« AnteriorContinuar »
mation upon this subject, we will as soon as the Council have determined on quote a few paragraphs relating to it the quantity of land to which the applicant from the volumes lying on our table. is entitled: The Second, on filing a They may furnish matter of reflec- certificate of settlement-duty: And the tion to both parties, some reasons
Third, on receipt of the fat for a patent.
Every British subject, of what stamp soever perhaps for change of opinion re
his creed, is entitled, on his arrival at the specting Emigration, and some mo
seat of government for Upper Canada, to tives for change of conduct in prin- receive any quantity of land, within the ciple or in detail. The subject has provincial limit of 1,200 acres, which he been hitherto much misrepresented may possess the means of cultivating, and and of course much misunderstood. for which he is willing to pay the required
fees. In the first settlement of the country, as might naturally be expected, the shores of
I do not question the right of the Gothe St. Lawrence, and of the Lakes On- vernment to charge such enormous fees on tario, Erie, and St. Claire, became the lands which it has fairly purchased, and is choice and the property of those persons
of course entitled to dispose of in such way who first arrived in the Province. The and manner as may most effectually acbanks of the rivers which empty themselves But if it be the wish of England to increase
complish the objects which it has in view. into these lakes, and all the circumjacent country, have, since the termination of the the population of Canada, and thus render war, become entirely settled : So that it is it of some value to the parent-country, I now impossible to procure land, except by very much doubt the policy of those mea
sures which the Canadian Government is purchase, in any part of Upper Canada in which the various great advantages of si
now pursuing. Since the increase of the tuation are attainable. But this is of little fees, I have known many emigrants, who consequence to any, except to the poorest in the country, but who, on finding that
came here with a determination of settling class of emigrants : For those who carry the Government, instead of freely GRANT“ their friend in their pocket,” may purchase land in the finest and most eligible
ING land to the unfortunate among its townships, with less than is paid for a Go- subjects, was actually in the habit of SELLvernment GRANT in the midst of inter
ING IT at an extravagant rate, turned minable forests.
their backs on the British Colonies, and This is an assertion which may surprise persons who are unac
immediately went over to the United States, quainted with the country, and offend the
to add strength and numbers to our already chaste ears of others who are well enough state, that, since the new scale of fees was
formidable rivals. I can very confidently acquainted with it. But it is not a mere assertion; it is a stubborn fact, the validity adopted, there have not been five hundredof which I shall be able to substantiate by dred which were previously granted. The
acre lots of land taken up for the one hunarguments that may bid defiance to refuta. tion, and that present themselves incidents object of increasing the fees, whatever it ally in the discussion of emigration.
might have been, must therefore have de
feated itself; unless, indeed, it were to This matter of Government grants is retard the settlement of the country. Some important to be made known. Before persons, perhaps, in the plenitude of their the year 1819, the fees on obtaining loyalty, may, for the honour of the thing, such grants were: for 200 acres the prefer dealing with government on these sum of 8l. 8s. 9d., to which was to be terms to dealing with private individuals added 4l. 45. 4.d. for every hundred
on much more advantageous terms: But acres more. After the same period,
these persons, if I may be allowed such the fee for 200 acres was augmented plainness of speech, have much more money
than wit. For land, in townships which to 161. 178. 6d., and the additional
have been long settled, and whose confee for every additional hundred acres tiguity to navigable rivers gives them a was increased to 71. 14s. ld.
decided superiority over government-lands, And now that unfortunate emigrants can now be purchased for less money than procure money more easily than it could be is required in accepting a grant of an equal procured heretofore, the fees are raised to number of acres from Government. the following enormous amount :-Fifty You must not, however, suppose that I acres to pauper emigrants gratis ; for 100 mean to represent the Lieutenant Governor acres, 121. ; for 200, 301.; for 300, 602. ; and Council as a company of land-specufor 400, 751. ; for 500,. 1251.; and for lators, who dispose of their forests in the every additional hundred acres up to 1200, sanie manner as private individuals. Far 251. is to be paid.
from it! There is a very particular differThese sums are payable in three equal cnce in the method which they adopt. For instalments : The FIRST, on the receipt of instance, if you feel disposed to accommoa location ticket, which is always obtained
date the Government with your cash, you
must humbly petition for its value in land, grate to this country by the confident hope and be particularly attentive to the manner of obtaining a gratuitous grant of land are in which you receive their munificent gift, too frequent; and, I ain sorry to add, they taking especial care, in look and word, to are sometimes treated by the Executive express no other sentiments than those of Government here with a degree of conunfeigned thankfulness.
tempt, for which it is difficult to account. But if your inclination should lead you The Lieutenant Governor and Council seem to trade with private land-owners, you find to think that they, and they only, are the yourself quite differently circumstanced. persons to whom applications for land should Instead of being the suppliant, you become be made, and appear resolved to convince the supplicated. In the one case, you all who have been so presumptuous as to must obtain a royal fiat for the disposal of make application elsewhere, that it would your cash ; in the other, you are presumed have been better for such applications, to to possess a legitimate right to do so of have been deferred until the will and pleayour own accord. In dealing with the sure of the Government were ascertained. former, you must relinquish your own judgment altogether, and allow the Lieu
It is very impolitic, for those who can tenant Governor and Council to select for afford to pay for land, to pursue the latter you, in such places as they may deem course-rent cleared farms ; but, in the expedient, the article which they may be case of poorer emigrants, I consider it graciously pleased to grant you. Whereas, much better to do so than to accept of a if you treat with the latter, you are at per- grant of fifty acres from the government. fect liberty to exercise your own judgment, To persons acquainted with America it and to make such selection of land as may would be unnecessary to say, that fifty appear most likely to conduce to your acres are insufficient for the support of a future welfare and respectability. The moderate family. Allowing twenty acres honour, however, of an interview with his for fuel, which would only be reserving a Excellency and the different members of quantity sufficient for the same number of the Executive Council, and the pleasure of years, and dividing the remaining thirty contemplating an enormous seal suspended into pasturage, meadow-land, and tillage, from your deed, with the Royal Arms it might, if well managed, barely mainthereon impressed, are considered, by some tain a family. But a man who is in the persons, advantages sufficiently substantial possession of this small quantity of land, is, to counterbalance the paltry saving which in a situation little superior to that of the is effected by dealing with men in the hum. Irish peasant. Like him, he is compelled bler walks of life. Who is there so vile, to toil hard all day, and to find at eventhat would not give four or five hundred tide that lie has earned what is hardly dollars more for a deed with half a dozen enough to prolong his existence,—a sort of honourable signatures and the imposing prison-allowance, which prevents him from seal of Chancery thereto annexed, than for dying of hunger, while at the same time it a title with the signature of an obscure indi- removes him very far from repletion. Like vidual, and the simple impression perhaps him, he has no hope of improving his cirof a steel-bottomed thimble ?
cumstances, or of attaining to that inde. It is supposed by many persons in pendence for which he braved the dangers Canada, that the Supreme Government at of the deep. His field is too contracted, home is wholly ignorant of the amount of and the means of extending it are not with fees claimed from emigrants on their ob- in his reach. taining land: But this, I think, is certainly It is admitted by all persons acquainted an absurd supposition. Surely it is not with the Canadas, that 100 acres of land possible that his Majesty's Ministers can are as small a quantity as an agriculturist be so ignorant of the affairs of Canada as should ever consent to cultivate in this not to know exactly how the Executive country. This may appear very extraordia Government is exercising its prerogative. nary to English or Irish farmers; but it For my part, I cannot entertain an idea so is nevertheless a fact, which could easily derogatory from their acknowledged vigil. be demonstrated. The severity of the
I believe, nay, I know, they are as winter makes it necessary for every farmer intimately acquainted with the matter as I to provide a large quantity of forage for am myself; and I think that persons who his horses and cattle, and the excessive come to Canada under the impression of heat and drought of the summer render the being able, on their arrival here, to obtain meadow-lands rather unproductive. The gratuitous grants of land, take very little high price of labour, and the shortness of trouble to be rightly informed on the sub- the tillage season, preclude the possibility ject previous to leaving their native country: of cultivating the lands in that excellent For, I am well assured that all applicants manner which would render them as proat Earl Bathurst's office for information on ductive as English soils ; and these cir. this subject regularly receive due attention. cumstances united with the low price of Instances of persons being induced to emic produce, and the exorbitant cost of British
merchandize, prove the necessity of farm would manifest a spirited desire to improve ing on a large scale, and the difficulty of the internal navigation of the Canadas, and existing on a grant of 50 acres.
to encourage the cultivation of hemp and
tobacco, sufficient would be done for pauper This lamentable decrease in the imports emigrants, and particularly for young men, and exports, and consequent deficiency in by landing them on this side of the Atlanthe revenue, are attributed to the altera- tic. Immediate employment might then tions in the laws of England, which regu. be reckoned upon with certainty, and would late the importation of corn, flour, and be easily procured ; and an industrious meal into the United Kingdom. By these man, within the limits of a single year, laws, the grain of the Canadas has been could not fail to obtain a sufficient sum to effectually excluded from the British mar. establish him upon his own lands. If the ket. The Canadians complain, and I Canadas are properly regarded, as a valuathink not without cause, that, whilst they ble portion of the British Empire, surely are compelled to resort almost exclusively something more should be done for them to England for a great variety of her ma than has ever yet been attempted. Sure I nufactures, for which their staple commo am, that if some of those hundreds of dities were formerly taken in exchange, thousands which are almost annually voted they are prevented from sending to foreign away by the Imperial Parliament, for the countries such articles of their own pro further decoration of buildings already duce as are excluded from the British mar. sufficiently splendid, and the support of kets, where they might obtain in exchange establishments already too munificently enthe merchandize of which they stand in dowed, were devoted to the improvement of need.
this portion of the British Colonies, a great It is not necessary to possess any extra benefit would speedily devolve on the people ordinary powers of mental vision to per. of England. If the extension of your comceive, that a colony whose imports, amount merce he desirable,-if the enrichment of ing only to 863,1561. exceed her exports your remotest dependencies be an object by more 350,0001., must inevitably become worthy of regard, — if the possession of vabankrupt, unless some
are luable territories, capable of receiving and promptly resorted to for her salvation. I sustaining millions of your overgrown pothink, however, the evils here complained pulation, now almost literally perishing for of, which are now becoming daily more want of employment, --if these be advangeneral, might be greatly alleviated, if not tages, and if Canada be worth the paternal entirely removed, without adopting any care of your Government,-why has she measures that would have the slightest ten not experienced greater attention ? Why dency to affect the agricultural interests of does she not obtain a portion of that libethe parent state. That it would be highly rality which the Parliament of England so impolitic to admit colonial or any other frequently and laudably displays ? produce into the ports of the United King The total expense of transporting dom, so long as you are able to grow what
a family consisting of eight persons is sufficient for your own consumption, is
(without servants) from Europe to a fact, which every disinterested man will acknowledge. At the same time, it is, in Upper Canada is estimated at about my humble opinion, a great hardship that 6801. The writer is supposing the we, I speak as a Canadian, should be com case of an Englishman worth 1500l. pelled to purchase your manufactures desirous of emigrating to Canada ; when you will not accept of our staple com- he
goes on to say: modities in exchange. On the very prin For this sum, viz. 6812., the emigrant will ciples of “ Free Trade,” on which you be able to defray his expenses from his naseem inclined to act whenever we, as colo- tive country to Upper Canada, to obtain 500 nists, ask the slightest boon at your hands, acres of land, to clear and fence 25 acres, to we certainly ought to be allowed to avail erect a house and barn, and to provide him. ourselves of the
advantages which are to be self with the necessary farming utensils, stock derived from commercial intercourse with and furniture. For 3001. more, he may foreign markets. Perhaps, if proper en have 75 acres cleared, which in addition to couragement were given to the culture of the other 25, will make 100,—a quantity hemp and tobacco in Canada, the balance sufficient for any Canadian farmer. of trade, which is at present decidedly I only mention these facts, to show the against us, might be turned in our favour. impolicy of Government in charging such It has been said, that England annually enormous fees on wild and uncultivated pays, to a foreign power, upwards of a mil. land. By the statement which I have lion and-a-half, for the single article of made, and which, you may rest assured, is hemp; every pound of which might be perfectly correct, it appears that 500 acres saved to the British empire, by promoting of land, received from the Government, the culture of that plant in Canada. when improved in the way that has been
described, will cost no less a sum to the If, however, the Supreme Government proprietor than 3151. This land, it should
be recollected, must of necessity be far re. would suffice for the support of a family, tired from navigable waters, and at a re- consisting of eleven persons. Forty acres mote distance from any kind of market. would certainly produce more grain than Who then will be so far infatuated, and led could be consumed by eleven persons; but blind-fold by a mistaken spirit of loyalty, how are horses, cows, and oxen to bé fed as to accept such land from Government on through a tedious Winter of nearly six the usual conditions, when he may purchase months' continuance ? And how is pork to an equal quantity in the same advanced be fattened, in sufficient quantities for the state of cultivation, for far less than that consumption of so large a family ? Ten sum, on the barks of Lakes Erie, Onta acres of meadow-land will be scarcely suffirio, and St. Clare ?
cient to yield hay enough for a pair of I shall therefore consider the emigrant of horses, two yokes of oxen, half a dozen 15001. to be settled on 500 acres in any cows, and fifty sheep. Fifteen acres of part of the Province which he may select, pasturage will be no more than adequate to with the quantity of stock, farming uten the sustenance of fifty sheep throughout the sils and furniture already mentioned, at the Summer, admitting that the cows and oxen expense of 6161. As 884.. of the 15001. find a subsistence in the forests ; and five yet remain, his prospects may be supposed acres will scarcely yield oats enough to feed to be decidedly favourable.
the horses. There remain therefore only But if he will not attend to his own ten acres for the maintenance of the family. business, and sometimes put his own hands If you will take the trouble of estimating to the plough, he must have more labourers the quantity of grain, hay, and pasturage, and other servants, than he can afford to necessary for the support of such a stock, pay. Properly to cultivate 100 acres of and the flour which a large family will anland, will require the constant labour of nually consume, and compare the result of three men ; the annual expence of whom, these calculations with the average produce exclusive of their board, will be 901. For of land in Canada, you will find my statethe support of his own family, his labour. ments to be perfectly correct. ers, his oxen, his cows, and his sheep, 40 The conclusion of the whole matter is, acres will be sufficient, if judiciously cul- that a respectable emigrant, on leaving tivated. There remains, therefore, the England with 1,500h, may settle himself produce of 60 acres for the payment of liis in Canada on an estate of 500 acres, suplabourers, and for the procuring of clothing port a large family comfortably, and die for his family,--supposing that his wife is worth upwards of 8001. in specie, if he is unwilling or unable to manufacture any. not imprudent or exceedingly unfortunate. In the due cultivation of 60 acres of land, We have thus laid before our read40 acres may produce a yearly crop, which, ers the few facts concerning the Caif in a fertile part of the country, will nadas and Emigration which we amount to 25 bushels per acre. This quantity, according to the present price of lumes of a writer, himself a denizen
have been able to glean from the vograin, which is two shillings and sixpence of those countries, and an emigrator per bushel, will amount to 125l.; out of which 901 must go to pay for hired la- from Ireland. It is so difficult to bour ; so that, making no deductions what. obtain information of this kind, that ever for the failure of crops, the wasting of we make no apology for selecting it grain, or other contingencies, only 35l. are from the worst-written book without left for clothing a wife and six children. any exception we ever read in our
If a person of this description therefore lives. A coxcomb or a tailor howwere, in addition to his labourers, to keep ever is the right person to apply to only one inside servant, whose wages would for what we wish to know respecting amount to 15l., his whole farm would be dress; a ploughman, though “ as found little more than sufficient for the sup. ignorant as dirt,” for what we would port of his household establishment. The interest of his 8841., and the increase of learn of his simple art; and in the his stock, would however be fully equal to same way an emigrator from these meet all his necessary demands : So that, countries, and a denizen of Canada, it may be said, that, with economy, fru- may be good authority on such subgality, and good success, he may live com- jects as those alone upon which we fortably, without drawing on his banker have quoted Mr. Talbot. But for its for any thing beside the interest of his utility in this point of view we should money.
have resigned his work on “ Canada”
long since, as we do now,-to the It may, perhaps, be considered, that 40 trunk-maker. acres of land will produce more grain than
THE LAND OF LOGRES.
On speaking lately to a friend who neath them had inscribed in characis engaged in a laborious work re ters so plain, that he who ran might lating to our national antiquities, read the following distich : about the right limits of the land of
We three Logres, I found to my surprise that
Loggerheads be. he had never before heard of such a place. Hence I am led to conclude
These words, as I was sauntering that many others of my countrymen along on my horse, and in spite of all are equally unaware that, among the
admonitions to the contrary, lagging names which have at different times
some way behind, these words I unbeen given to this portion of the wittingly pronounced ; and thus on globe, that of Logres is one. Britain, the instant, according to the old FloAlbion, England, are appellations rentine's phrase, familiar, it is to be hoped, the world I was made third amid so learned a band,
But Logres is a stranger even Si ch'io fui terzo tra cotanto senno. at home. M. de Roquefort, who had to explain the word in his glossary
I have since thought that the trap of the Romance language, treats it Briton to catch an unwary traveller
was laid by some facetious Cambrothus: “ According to Borel,” says from the land of Logres like myself, he, “it is a nation. I see none but the Locrians, · Locri,' a people in
and that Loggerheads might mean Greece to whom this name can be
“ heads from Logres," or men from applied.” When the same gentle
Logres, αμενηνα κάρονα. man was afterwards employed in its old and genuine title, I may be
In vindicating to our country this editing certain old French poems, allowed to add one or two passages called the Lais de Marie, Logres from our best writers who have made again lay in his way, and though he had gained a little more light, yet it twice in the Faery Queen.
use of it. Spenser has it at least was scarcely sufficient to prevent his stumbling again at the same block. But Albanact had all the rorthern part, ** The land, the country, the king. Which of himself Albania he did call; dom, the city of Logres, or Loengres, Which Severn now from Logris doth de.
And Camber did possess the western quart, so often spoken of, made a part of Glamorganshire in the province of
part. Wales. (Vol. i. p. 37.)
Faery Queen, Book ii. c. 10. st. 14. Now let us hear the account which And Twede the limit betwixt Logris land a learned Welshman gives of the And Albany. Book iv. c. II, st. 36. matter. Mr. Owen, in his dictionary Thus it appears that Logris, or of that language, under the word Loegria, is the country bounded by Lloeggr (which he derives from lloeg, Twede to the north, and Severn to to open or break out), defines it to the west. The writer of the Lais de be that part of ancient Britain which Marie couples Logris and Albany towas inherited by the Belgians, pro- gether, as Spenser has done. perly speaking ; also England, south
En Loengre et en Albanie. of the Humber, exclusive of Wales,
Lai de lilon, p. 328, v. 7. Cornwall, and Devon, but now it is the popular name of England in ge- he speaks of
Milton joins it with Lyones, where neral ;-Loegria."
This calls to my mind an awkward Fairy damsels met in forest wide accident that befel me when I was By knights of Logres or of Lyones, yet a younker, following my father
Lancelot or Pelleas, or Pellenore. in a ride through North Wales. On
Par. Reg. b. 2. a sign-post by the road-side (I think The same author, in his History of it was not far from Corwen), some England, calls it Loëgria. “ His wicked Dick Tinto of the land had three sons (the sons of Brutus), Loshadowed forth the appearance of crine, Albanact, and Camber, divide two doltish-looking heads, and under- the land by consent. Locrine had