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tured to breathe at the commencement spared had not Moscow been burnt ;, of the war ;man appeal was made to the last coalition could not have been popular support in a manner which victorious had not the first been dewould at first have been deemed an stroyed. entire abandonment of the objects for Let us then admire the wisdom of which it was undertaken. In an un- Nature, which is able to extract out of happy hour, the French generals ridi- the magnitude of the calamities by culed the Prussian militia, and, for which mankind are oppressed, the getting the source from which their means ot' relieving them; but let us own exaltation had proceeded, applied not confound the original system of the same epithets to them with which coalitions with the means by which the Allied Generals had branded the the disasters which they occasioned armies that first fought for the liber- were repaired, or imagine, that we ties of France. They have lived to have subjected the body to a wholefeel the bitterness of revenge, and to some regimen, because, after years of owe the preservation of their metro- suffering, the Vis Medicatrir Naturce polis to the mercy of that power whose has succeeded in throwing out the popular armies, in the pride of mili- foul disease which our noxious remetary power, they had ventured to de- dy had produced. ride.

Nor are we to be told that the sysNor was the Grand Alliance less tem of coalitions was victorious in distingnished from all those which had Spain, and that, by the assistanoe preceded it, by the unanimity which which we rendered to that power, we now prevailed alike between the so- both essentially aided the common vereigns and their armies. The troops cause, and demonstrated the wisdom who fought in the cause of Europe of the principles by which our conwere no longer regular armies paid by duct had been regulated. Far be it English gold, and lukewarm in the from us to depreciate the merit of our service in which they were engaged. gallant army, or detract from the well The sovereigns who headed them were earned fame of its illustrious chief : no longer unbending potentates, rigid, it is just from the magnitude of their ly adhering to ancient rule, cautiously successes that we draw the last and repressing every effusion of a free spi- most convincing argument against the rit, and still swayed, even in the com- system of coalitions which was at first mon cause, by their ancient and he- pursued. Wherever England acted reditary jealousies. The suffering of in a coalition, her armies, notwithEurope had roused the people; the standing their unequalled valour, were bumiliations to which they had been unsuccessful. We have seen both the subjected, had smothered the jealous- Russians and the English singly deies of their sovereigns; but one feel- feat the French, yet their forces, when ing pervaded all ranks, the desire of united at the Helder, were entirely vengeance against the common enemy. baffled, and the expedition failed, In such circumstances, a coalition is, more by the jealousy which subsisted indeed, the most formidable power betwixt them, than the ability with which can be raised; it unites the nu. which they were opposed. We have merical strength and physical resour- seen the might of England singly sus. ces of many states to the union and tain, as at Cressy or Agincourt, the energy which belongs to one; and, whole military power of France on the while supported by an ebullition of field of Waterloo ; but the same counpopular feeling, and held together by try had witnessed the retreat of a far the pressure of common danger, it is, greater body of allies, including all the indeed, irresistible. But it is just be disposable force of England, before a cause the first coalitions had, and much more contemptible enemy, at could have none of these advantages, the commencement of the war. The that they were necessarily exposed to eyes of the country have followed with overthrow; it is just because nothing exultation and pride the splendid sea short of the calamities which have be- ries of successes with which the Engfallen Europe THROUGH THEIR PALL, lish arms have been crowned in the COULD PRODUCE A REAL COALITION, peninsular war: but it is not to be that the arraying them with a view to forgotten that it was in alliance with hostile attack on France was at first im- the Portuguese troops, who were subpolitic. Paris would not have been jected to the rule of England as much

as a province of her empire, and con- overthrow. The English, with their sequently shared with her the unity temporary subjects the Portuguese, and vigour of a single state, that these developed their whole resources in successes were gained, and that when 1812, in the Peninsular war; and the the English attempted to act with the Russians did the sanie in the struggle Spaniards on the footing of equality for national existence. Each fought which belongs to coalesced powers, as if on their single arm the fate of they were uniformly unsuccessful. The both depended. Both were, in condevoted gallantry of their troops at sequence, successful; but it is not to Talavera could not save the province be forgotten that they were victorious of Estremadura from the French arms, just because they acted on principles because Cuesta refused to co-operate adverse to those of a coalition, and, with their movements : the brilliant taught by the disasters of former action of Barossa was rendered fruit- times, looked to the individual energy less by the disgraceful jealousy of La of their own people for the only means Pena with the Spanish troops: the of succees in the contest. splendid armament of Sir J. Moore The overthrow of the earlier coaliwas driven to retreat from the impos- tions, therefore, equally as the trisibility of combining measures with umph of the Grand Alliance, the the Spanish forces : and when the minutest details of the war, equally army of Lord Wellington advanced as its general result in every period of even to the frontiers of France, they its progress,-combine in demonstrate were obliged to trust entirely to their ing the triumph of the principles own resources, and leave nothing of of civil liberty-France vanquished importance to the Spanish troops. when she was contending for her The triuinphs in the Peninsula there- freedom, and the other nations of fore equally, as the reverses which Europe vanquished when she bewere then experienced, demonstrate came the oppressor of the world, the force of popular energy, and the They were at first vanquished because miserable policy of substituting in its they were striving to subdue an indeplace, the forced powers of coalesced pendent state, and because thy trustgovernments: and by showing that ed nothing to the energy of their own it was only when England became a people ; they at last became victorious principal in the war, and trusting to because they, in their turn, were fightno assistance, boldly developed her ing the cause of freedom, and because whole resources, that she became per- they invoked the aid which she alone manently successful, indicate in the can afford. When the divisions of clearest manner the impolicy of the party, therefore, are forgotten, and the principles on which the war was at world has time calmly to contemplate first conducted.

the eventful period, the moral lesson It is perfectly true, in like manner, with which every page of it is fraught that the war in Spain was essentially will be found to be the TRIUMPH OF relieved by the efforts of Austria in. THE CAUSE OF FREEDOM; and to its 1809, of Russia in 1812, and of the annals, more even than to the glowing Grand Alliance in 1813 and 1814. page of Roman virtue, will the eye ot No one ever dreamed of disputing, the patriot in future times be turned, that, where two different powers, each as affording the bright example of untrusting to its own resources, and de- conquerable valour, and the animatveloping its whole powers, are simul. ing prospect of successful liberty. taneously at war with the same ene. We have been led to these obsermy, they mutually confer a most e- vations by the interest which the erecnormous advantage on each other. If tion of the NATIONAL MONUMENT it was possible to animate a coalition is now exciting, and the little share with the spirit and the unanimity which the leaders of the opposition which pervades a single country when have hitherto taken in promoting its attacked, it would be the most effec- success. Such a backwardness, we tual method of succeeding in a contest cannot help considering, as injurious that could be devised. It is just be- to the real interest of that enlightencause you cannot do this without the ed body of men, as it is clearly concommon suffering which held toge- trary to their principles. ther the alliance of 1813 that they are Of all the means by which the inso obviously exposed to division and fluence of this enlightened and important body of men have been weak- belief that these are their real sentiened, by far the most efficacious that ments which makes them still distrusthas ever been adopted, is the repre- ed by the great body of the English senting them as insensible to the na- people; and this belief will continue - tional glory, and as secretly attached to clog their efforts and blast their to the fortunes of France, by which most patriotic measures, till the events they hoped that the overthrow of of the war are in some measure fortheir political adversaries would be gotten, or till the public are convinced effected. To some among them, the that their former estimate of their sencharge was perhaps justly applicable ; timents was ill founded. i · but there cannot be the slightest Now then is the moment for the doubt, that, to the great majority, and leaders of the opposition in this couna to all the respectable part of that bo- try to regain, in some measure, the dy, it was a vile and unfounded as- ground they have lost, and confound persion. The real English Whig rethe malicious aspersions of their adjoices in the success and glory of his versaries by taking the lead in the country, not less seriously than the measures intended to perpetuate the most deterinined ministerial adherent: glory of their country. Now is the he rejoices in it, not only because it is time, more especially for those emithe glory of his own country, but of ment individuals at the Scottish bar, a country in which Freedom has found whose opinions possess so deserved a her last and favoured abode. More weight in all political discussions, and especially, in the struggle between whose taste has rendered them, in Britain and imperial France, he is led some measure, the arbiters of the public on his principles to take the most feelings on such topics, to come forlively interest : because that was the ward and prove, by the lead which greatest struggle which the world they take in this undertaking, both has ever had between freedom and the interest which they take in the slavery ;-between the life and death progress of art, and the utter falsehood of every thing dear to the human spe- of the apostacy from their country of cies. The same principles which lead which they have been accused. They him to sympathize with the fortunes cannot conceive the addition which it of Athens and Rome,to dwell on would make to the respectability of the exploits of Tell and Koschiusko, their characters, and to the weight of and to glory in the names of Hamp- the arguments which they may hereden and Sidney :-the same princi- after be called on to urge in the great ples which led him, perhaps, to hope cause of national freedom. And we for the success of the French arms cannot avoid indulging a hope, that it when they stemmed at Fleurus the is from accidental circumstances, more tide of despotic invasion, should lead than from any common feeling, that him to rejoice in the overthrow of the none of these individuals have yet apa same power when it in its turn be- peared as subscribers even to this came the tyrant of the world. And great national undertaking; an underthis is the view accordingly entertain- taking destined to commemorate the ed by all the wise and good men of triumph of freedom over despotic that political persuasion.

power. Let us hope that this stain But though this may, in reality, be will not long continue attached to their sentiments, these are not the those whom Providence has gifted feelings for which the nation in ge- with such splendid talents, and, in neral gives them credit, or which the general case, with such upright their political adversaries labour to feeling ; but that they will hasten to convince the world they really possess. demonstrate, that the divisions of By them they are represented as cha- party in Scotland, as well as England, grined at the victories and triumphs of has no influence on the love which all their country ;-as secretly repining feel for their common country; and at the successes by which the mini- that, unlike the other nations of the stry for the day acquired popularity; world, the political divisions of this -as forgetting, in the envy and fuc- island serve only to develope the tations of the moment, both their own lents to which it has given birth, and principles and the glory and the for- call forth the virtues by which its tunes of their native land. It is the fortunes are to be maintained.

408 Serjeant Campbell's Interview with the Emperor of Russia. (Nov. SERJEANT CAMPBELL'S STATEMENT army,-how many actions I was in

OF HIS INTERVIEW WITH THE if I was present at the actions of the EMPEROR OF RUSSIA AT PARIS IN 16th, 17th, and 18th,-how many of 1815.

ficers and men the regiment lost on

the 16th, 17th, and 18th June,-whe[THE following little scene of Imperial

ther I was in Egypt,-if we wore the curiosity may be amusing to our readers. It reminds us somewhat of the ordeal through kilt in winter, or if I did not feel cold which Gulliver is described as having pas. in that season,-if I was married.-if sed in the presence of their majesties of my parents were alive, &c. Brobdignag or Lilliput. There can be no The Emperor then ordered Lord doubt as to the authenticity of the narra. Cathcart to make me put John Fraser tive, which was drawn up by Serjeant through the manual and platoon exCampbell, at the request of an officer of his ercise, at which performance he was regiment.].

highly pleased. He then ordered the In the month of August 1815, I was pipers to play up, and Lord Cathcart ordered to proceed with Piper John desired them to play the Highland Fraser and Piper Kenneth Mackay, to tune called Cogue na Shu, war or the Palais D'Eliseé in Paris, then the peace, which he explained to the Em-residence of the Emperor of Russia, peror, who seemed highly delighted when we were joined by Serjeant with the music. After the Emperor Macgrigor, Private Munro, and Piper was done with me, the veteran, Count Mackenzie of the 42d regiment ; Ser- Platoff, came up to me, and took me jeant Grant, Piper Logan, and Piper by the hand, and told me in broken Cameron of the 92d regiment. About English, that I was a good and brave half an hour after our arrival at the soldier, as all my countrymen were. Palace, Lord Cathcart sent a valet He then pressed my hand to his breast, to conduct us to the grand hall, where and gave me his to press to mine. we met his Lordship, whom I im- After all was over, I was ordered to mediately recognized; he was pleased take the party to Lord Cathcart's to order me to take charge of the quarters, where we had a refreshment, party, while he went to the Emperor and received a piece of money each to acquaint him of our arrival, and in from his Lordship, and also his apabout ten minutes after the Emperor probation for our appearance, &c. entered the hall, accompanied by his

Th. CAMPBELL, two brothers, Prince Blucher, Count

Serjt. 79th Regt. Platoff, and several other distinguish Camp near Blandfur, ed personages. The Emperor had a 3d July 1818. very minute inspection of us, and his curiosity led him to point upon me (as being the most robust of those that ON THE VICTORY AT WATERLOO. accompanied me) to step to the front, and ordered the rest to sit down. As

(Written in June 1816.) soon as I stept to the front, I was sur

LAMENT the young, lament the brave, rounded by the astonished nobility,

In Belgium's bloody fields that lie, and the Emperor commenced his in

- Wrapt to their rest in Honour's grave,

W spection and questions, viz.

Beneath the wings of Victory. 1. Examined my appointments, drew my sword inquired if I could for them let Memory prolong perform any exercise of that weapon,

What sacred to their Names should be which I told him I could not; and,

The Poet's high heroic song,

The notes of Fame and Victory. at the same time, Lord Cathcart made a remark that it was a deficiency in See ye, from Albion's Isle, alone, the British army that he never took The favour'd land of Liberty, into consideration before.

Where she has fix'd her sea-girt throne, 2. Examined my hose, garters, legs, And spreads the sails of Victory, and pinched my skin, thinking I wore How o'er the world her gifts have sped ? something under my kilt, and had the Her Heroes have set Europe free, curiosity of lifting my kilt up, so that And millions bless the Chiefs who led he might not be deceived. The ques. To deathless Fame and Victory. tions were -How long I was in the

A. H.

-JOURNAL OF A VISIT TO HOLLAND. meanour of the Dutch in all their . (Continued from p. 317.)

operations. This, however, is by no LETTER VI.

means universally applicable to the

general character of this nation, and Dear —

certainly is not at all answerable to Rotterdam,

In the course of the manner in which the horses of

61, the day I had the Holland are worked, for if you see the PIN August 11. pleasure of į abort Dutch peasant going to market, or walk into the country by the southern even to the field with manure, he is gate of the city. Our party was ac- generally at a round trot, and when companied by one of our friends, a seated in his voiture, he drives at full clergyman of the Scotch church, and speed, and manages the impediments though we did not succeed in seeing upon the road with much spirit and the manufacture of plate glass, which adroitness. was our object, yet the walk was This walk also afforded an opporhighly interesting. It was just at the tunity of examining one of the nuclose of a market in Rotterdam, when merous flour mills, which, in this the peasantry, or boors, as they are neighbourhood, are worked by the called, were returning to the country, force of wind; but these machines it after completing their city business is hardly necessary to describe, as they for the day. These people have a contain nothing new, but even come dress rather peculiar to themselves, far short of those which we every consisting of dark grey coloured cloth where meet with in England. We made into a short jacket, vest and also visited one of the windmills used breeches of a somewhat singular cut. for pumping and draining the water They have generally large silver bucke from the almost endless Hats of this les in their shoes and at their knees, country. The water-mill is hardly a clasp at their middle, and not un- at all known in England, with the exfrequently a complete set of buttons ception, perhaps, of the fens of Linof the same precious metal. The men colnshire. We found it here to bea very have commonly a large round full simple apparatus. The upright shaft brimmed hat. The women's hat is of is turned by the vanes or sails, which straw, lined with calico, measuring give motion to a wheel and pinion fully two feet in diameter, answering used for turning an Archimedes' screw all the purposes of an umbrella, and it pump, which delivers the water at the seems to be more for use than orna- height of four or five feet into an open ment. The farming peasantry are not drain or ditch leading from the field found trudging on foot, or sauntering into which the pump works, and by it after a cart on the high road under a the drainage water is conducted into broiling sun. They either drive in a the Meuse. These pumps are said to small neat gig, which is usually paint- lift several hundred tons of water in ed in a tasteful manner with flowers the course of a few hours; and but or figures, generally in a dancing atti- for their operation during wet weatude, or if the articles they carry to ther, when all the rivers are in speat, market are bulky, such as potatoes, and that often in connection with the milk contained in large brazen jars, waters of the ocean during a storm, vegetables, grain, or the like, they when the natural drains of the counhave in these cases a cart or waggon try are stopt, the whole territory of of a very light construction, drawn by Holland would be laid under water. one or two horses. This cart also is For this system of pumping, the simneatly painted with a group of figures ple mention of this state of things will upon its back-board. But what is at once lead you to conceive the imparticularly worthy of remark in re- mense number of these engines which gard to the customs of the Dutch, must be required throughout the compared with those of the English, whole extent of this flat country. The is the speed with which those vehicles purnping of water in Holland has inare driven along their smooth and per- deed become a trade, which I underfectly level roads. The elegant gait stand is conducted somewhat on the or carriage of their fine black horses principle of the multure for corn mills. is also not a little remarkable in the A person, with the consent of a few eyes of an Englishman, who provere conterminous proprietors or tenants, bially speaks of the slow and lazy deagrees to drain the lands for a certain VOL. V.

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