apart from this latter problem, tiful forms of social order, are the cannot be solved. To what purpose fruits of the anti-social principle is labor bestowed upon a civil constiwhich is compelled to discipline it- tution adjusted to law for individual self, and by means won from the very men, i. e. upon the creation of a resistance of man's situation in this commonwealth ? The same anti-soworld to give perfect developement cial impulses, which first drove men to all the germs of nature.

to such a creation, is again the cause

-that every commonwealth in its PROPOSITION THE SIXTH.

external relations, i. e. as a state in This problem is at the same time the reference to other states, occupies most difficult of all, and the one which the same ground of lawless and unis latest solved by man.—The diffi- controled liberty; consequently each culty, which is involved in the bare must anticipate from the other the idea of such a problem, is this: Man very same evils which compelled inis an animal that, so long as he lives dividuals to enter the social state. amongst others of his species, stands Nature accordingly avails herself of in need of a master. For he ine- the spirit of enmity in man, as existvitably abuses his freedom in regard ing even in the great national corpoto his equals; and, although as a rations of that animal, for the purreasonable creature, he wishes for a pose of attaining through the inelaw that may set bounds to the vitable antagonism of this spirit a liberty of all, yet do his self-inter- state of rest and security: i. e. by ested animal propensities seduce him wars, by the immoderate exhaustion into making an exception in his own of incessant preparations for war, favor whensoever he dares. He re- and by the pressure of evil conse

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quences which war at last entails shocking together, should go through upon any nation even through the all sorts of new combinations to be midst of peace,-she drives nations again dissolved by the fortuitous to all sorts of experiments and expe- impulse of fresh shocks, until at dients; and finally after infinite de- length by pure accident some combivastations, ruin, and universal ex- nation emerges capable of supporthaustion of energy, to one which ing itself (a case of luck that could reason should have suggested with- hardly be looked for) :-or whether out the cost of so sad an experience; (in the second place) we should raviz. to quit the barbarous condition ther assume that nature is in this of lawless power, and to enter into a instance pursuing her regular course federal league of nations, in which of raising our species gradually from even the weakest member looks for the lower steps of animal existence to its rights and for protection—not to the very highest of a human existits own power, or its own adjudica- ence, and that not by any direct intion, but to this great confederation terposition in our favor but through (Fædus Amphictyonum), to the united man's own spontaneous and artificial power, and the adjudication of the efforts (spontaneous, but yet extortcollective will. Visionary as this idea ed from him by his situation), and may seem, and as such laughed at in in this apparently wild arrangement the Abbé de St. Pierre and in Rous- of things is developing with perfect seau (possibly because they deemed regularity the original tendencies she it too near to its accomplishment),– has implanted :-or whether in the it is notwithstanding the inevitable third place) it is more reasonable to resource and mode of escape under believe that out of all this action and that pressure of evil which nations re-action of the human species upon reciprocally inflict; and, hard as it itself nothing in the shape of a wise may be to realise such an idea, states result will ever issue; that it will must of necessity be driven at last to continue to be as it has been; and the very same resolution to which therefore that it cannot be known bethe savage man of nature was driven forehand but that the discord, which with equal reluctance-viz. to sacri- is so natural to our species, will fice brutal liberty, and to seek peace finally prepare for us a hell of evils and security in a civil constitution under the most moral condition of founded upon law. All wars there- society such as may swallow up this fore are so many tentative essays very moral condition itself and all (not in the intention of man, but in previous advance in culture by a rethe intention of nature) to bring a flux of the original barbaric spirit of bout new relations of states, and by desolation (a fate, by the way, against revolutions and dismemberments to which it is impossible to be secured form new political bodies: these a under the government of blind chance, gain, either from internal defects or with which liberty uncontroled by external attacks, cannot support law is identical, unless by underthemselves,-but must undergo simi- laying this chance with a secret lar revolutions ; until at last, partly nexus of wisdom):—to all this the by the best possible arrangement of answer turns upon the following civil government within and partly question; whether it be reasonable by common concert and legal com to assume a final purpose of all napact without, a condition is attained tural processes and arrangements in which, like a well-ordered common- the parts, and yet a want of purpose wealth, can maintain itself in the in the whole? What therefore the way of an automaton.

objectless condition of savage life Now, whether in the first place) effected in the end, viz. that it checkit is to be anticipated from an epic ed the developement of the natural curean concourse of efficient causes tendencies in the human species, but that states, like atoms, by accidental then, by the very evils it thus caused,

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* During the two last centuries (i. e. from the date of the scheme for organizing Christendom for some common purpose, no matter what, by the first of the Bourbons, Henry IV. of France, down to the late congresses at Aix la Chapelle and Verona) the human species have been making their first rude essays -- putting forth their feelers as it were-towards such an idea.- Translator.


drove man into a state where those motions by which the intellect of the tendencies could unfold and mature species is unfolding and forming itthemselves—namely, the state of ci- self, to say nothing of their shrinking vilization;-that same service is per- from all positive aid to those motions. formed for states by the barbaric But all good, that is not engrafted freedom in which they are now exist- upon moral good, is mere show and ing-viz. that, by causing the dedi- hollow speciousness—the dust and cation of all national energies and re- ashes of morality. And in this desources to war-by the desolations lusive condition will the human race of war--and still more by causing linger, until it shall have toiled upthe necessity of standing continually wards in the way I have mentioned in a state of preparation for war, it from its present chaotic abyss of pochecks the full developement of the litical relations. natural tendencies in its progress ; but on the other hand by these very evils and their consequences, it com The history of the human species pels our species at Jast to discover as a whole muy be regarded as the unsome law of counterbalance to the ravelling of a hidden plan of nature principle of antagonism between na- for accomplishing a perfect state of tions, and in order to give effect to civil constitution for society in its inthis law to introduce a federation of ternal relations (and, as the condition states and consequently a cosmopoli- of that, by the last proposition in its tical condition of security (or police) external relations also) as the sole state

-corresponding to that municipal of society in which the tendencies of security which arises out of in- human nature can be all and fully de ternal police. This federation will veloped.—This proposition is an inferitself not be exempt from danger, ence from the preceding. A queselse the powers of the human race tion arises upon it—whether expewould go to sleep; it will be suffi- rience has yet observed any traces of cient that it contain a principle for such an unravelling in history. I anrestoring the equilibrium between its swer—some little: for the whole peown action and re-action, and thus riod (to speak astronomically) of this checking the two functions from de- unravelling is probably too vast to stroying each other. Before this last admit of our collecting even the form step is taken, human nature-then of its orbit or the relation of the about half way advanced in its pro- parts to the whole from the small gress--is in the deepest abyss of fraction of it which man has yet left evils under the deceitful semblance behind him; just as little as it is of external prosperity; and Rousseau possible from the astronomical obwas not so much in the wrong when servations hitherto made to deterhe preferred the condition of the sa mine the course which our sun togevage to that of the civilized man at ther with his whole system of planets the point where he has reached but pursues amongst the heavenly host; is hesitating to take the final step of although upon universal grounds dehis ascent. We are at this time in a rived from the systematic frame of high degree of culture as to arts and the universe, as well as upon the litsciences. We are civilized to super- tle stock of observation as yet accufluity in what regards the graces and mulated, enough is known to wardecorums of life. But, to entitle is rant us in asserting that there is to consider ourselves moralized, much such a course. Meantime our human is still wanting. Yet the idea of mo- nature obliges us to take an interest rality belongs even to that of culture; even in the remotest epoch to which but the use of this idea, as it comes our species is destined, provided we forward in mere civilization, is re can anticipate it with certainty. So strained to its influence on manners much the less can we be indifferent as seen in the principle of honor--in to it, inasmuch as it appears within respectability of deportment, &c. our power by intellectual arrangeNothing indeed of a true moral in- ments to contribute something tofluence can be expected so long as wards the acceleration of the species states direct all their energies to idle in its advance to this great epoch. plans of aggrandizement by force, On this account the faintest traces of and thus incessantly check the slow any approximation in such a direc

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