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might be collected from their uni- custom of making over a province ted contents, as would in the event to some prætor or pro-consul, and of a war,
or any other circum- leaving him to himself to peculate stance requiring the interposition of or tyrannise, or both, or neither, acgovernment, considerably lighten the cording as he may be inclined, is a darkness in which ministers must very old one, and as bad as it is old. walk without it. They would be able History will confirm this assertion, to reflect back some of the light, and if it be not too axiomatical in its illuminate the paths which were to nature to admit of a proof. We be trod towards glory, the steps profess ourselves unable to see why which led on to success. By such the supreme council at home should an industrious provision as this not have the governor of Canada they might enter the Cabinet with little less under their eye than the systems prepared and minds made Custos Rotulorum of Westmorland ; up; as competent to decide upon nor why they should not be able to what was to be done, the when, the urge or control him with nearly the where, the why, the how, as if the same dexterity as they do the LieuCanadas were within range of a tenant of Dover Castle. Supposing bomb from the centre of the council- them as well acquainted with the board. With such facilities as mi- internal economy of the country as nisters possess they should be as fa- they might be, we can discern no miliar with every “ concession” in reason why they should not rule it our American colonies as with the with as much credit to themselves lids of their own snuff-boxes; as in- and benefit to the inhabitants, as the timately conversant with the great duchy of Cornwall or the principalines of demarcation there, as with lity of Wales. There is certainly their own signatures. We see no some difference in the difficulties of reason why they should be a whit governing Canada and the Island of less particularly informed upon the Jersey, but nothing proportionate to state of our possessions at one side the existing difference in the goodof the river St. Lawrence, than ness of their respective governments. the American Cabinet of theirs on On the present enlarged scale, and the other. The President of Con- with the present rapid mode of ingress visits Fort Niagara as seldom tercourse between the two countries, perhaps as our Prime Minister visits there is no evil which might not be Fort George. At least there ought remedied, no injury which might not to be no such difference as should be redressed, no beneficial institution render a nation which hardly knows which might not be promoted, no the sound of a cannon equal at the end mischievous practice which might not of a campaign to one which has be restrained, with a little more delay, scarcely known the sound of any but with little less certainty in the one thing else for the last century. Any place than in the other. On the above fracas between us and the United hypothesis (i. e. exact local knowStates should, as yet, be but play to ledge on the part of ministers), there one party and death to the other. is at least no abuse but such as is It is only by a combination upon our tolerated here which ought to prevail part of ignorance and imbecility such there; nor is there any error in as “ conducted us” through the last policy or government but those comwar that the Americans can for mitted with impunity at home, which a long time attempt to meet us in the should exist two months longer in field or on the waves, without being the Canadas. Nay the arm of gotrampled into the dust of the earth or vernment being less shackled there swept off the face of the ocean. by public opinion, or at least by pub
But independent of prospective lic power, should exert itself more prudence such as this, the welfare of vigorously to the benefit of the peothese colonies demands the present ple: but how can this be done if the attention of government in a peculiar ħead which directs the arm be empty degree. Unlike other distant mem or addled ? how can this be done bers of the empire they have little when by reason of defective informainternal strength to support them- tion or shallowness of understanding, selves, and therefore cannot be left the arm, not knowing where or in to themselves without danger. The what manner beneficially to exert
itself, must either lie inactive, or animals - blasphemously self-denostrike about at random, knocking minated—the Holy Alliance. down a friend instead of an enemy,
Adverting particularly to the subdemolishing what is harmless, and ject of Canada, we beg leave to ask wearying itself to no purpose or
whether the following passages from bad one, like that of Don Quixote a work now before us * contain noamong the puppets? Besides, a thing worthy of ministerial interfergrown-up state is very often bestence or public notice. left to itself to work out its own prosperity, but an infant state re
Tobacco, though very little cultivated in quires the supporting hand of its pa- wherever it is tried : But, I think, it could
either of the provinces, seems to thrive well rent.
The former has experience not be planted to such an extent as would and judgment to direct it what to do render it profitable as an article of comfor its own benefit; it has also wealth merce, except in the London and Western and physical power to carry its pro- Districts of the Upper Province. The soil jects into execution. Ministerial in- and climate of these districts are terposition is, in this case, imperti- very favourable to its growth, that some nent, and ministerial assistance su- samples have been recently exhibited in the perfluous. But in the other case ex Western District, not at all inferior in quaperience and judgment, wealth and lity to any ever produced in the United physical power, are all and equally States. If the attention of the farmer in wanting to the infant community, directed to the production of Tobacco
these two Districts were almost exclusively which should therefore be supplied and Hemp, they would undoubtedly, reas far as may be, from the ma
turn a profit sufficient to compensate him ternal resources, or by maternal for his labour, and to stimulate his exerregulations. Here indeed would in- tions, which, however triffing it might be, terposition be kind and assistance would be more than he can now derive useful; and it is exactly here that from the cultivation of any kind of grain. neither are forthcoming. Like the · For it is a fact universally acknowledged in relatives of a man beginning the Canada, that a bushel of wheat, in the world who will neglect him whilst present depressed state of affairs, costs the he is struggling with the waves of farmer thirty per cent. more than he can fortune, but as soon as he has got his obtain for it, if his time be estimated at the chin above them “encumber him is, however, no spirit for enterprise in the
common price of a day-labourer. There with help,” so ministers have ever
country ; and, as it has been well observed been found ready to interfere with by a late writer, “ all plans for its improve. prosperous colonies and to leave un- ment, however' rational or practicable, are happy ones to themselves. The doomed to linger for want of supporters." government of a great state, which The Colonial Government seems so little has many colonies, will always find concerned about the prosperity of the counas much matter for internal adminis- try, that no encouragement to agriculture, tration among the latter as within or to any thing else, can be expected from the former. Canals, harbours, docks, that quarter. It seems to be a matter of arsenals, public institutions, such as
perfect indifference to the existing authori.
ties of the country, whether its inhabitants schools, colleges, hospitals, &c. en
dwindle out their lives in penury and toil couragement of agriculture, com
or enjoy the comfortable independence which merce, and manufacture, regulation might certainly be the lot of every indus. of official services, inspection of ac- trious Canadian, if those measures were counts, and supervision of conduct, adopted by their rulers which appear to with numberless other details, would every unprejudiced mind as practicable, as give full employment to an active they are indispensable to happiness and Colonial Secretary, and would pro- comfort; But more of this hereafter. perly engage much of the attention Hemp is another article, the cultivation of of the council itself. We are not which, though now totally neglected, would quite sure but that the interests of and benefit the parent State, than any other
be much more likely to enrich the Provinces the empire would be as much ad
article of commerce with which we are ac. vanced by our ministers directing quainted. The soil and climate of Canada their vigilance to these neglected are allowed to be quite as favourable to its matters, as by watching an insolent growth as those of Poland and Russia; and, association of three or four forked although it is admitted by all persons of
Talbot's Five Years' Residence in the Canadas. 2 vols. 1824. Longman & Co.
agricultural knowledge to be a most profit- encouragement or something equivalent to able plant, and productive of much wealth it, the Canadians never can supply the wherever it is exclusively cultivated, the British navy. It has been suggested, by a two Canadas cannot at present afford a respectable writer, that, if the government sufficient quantity to hang their own male. would appoint agents in different parts of factors. Government, , in its wisdom, has the provinces to purchase the article when recently proposed to purchase the naval prepared for sale, and to pay for it in specie, supplies of this article from the Canadians, very favourable consequences would probaprovided they can furnish them at as cheap bly result. In support of this statement,
as they are obtained in Russia. it is argued with great justness, that if no This surely, at first sight, is a generous such persons are appointed, the profit of offer from a government, whose liberality this article, as well as of every other, will to its subjects is without a parallel in the be entirely engrossed by a few speculating annals of the world! Would not a wealthy characters, who, like the merchants at preand independent father pay his needy mer- sent, would monopolize the whole trade cantile sons a never-to-be-forgotten compli. with government. The Canadian farmers ment, if, in the plenitude of his wisdom are actually too poor to purchase the machi. and affection, he were to inform them“ that nery necessary for the proper manufacture if they would supply hiin with groceries of hemp, or to send it to any distant and other articles of domestic consumption, market; but if an agent were appointed in at as cheap a rate as he could purchase them each district, with authority not only to buy from a perfect stranger, he would be gra- the hemp, but also to advance small sums ciously pleased to deal with them, but not for the purchase of machinery, to such otherwise !"
persons as could give good security for its If government entertained any doubt, repayment in hemp, all difficulty would that the Canadians could not supply the very shortly be obviated, and the farmers Navy with a sufficient quantity of hemp, of each township would in a few years be it would perhaps be bad policy to offer them enabled to transport the produce to the any competent encouragement for cultiva- Kingston market, and eventually to that of ting it extensively, as ministers might Quebec; when the country agents, if not thereby incur the displeasure of Russia, instantly dispensed with, might be grawho, to retaliate, would very probably, in dually reduced. After the temporary reward the event of their want of success in the had imparted a strong impulse to agricul. Canada market, refuse to afford Great Bri- ture, had given a fresh and salutary direction tain the usual supplies. But, as it has to industry, and had opened a new and probeen ascertained by actual experiments, fitable market for this sort of produce, it that these fruitful provinces are capable, might be discontinued ; and regular comand the colonists willing, to supply the mercial enterprise would then achieve all navy, if suitable encouragement be given that remained to be done for the encouragethem, the government has no just reason ment of the farmer, by making its way to for indulging in these fearful apprehensions. the best mart for the purchase of hemp, and It is impossible, however, while the price by discovering the cheapest and readiest of labour continues high, and while the mode of conveyance. navigation of the country remains in its pre In the year 1822, the provincial parliasent unimproved condition, that the Cana. ment of Upper Canada voted the sum of dians, especially those of the Upper Pro- 3001. for the purchase of machinery to mavince, should be able to grow hemp and nufacture hemp, and 501. a year for three transport it for sale to the Quebec market at a years to keep it in repair. The machinery cheap rate, unless some efficient aid be ren was to be purchased by the Lieut. Governor, dered by the parent country. If his Man by and with the advice of the executive jesty's ministers were to take into consi- council, and placed in that part of the proderation the depressed state of a riculture vince in which bis Excellency might think in Canada, and would offer a small premium it was more immediately required. Since to such persons as should raise a given the voting of the money I have not heard quantity of hemp annually, and if they any thing of the machinery; but, as yet, would engage besides to purchase at the there has been no need of it. Russian price the quantity produced, they The writer to whom I have just alluded, would very soon find themselves indepen- observes : It is very extraordinary, that, dent of a foreign power. The Russian although the British government has several price would fully compensate the farmer for times, since the commencement of the prethe trouble and expense incurred in raising sent century, exerted itself in some degree and preparing the hemp; and the pre to promote the culture of hemp, not only mium, however trifling in amount, would, in Canada but in the East Indies, those if paid in cash, operate as a powerful sti- exertions have been hitherto utterly fruitless: mulus to his exertions ; but, without this It is said, that the East India climate is too
• Mr. Lambert.
hot, and consequently that the hemp pro. Canadas are perhaps the most imduced there is too fine for large cordage. portant and the most neglected. They This may probably be the cause of failure are what mathematicians would call in that quarter ; but no such deteriorating a conjugate portion of the empire, effects are produced by the heat of the little less vitally requisite to its perCanadian climate. The Society for the fect integrity than if they were all Encouragement of Arts say, in the Preface contained within the one boundary. to the 21st volume of their Transactions. The question respecting
the utility of that they have ascertained by actual exper colonies may be disputable in some riment, that Canada can furnish hemp for the use of the navy, equal in quality to
cases; in this it is not. Our Canathat which is imported from the Baltic. dian empire is a curb in the mouth of Monsieur Vondervelden, in a letter to the the most arrogant and ambitious peoSociety, attributes the bad success in Ca- ple on the face of the earth; a people nada to the attachment which the Canadians who would swallow us if they could, have always evinced to old customs, and to and with whom we shall, one day or the opposition and prejudice of their priests, other, have to contend in a deathwho would derive no advantage from the struggle,-a struggle not for glory or cultivation of hemp, as it is not, agreeably dominion, but for life. That day is to the existing laws, a tytheable article distant, but it is inevitable: we should The seigneurs and merchants also gave it considerable opposition ; the one from a
be prepared for it. Canada is the first conviction that it would destroy the profits of morsel which the Western Leviathan their wheat-mills, from which their greatest will attempt to gulp; and it must be revenues are derived ; and the other, be- rendered such as shall choke him: cause they were apprehensive, it would if not, it will be but as a whet to his have a powerful tendency to set aside that appetite. Prompt, bold, and wise system of barter which they had long found measures should be taken to convert to be more profitable than a ready money that country into one bulwark. trade.
By “ martello towers,” fortifications, Only some of these difficulties exist at fleets, and soldiers ? No! Not by present in the Lower Province; and, I these alone, nor by these chiefly; but think, the principal among them might be obviated by making hemp a tytheable article. by manning it with subjects, loyal But in Upper Canada, which, on account because they are well governed, brave of the superiority of its soil and climate, because they are free, and powerful is much better adapted to the growth of because they are prosperous. Let hemp, a still smaller number of obstacles their manufactories be encouraged, would be experienced than in the Lower their internal commerce facilitated, Province; and it is the opinion of the their agriculture promoted, and, above best-informed men in the country, that if a all, their local government purified, plan like that which I have now
described invigorated, and rendered acceptable were pursued, a sufficient quantity of hemp to the people. This is the only means might be reared, in less than five years, to render the British Government completely done, or not done at all. To do less
of doing well that which should be so independent of foreign supplies, and to save
than this is to do worse than nothing. us from the humiliating necessity of annually paying the sum of a million and a
It would be only cultivating a future half to a foreign power, for an article, province for the Union, fostering anwhich, by a little encouragement on one
other head for the hydra. Never let hand, and by industry and perseverance on this be left out of sight : Canada is the other, we might raise in our own colo- either as one for us, or, lost to the nies, to the great benefit of Canadian set. States, much more than as two tlers.
against us. Not like Hanover lost
to Russia, where, both from its disThe people of Canada annually pay to
tance and situation amongst other the Republican Americans upwards of 100,000 dollars in specie for SALT alone. -- little avail to the gainer; not even
kingdoms, its resources would be of every shilling of which might be kept in the Province
(taking into consideration the relative
force of the two provinces) like Irei. e. if the smallest encouragement land lost to France; but rather like were extended to its manufacture Normandy, when it was wrested from there, by the government, the
us by the latter kingdom, adding country abounding in saline springs.
the weight of another member to the Of all British dependencies, the force of a consolidated body. We
talk of Greece as a bridle for the Cos- Its natural advantages are fully as sack ; but where is the foot-lock for great as those of the opposite shore. the Yankee?-It is Florida! * Why has it not been equalized ? It
If the view which we have here moves, not the envy, but the anguish taken of the ultimate importance of of a good subject to hear and read the Canadas be correct, nothing can the different accounts which travelbe easily imagined more worthy of lers give of the American and the our serious attention than the affair British side of the St. Lawrence: of Emigration. It is well known activity, enterprize, public spirit,that the majority of the Canadian power, on the one; inertia, timidity, population are French in their pedi- public spiritlessness,—debility on the gree and in their manners: we sus other. Wherefore,-why is this? pect moreover that they are French Shall the democrat tell us to our face in their hearts. Now to correct this that it arises solely from the different lurking anti-British feeling, Emigra- forms of government prevailing on tion from Great Britain is the only the opposite shores ? Shall he not means which can be devised. In- only tell, but seem to prove it to our deed, whether it exists or not, our face? O let it not be said ! Let not conduct should be the same. · By a form of government which all hisEmigration we could man the soil torians from Herodotus to Sismondi with such a tenantry as would, in tacitly unite to condemn, have this process of time under a liberal form practical evidence of its superiority of government, render the north bank over that which Cicero praised as a of the St. Lawrence impregnable to beautiful vision, and Montesquieu as the Yankee, and throw him back a realized dream !-Or shall we have with ruin and disgrace on his own to confess that Puritanism sketched boundary if he attempted to, trans- out a mighty empire which a more
Here then is a necessity orthodox creed has been unable to turned into a possible advantage: we imitate even in miniature ? Whichmust get rid of our superfluous po ever ground we take, whether we pulation, and we may not only do stand forth as the reprobators of dethis by encouraging its emigration to mocracy or sectarianism,- tell us to Canada, but, by rendering its settle- look across the St. Lawrence, and we ment there commodious and happy, must be dumb. The sincere lovers convert that which was a burthen to of monarchy and episcopacy should oppress, into a bulwark to defend, us. be furnished with a practical answer But by its very nature this super- to a practical argument. fluous population, being in a great In this national point of view the measure the scum not the cream of question of Emigration is of mosociety, will require the more wisdom mentous significance. As it regards and ability in the local authorities individuals also, if not as universally, to exalt and purify its debased con it is more immediately important. dition, till it becomes eventually that The eventual prosperity of the emwhich we would make of it, and pire, the present happiness of a great which might be made of it. The many of our countrymen, are deeply Union itself was a scion from such involved in it. For the double puranother rascal stock; yet what a pose of affording the Emigrating and goodly tree it is already !-Why the permanent population (amongst then might not Canada, by means of which ministers may find some beemigration, be equalized, for its di- nefit in enrolling themselves) of the mensions, with the United States ? three United Kingdoms some infor
• The supine indifference with which we beheld Florida ceded to the Union, marka with a most expressive character, either the want of public spirit or of common political foresight, which allowed that measure to take place almost without regretting it How many men-of-war frigates will the ports of Florida fit out in the next twenty years, to take our honest “ fifties" in tow after a broadside ?
+ In this suspicion, which (all circumstances considered) is not a very rash one to indulge, we are countenanced by the opinion of an intelligent friend who resided many years in the Canadas. His experience leads him to conclude that although the inhabi. tants would rather remain under our government than that of the Bostonois as they usually designate the subjects of the United States, they would decidedly prefer reverting to the dominion of France.