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tion become of importance to us. At age, will be by withdrawing its oppopresent all states are so artificially sition at least to the feeble and tardy inter-connected, that no one can pos- exertions of the people in this direcsibly become stationary in its inter« tiou. Finally, war itself becomes nal culture without retrograding in gradually not only so artificial a propower and influence with respect to cess, so uncertain in its issue, but all the rest; and thus if not the pro- also in the after-pains of inextinguishgress yet the non-declension of this able national debts (a contrivance of purpose of nature is sufficiently se- modern times) so anxious and burcured through the ambition of na- thensome; and, at the same time, tions. Moreover, civil liberty cannot the influence which any convulsions at this day any longer be arrested in of one state exert upon every other its progress but that all the sources state is so remarkable in our quarter of livelihood, and more immediately of the globe – linked as it is in all trade, must betray a close sympathy parts by the systematic intercourse of with it, and sicken as that sickens; trade,—that at length, those governand hence a decay of the state in its ments, which have no immediate external relations. Gradually too participation in the war, under a this liberty extends itself. If the sense of their own danger, offer themcitizen be hindered from pursuing his selves 'as mediators-though as yet interest in any way most agreeable without any authentic sanction of to himself, provided only it can co- law, and thus prepare all things from exist with the liberty of others, in afar for the formation of a great prithat case the vivacious life of gene- mary state-body, or cosmopolitic ral business is palsied, and in con- Areopagus, such as is wholly unprenexion with that again the powers of cedented in all preceding ages. Althe whole. Hence it arises that all though this body at present exists personal restriction, whether as to only in rude outline, yet already a commission or omission, is more and stirring is beginning to be perceptimore withdrawn; religious liberty is ble in all its limbs-each of which is established; and thus by little and interested in the maintenance of the little, with occasional interruptions, whole ; even now there is enough to arises Illumination; a blessing which justify a hope that, after many revothe human race must win even from lutions and re-modellings of states, the self-interested purposes of its the supreme purpose of nature will be rulers, if they comprehend what is accomplished in the establishment of for their own advantage. Now this a cosmopolitic state as the bosom in illumination, and with it a certain which all the original tendencies of degree of cordial interest which the the human species are to be deveenlightened man cannot forbear tak- loped. ing in all the good which he perfectly comprehends, must by degrees mount upwards even to the throne, and ex A philosophical attempt to compose ert an influence on the principles of a universal history t in the sense of a government. At present, for exam- cosmopolitical history upon a plan tendple, our governments have no* money ing to unfold the purpose of nature in a disposable for national education, be- perfect civil union of the human species cause the estimates for the next war (instead of the present imperfect union) have absorbed the whole by antici- is to be regarded as possible, and as capation : the first act therefore, by pable even of helping forward this very which the state will express its inte- purpose of nature.- At first sight it is rest in the advancing spirit of the certainly a strange and apparently an


No money disposable,&c. The reader must remember that this was written in Germany in the year 1784, and in the midst of petty courts (which are generally the most profligate). In England, and even elsewhere, there is now the dawn of a better system.- Translator.

+ The reader must remember what Kant means by a universal history : in the common sense, as the history of the whole world in its separate divisions, such a history exists already in many shapes that perhaps could not be essentially improved. But in Kant's sense, as a history of the whole as a whole, no essay has been made towards it.


extravagant project-to propose a being more and more developed by history of man founded on any idea every revolution, prepared continualof the course which human affairs ,ly a still higher step of improvement: would take if adjusted to certain rea --in that case, I believe that a clue sonable ends. On such a plan it may will be discovered not only for the be thought that nothing better than a unravelling of the intricate web of romance could he the result. Yet, if human affairs and for the guidance we assume that nature proceeds not of future statesmen in the art of powithout plan and final purpose even litical prophecy (a benefit which has in the motions of human free-will, been extracted from history even this idea may possibly turn out very whilst it was regarded as an incouseful; and, although we are too herent result from a lawless freedom short-sighted to look through the se of will),—but also such a clue as cret mechanism of her arrangements, will open a consolatory prospect into this idea may yet serve as a clue for futurity, in which at a remote disconnecting into something like syste- tance we shall discover the human matic unity the great abstract of hu- species seated upon an eminence man actions that else seem a chaotic won by infinite toil where all the and incoherent aggregate. For, if germs are unfolded which nature has we take our beginning from the Gre- implanted—and its destination upon cian history-as the depository or at this earth accomplished. Such a jusleast the collateral voucher for all tification of nature, or rather of proelder or synchronous history; if we vidence, is no mean motive for choospursue down to our own times its ing this cosmopolitical station for the influence upon the formation and survey of history. For what does it malformation of the Roman people avail to praise and to draw forth to as a political body that swallowed up view the magnificence and wisdom the Grecian state, and the influence of the creation in the irrational kingof Rome upon the barbarians by dom of nature, if that part in the whom Rome itself was destroyed; great stage of the supreme wisdom, and if to all this we add, by way of which contains the object of all episode, the political history of every this mighty display, viz. the history other people so far as it has come to of the human species—is to remain our knowledge through the records an eternal objection to it, the bare of the two enlightened nations a- sight of which obliges us to turn bove-mentioned; * we shall then dis- away our eyes with displeasure, and cover a regular gradation of improve- (from the despair which it raises of ment in civil polity as it has grown ever discovering in it a perfect and up in our quarter of the globe, which rational purpose) finally leads us to quarter is in all probability destined look for such a purpose only in anto give laws to all the rest. If fur- other world? ther we direct an exclusive attention My object in this essay would be to the civil constitution, with its laws, wholly misinterpreted, if it were supand the external relations of the state, posed that under the idea of a cosin so far as both, by means of the mopolitical history which to a cergood which they contained, served tain degree has its course determined for a period to raise and to dignify à priori, I had any wish to discouother nations and with them the arts rage the cultivation of empirical hisand sciences, yet again by their de- tory in the ordinary sense: on the fects served also to precipitate them contrary, the philosopher must be into ruin, but so that always some well versed in history who could germ of illumination survived which, execute the plan I have sketched,

* A learned public only, that has endured unbroken from its commencement to our days, can be an authentic witness for ancient history. Beyond that, all is terra incognita ; and the history of nations who lived without that circle must start from time to time as they happened to come within it. This took place with the Jewish people about the time of the Ptolemies, and chicfly through the Septuagint translation of the Bible ; apart from which, but little credit should be given to their own insulated accounts unsupported by collateral evidence. From this point we may pursue their records upwards, and so of all other nations. The first page in Thucydides, says Hume, is the only legitimate commencement of all genuine history.

which is indeed a most extensive which will long have perished, simply survey of history, only taken from a by the value of that which will then new station. However the extreme, concern themselves—viz. by the good and, simply considered, praiseworthy or evil performed by nations and their circumstantiality, with which the governments in a cosmopolitical view. history of every nation is written in To direct the eye upon this point as our times, must naturally suggest a connected with the ambition of ruquestion of some embarrassment. lers and their servants, in order to In what way our remote posterity guide them to the only means of bewill be able to cope with the enor queathing an honorable record of mous accumulation of historical re themselves to distant ages; may furcords which a few centuries will be- nish some small motive (over and queath to them? There is no doubt above the great one of justifying Prothat they will estimate the historical vidence) for attempting a Philosodetails of times far removed from phic History on the plan I have here their own, the original monuments of explained.



When you look on my grave,
And behold how they wave-

The cypress, the yew, and the willow-
You think 'tis the breeze
That gives motion to these,-

"Tis the laughter that's shaking my pillow!
I must laugh when I see
A poor insect like thee

Dare to pity the fate thou must own;
Let a few moments slide,
We shall lie side by side,

And crumble to dust, bone for bone !
Go weep thine own doom!
Thou wert born for the tomb,

Thou hast lived, like myself, but to die ;
Whilst thou pity'st my lot,
Secure fool! thou'st forgot

Thou art no more immortal than I !


CLARKE, LLD. Of all popular writers, perhaps a with the air of one who knows that writer of travels is the most popular. it will not be withheld. We give up He is at once the historian and the our faith to him on easy terms. It hero: he addresses us with the frank- is the least return we can make for ness of an intimate correspondent, the obligations under which we are and appeals directly to our sympathy laid by one who enables us without

• The Life and Remains of the Rev. Edward Daniel Clarke, LLD. Professor of Mi. neralogy in the University of Cambridge. London, Cowie, 1824.

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stirring a step from our chimney cor lost:" he is already at Viena, and ner to mineralize in Siberia and bo- lights on Montmartre : credulity ittanize in Kamchatcha.

self is staggered when we find him He travels and I too: I tread his deck ;

at last settled down into a Benedict Ascend his top-mast; through his peering and living“ in a cock-chafer box, eyes

close packed up with his wife and
Discover countries; with a kindred heart children."
Suffer his woes and share in his escapes ; Bodily activity and animal spirits
While fancy, like the finger of a clock, were not all that he carried with him.
Runs the great circle, and is still at home.

The mind was busy, the fancy alive, If poor Barry were alive, he would the heart warm, the pen eloquent. undoubtedly introduce Dr. Clarke in He describes with the graphic stroke his picture of the Thames, floating of a master artist: he notes down among the Naiads behind Dr. Bur. his traits of men and their manners ney, with three goodly quartos un- with the humour of a Smollett: we der each arm. Have the phrenolo do not mean his ill-humour. The gists examined his brows? If they travels in Russia were thought not have not laid their finger on the or- civil enough: not reverential enough, gan of space, we predicate the down we should rather say; there was a fal and the death-blow of the sys- great stock of admiration then in the tem. He was marked out from in- country as respected the character fancy as an explorer of earth's sur and customs of the Muscovites. To face, her cities, her ruins, and her find fault with their clothes or their deserts, and a discoverer of her hid- cookery was to give room for a den treasures. The learned augured shrewd suspicion of a man's loyalty. ill of him, and even now stand help. Perhaps we have a little recovered less and astounded at the fallacy of out of this warm fancy: if we have their prognostications and the mira- not, the time will come. There was cle of their pupil's fame. He had confessedly a tendency to the satirireal learning, and such as they wot cal in Dr. Clarke. We remember not of. He kept aloof from the spell we thought him rather hard on the of “ Mars, Bacchus, Apollo, viro- table-manners of the Greeks: their rum:'

he tarried not in amorous mode of washing after dinner : the dalliance with the triangles : lines fine airs of their ladies in displaying equilateral and figures curvilinear their well-rounded arms during the sought in vain to entangle him in ceremony, &c. “ They who have their embracements. His heart was glass windows,” the proverb is somewith the products of the mine: with what musty: but there was scarcely the “ cedar of Lebanon and the a circumstance-nay, there was posihyssop on the wall:” among medals tively not a single one, which in the blue with the rust of centuries, and hands of a smart French travelmarbles, which the finger of past ge- ler might not have been parallelnerations had traced with barbaric ed, with a very slight shade of difcharacters. His destination coincided ference, in the manners of a London with the bent of his nature. Hc table; and this has actually taken seems a personification of the loco- place. From a personage who so nearmotive energies inherent in man: ly arrived at the secret of ubiquity as “ he puts a girdle round about the Dr. Clarke, we should naturally have earth in forty minutes :" we see looked for a tolerant indulgence of him in Italy; he is off to the He- the customs of foreigners, or even brides and Highlands: turns up in barbarians. His heart, however, Lapland : looks in at Moscow : baits was in the right place: he would not at Constantinople: is seen again on have hurt a hair of a Greek's head. the plain of old Troy: we catch a These sarcastic details were promptglimpse of him in the holy sepulchre: ed by a talent for biting humour, not he dodges us again at the great Pyra- always indicative of a narrow benemid: we seek him at Cairo, but volence, and by that keen perception “ere he starts a thousand steps are of the ludicrous, which is found to

Compare with Dr. Clarke's description of a Greek dining-room the dinner of Mt. D. in “ Quinze jours à Londres.”

reside with a volatile imagination. such instances as safe examples: but All doubt of Dr. Clarke's loyalty, it is in science and learning as in war: arising out of his want of fondness success is the test. All à priori reasonfor Russians, must, we think, being is invalid when we can argue from wholly removed by his sturdy denial facts and place our foot on the terra of any good being effected, either in firma of experience. The biograposse or in esse, by “ those demons pher talks indeed of the “ precious the democrats; as well as by the years of boyhoodand of youth,” which passage containing an eulo ium on are usually dedicated to the acquisithe character of the English clergy tion of fundamental truths and to the and the religious qualities of our late establishment of method and order sovereign, to which we cheerfully in the mind, being “ by him wasted subscribe ; but which the editor, for in unseasonable pursuits :" but how some unaccountable reason, has is it proved from the results that chosen to place in staring capitals, they were unseasonable? That Clarke as if it were a discovery dragged up himself “felt sensibly, and regretted by means of a pully from the bottom most forcibly the disadvantages acof that well, in which they say truth cruing to him in after life from the resides. Were we to indulge a poetic neglect in his earlier years of the orflight, we might calculate on Clarke's dinary school studies," are mere forspirit being soothed by the check now mal words of course that prove noso happily given to the fiendish offi- thing: no man is the best judge of ciousness of republican innovators, that educational process which would particularly in Italy: the blood of best have suited him. Of the alleged St. Januarius, the God of Naples, “ defective knowledge of principles continues to be liquefied without in we can say nothing, for we do not terruption, and the royal pig-hunt know what is meant: still less can proceeds in peace.

we comprehend how such a defiThe biographer, Mr. Otter, has ciency should be “ an error singularshown his judgment in making the ly aggravated by the analytical probulk of the book consist in extracts cess he usually adopted in all the from Clarke's journals and corres- acquisitions both in language and pondence; and in what respects the science :” the process, in short, by particulars of his private life, he has which, and by which alone we can exercised a delicate, and even sensi- arrive at truth. Notwithstanding tive, impartiality. Perhaps there the continued uneasiness of the editor is a little too much of lamentation at of Clarke's Remains at “his little prohis friend's “ truant disposition,” and gress in the appropriate studies of a little tediousness bestowed upon the place,” we can see much that is the reader in weighing the pro and" seasonable,” because adapted to con of college erudition. Vícesimus the sphere in which nature had desKnox, the popular essayist and the tined him to move, in the studies to master of Tunbridge school, was which he voluntarily applied himself, Clarke's tutor: he was one of those and which embraced history, ancient who, as may be seen from one of his and modern, medals, antiquities, and essays, prodigiously over-rated the natural philosophy, especially the mivalue of classical attainments. It is neralogical branch. One of his recreanot surprising that he shook his tions at Cambridge was the conhead at the discouraging progress of structing and sending up a splendid a boy, whose abilities were yet suffi- balloon to the admiration of his brociently great to puzzle his prognos- ther collegians and his own delight. tics and interest his concern. That Sad fellow ! the truth was, he was the report of his deficient applica- always agile and earnest in the pursuit tion should, as the editor thinks, ap- of science, and left the word-conners pear extraordinary to “many of those to their “ As in præsenti.” It may be who have witnessed the laborious difficult to conjecture with the editor habits of his latter days,” is very pro “what might have been the effect bable; it will not appear so to those of a different training upon such a who recollect that Samuel Johnson mind;" we may, perhaps hazard a was an idle lounger in the sunshine, guess, that instead of looking out on with ragged shoes and a circle of the sea of Azoff, he would have truant hearers. We do not quote pored himself half-blind in an inge

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