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A little bunch of people have gathered to see the train pass.
They have not come down to see me - they are interested in the train, but I think there may be a possible customer among them, so I lift up my voice and cry:
"Good people, I can save you money,
I start with an appeal to some uni. versal, fundamental instinct or desiresomething that will appeal to their love of comfort, their greed, or love of life.
I tell them what it is, and what it will do for them. I tell them how I sell it—how small a risk they run in ordering, and then as the train pulls out I have only time to add my name and address and maybe crowd in a key number.
All the time it may be that half a dozen other business men have been trying to attract their attention, for my ad is on a page with half a dozen others-So I realize that I must present my story in an attractive manner. I must be convincing enough to make them believe me, and interesting enough to make them want to know more.
It's a big job, as you doubtless have discovered.
But if you have analyzed your prime factors—and really know the actual relations existing between your Commodity and your Customer, you ought to be able to select the facts which will appeal most strongly to the Customer.
And after that, it's merely a question
of your use of English and your ability to secure proper display.
How you tell your story must be determined by your different media and the class of customers you are attempting to reach through them.
It may be one advertisement or one style of advertisements will suit all the media you will use. It may be that you will want several different styles; it all depends on conditions as you discover them. But whatever else you do. don't think you have to write down to people. Don't adopt the "dearly-beloved," condescending style. There may be people to whom it appeals, but they are few, and besides the style has been greatly overworked.
I find it a good plan after an advertisement is written to go over it word by word, sentence by sentence, and make every word, every phrase give a good excuse for being in the ad. What condition calls for this word for this sentence—for this argument. If it has no good excuse, cut it out.
The Circulation The circulation you will give your story will be determined by the customer you think you can most easily persuade and convince. Experience is the only guide I know of in this. But don't make the mistake of supposing that because a certain publication sells one line of goods, it is certain to sell as many of another line. You must know publications and their readers, and then decide whether or not there is a sufficient number of your possible customers among them.
Three Ways To Manage
Written for Agricultural Advertising
By Waldo Pondray Warren
Copyright, 1907, By W. P. Warren
THERE is a happy medium be- ample of the type. But we may so con
tween doing everything your sider them.
others—between cleaning your partly because he loves hard work, and own inkwells and authorizing your assist- partly because he has not trained himself ant to sell out the business if he thinks to pass detail down the line. He can do a best—a happy medium that constitutes great deal of work himself, and do it good management.
well. He enjoys the expression of his The exact place to locate the boun- skill. He has more energy than padary line between these two extreme tience, and would rather do a thing policies is a matter of perpetual dispute, himself than to take the trouble to not only with those who think they can teach an assistant to do it. Because do it better than you can, but within he can do the work better than your own thought also.
can some young man or young Different lines of work require differ- woman who has never been tauglit to ent policies, and varying degrees of the do it, he lacks confidence in their ability same policy; and in the same office the to do it as he thinks it should be done. work of the forenoon may require dif- As first efforts to come up to a hig'ı ferent treatment from that of the after- standard are often failures, when he noon; or that of the present moment tries to pass some of his work down the from that of a moment ago. But through line he finds that it is not done as well all this the man who thinks deeply soon as he could do it himself, and he settles works out a policy which is expedient into the habit of doing it. elastic, and generally satisfactory.
The second man goes to the other exBut not every manager thinks as treme. He leaves things to his assistdeeply as he might-perhaps none do ants that should have his personal atfor that matter. And when a lack of tention, and yet retains the information proper thought on this point enters into which would enable them to do the work the condict of an office, it does about intelligently. "After all," he says to as much harm as can any other policy himself, “it is more pleasant to let the known in business. For management in boys take care of the routine while I its very nature is dominating, and its mingle with men of affairs." The tenspirit permeates quickly and effectively dency grows on him until he loses the all parts of the organization, and shows thread of the work, and becomes so initself in every division of the work.
terested in “affairs" that his personal There are three types of managers: interest in the work slackens. A propothe one who does too much himself, the sition that would once have been reone who does too little, and the one garded as important enough to require who keeps in just about the right rela- his undivided attention is soon regarded tion to his fellow workers and the work as "a mere detail which any bright Like all "types" these three are in a young man can attend to." measure interwoven in each individual, The third man comes just between so that no one person is a complete ex- these two. It is not, however, because
he is less industrious than the first, and The effect of this policy on the assistnot quite so careless as the second. It ants is to make them incompetent. is probable that he is more intelligently When the most vital part of the work is industrious than the first, and has few kept out of their hands the very life of of the easy-going habits of the second the work is gone. And when no conIt is because he has learned a few im fidence is placed in an individual by his portant points in the matter of consery- business superiors his own confidence in ing his own time and talents, and of his ability begins to wane. getting the most out of his assistants. Many an otherwise capable man has
Intelligent industry is not so much a been weakened in his natural efficiency question of bodily motion as of mental because his manager did too much of activity. The man who does work that the work and left him only the unimproperly belongs to workers further portant parts. He felt the lack of condown the ranks is inactive mentally in fidence in him, found his work uninterthe proportion that he is unnecessarily esting, and settled into a dull mediocrity. active in routine work.
The policy of the second man-the The effect of these three policies are one who slights his duties-has its efworthy of consideration. The results fects also. He becomes careless, lazy show on the manager, on the work, and and disinterested. His work runs wild on the workers. One effect of the first like a garden full of weeds. His assistpolicy-that of the manager who does ants, while they may develop a great too much-is that it keeps him doing deal of initiative, develop it in an undetail that is not worth his time--110t trained way; and because of the lack of that the detail is unimportant, but rather proper counsel and check, acquire habits that it could be done more economically and methods of work which are almost by less expensive workers. It also draws impossible to correct without great efhis attention away from the fundament- fort, and a distinct understanding that a als of the business, and lets more im- new policy is in force. portant work go undone, and even un- But the policy of the third man—the thought of. For it is possible to be so man who does just enough himself, and busy watching lightning bugs that you leaves just enough to others—in the prohave no time to look at the stars. The portion that he actually does this, has a work, being robbed of the vital thought very wholesome effect on the work and and impetus which a more thinking man- on the workers, as well as on his own ager would impart to it, loses in its career and character. By dropping the effectiveness to a very great degree., less important detail he is free to conThings go at loose ends because the man- sider the fundamentals of his business. ager is too busy to attend to them, and And there he finds work of vital imhis assistants have never been taught portance. It may be work where a day how.
or a week would make no conspicuous If it were only possible to show in showing, but if left undone would evenfigures and otherwise what the alterna- tually make a great difference in the tive results might have been, it would welfare of the whole business. It is a be plain that this policy is anything but work akin to that of the pilot on an a profitable one. But in these days of ocean steamship. Only by the aid of prosperity in business many mistakes are chart and compass can he tell if the made and not appreciated because the ship is keeping its course. The people general profit of the business covers on deck who are watching the progress them up. The man with a pocketful of of the ship merely as a matter of inchange never misses the quarter he terest do not know whether it is headed drops.
just right or not. So long as it plows
the waves they are content. And if the pilot spent his time in social diversions with them he would have just as meager a knowledge of the course as they have. And if he spent his time with the engineers below he would also be ignorant as to the direction of the ship. But he stays at his post, and lets the passengers do the talking and the engineers keep the machinery going, while he watches his chart and guides the ship in the right course. He may not rush around as much as the passengers, nor keep as active as the engineers, but his work is vital to the welfare of both.
By placing a proper amount of responsibility on the workers down the line, this man—who knows where the highest function of a manager comes in-brings out the best there is in each assistant. He teaches them to develop initiative, skill, self-reliance, and interest in the business. And from these qualities grow the highest order of work, the soundest loyalty, and the most ready response to the directions of the manager.
The more intelligent and responsible the engineers the more satisfactorily will they assist in keeping the ship to its course, and the more readily will they respond to the signals in time of danger or quick action.
Some men have a tendency to draw around them an efficient staff of assistants-others to keep incompetent men about them, perhaps that their own talents may show the better by contrast. The underlying thought is akin to that which makes up the difference between the first and third types of managers.
The very policy of the efficient manager requires efficient assistance, and at the same time is developing it. The good judgment which appreciates the importance of leaving large sections of the work to others realizes the need of having men who are able to accept this responsibility intelligently. And the same policy, perhaps more than any other, develops untrained men to reach
the higher phases of their possible efficiency.
T he man who declines, neglects, or does not know enough to surround himself with a staff of efficient workers, finds the work for himself multiplying to such an extent that he must stay by it day and night-giving him little time to train assistants he may have, and less in which to think of fundamentals which mean so much to a business. Not thinking of them he does not find his work in those lines, and necessarily stays in the midst of the routine and detail, doing himself, for want of something better to occupy his attention, the very work his assistants should be doing, and could easily learn to do if he would get out of their way.
Perhaps few things in business go more conspicuously to make up the difference between a great man and a small man than these two policies. A man is not to be judged, however, by the bare facts in the case, for these may be so on account of circumstances over which he has no control. The need of doing much himself may be forced upon him, either through his own financial necessity in maintaining an inexpensive staff, or it may be the policy of those above him in the control of the business who do not appreciate actual conditions.
Thousands of men in managerial positions are so dominated by officers and directors that they are prevented from expressing their own policies, even to such an extent that they are limited to a certain price for an office boy, and must often put up with an incompetent one, doing a great deal of work themselves which a brighter and more expensive office boy could do. And sometimes a manager finds assistants entrenched in positions through favoritism and personal relation, from which he cannot displace them, and in which he cannot successfully instruct them; so the work, because of these and kindred circumstances often resolves itself into certain forms which may be far different from