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As to the first point, the national food law the consumer; new prices must be explained; will create advertising because it will make it new labels advertised. The consumer must be possible for a manufacturer to manufacture made acquainted with the new brands of food and sell an honest product without putting products and the manufacturer must make the that product in competition with a fraud. To introduction and create the most valuable patillustrate: A short time ago a whiskey dealer ronage by advertising. went to a well-known expert authority on As to the third point, the national food law labels to get his opinion on a label. The label is going to create advertising because it will read, "Ten year old, Hand made, sour inashi, force the manufacturer, engaged in interstate straight whiskey."
commerce, and whose food products must com"Is your whiskey ten years old ?" asked the ply with the national food law, to advertise expert.
in order to meet the competition of the manu. "No, it isn't really ten years old,” said the facturer within the state who manufactures dealer.
products to sell within the state and whose "Is it really hand made ?"
products do not have to comply with the food "No," he replied, “it isn't hand made." law. I will not have time to discuss this "Is it sour mash?"
point tonight, but I want to say that this is "No, it isn't sour mash."
a most unfair competition, put upon the manu"Is it straight whiskey?"
facturer of interstate food products. Adver. "No, it isn't.”
tising is the remedy; advertising will wipe out "Well then, you must not put on your label this fraud; advertising will bring big returns that it is ten years old, sour mash, hand made, to the manufacturer, whose products comply straight whiskey."
with the law. The frauds practiced by the Under the national food law, the label must state manufacturer will be shown to the contell the truth. The law makes it possible for sumer through advertising, and this advertisa dealer to manufacture, advertise and selling will create a sentiment for state laws a ten year old, hand made, sour mash, straight conforming with the national food law. whiskey, without putting it in competition with As to the fourth point, the national food law such a fraud as this. It makes it possible for is going to create food advertising, because it a man to put on the market a package of real has already, and it will continue to create the Java and Mocha Coffee without putting that greatest interest in the consumer, who is alcoffee in competition with all the false Java ready educating himself to judge and discrimand Mocha coffee sold in every grocery store inate as to the products he buys. in the country. The enforcement of the law There was little interest in the food subject makes it possible for a man to put on the ten years ago. It was hard to convince any. market a package of Venezuelan, Mexican, or body that there was any fraud in the manu. Brazilian coffee without putting it in com facture and sale of foods. It is different today. petition with exactly the same coffee fraudu The people have learned to want pure foods. lently sold by grocers all over this country as This want is voiced in the national food law, Java and Mocha coffee. It makes it possible the first law of its kind ever enrolled on the for a man to manufacture, advertise, and sell Government's statute. a product without putting that product in com In the passage of the meat inspection law, petition with a fraud.
the first national step ever taken to protect the As to the second point, the national food law people from eating diseased, decomposed and will create advertising because it will create chemically poisoned meats. new names and new terms for food products, In the passage of numerous state laws to and these new names and terms must be ad. protect the people from food frauds. vertised. Mexican Coffee, Venezuelan Coffee, In the organization of a national body of Brazilian Coffee, cotton seed oil, evaporated state and national food officers to enact and milk, cider vinegar, maple syrup, new cre revise state laws, that they may conform with ations that must be advertised.
the national food law; in the reincarnation With few exceptions the present Java and of the Bureau of Chemistry into an organizaMocha Coffee must go; the present maraschino tion to look after the enforcement of the food cherry must go; the present olive oil must go; law; in the creation of District Attorneys to the present evaporated cream must go, the aid in the enforcement of the law; in the present cider vinegar must go; the present creation of many new national officers, all to maple syrup must go; the present condiments aid in giving the people pure foods; in the and spices, jellies and sauces, jams and pre- enactment of new city ordinances and the serves, must go and the true products take overhauling of city food inspection and health their places, and all these new products must departments, resulting in the confiscation of be advertised under their true names, and the thousands of tons of impure food. This old products advertised true to label. All movement is not confined to any one district. kinds of new products must be introduced to It is as wide as the nation.
The national food law has brought a tremendous publicity to this question from one end of the country to the other. Women are cross-questioning their grocers; they are in quiring as to what products they buy; they want to know the name of the manufacturer of a food product; they want to know his standing; they want to know the reputation of his foods; they are writing state food commissioners for their reports; they have learned to want pure foods.
A new standard has been created, and that standard is purity.
My common sense tells me that, where a manufacturer puts up a package of food prod. ucts under a certain name, and puts his name on the label and spends thousands of dollars in advertising that brand and that good name, he is not fool enough to put into that package a lie that will stamp it as a fraud. My maga zine, What to Eat, has always advocated a safe, substantial and permanent guide for the manufacturer in the manufacture of his prod. ucts. This the manufacturer is entitled to; this he ought to have. Under the broad policy outlined by the officials, who have charge of the making of rules and regulations for carry. ing out the law, the manufacturer is going to have a safe, substantial and permanent guide for the manufacture of his products, and all products that are manufactured by him before he receives that guide, will not be interfered with by the officials, unless these products are in clear violation of the plain reading of the law. Everything that has already been done by the officials clearly indicates that everything is being done and will be done to conserve the interests of the legitimate trade.
As to the fifth point, the national food law is going to create advertising, because of the necessity to reassure the public, which public has become very timid as to many classes of food products. The consumer has got his mind in a very unfortunate state. He rarely enjoys any meal he eats; he feels that, if he eats meat, he will contract ptomaine poison; he feels that, if he eats bread, he will have indigestion or some other stomach trouble; that, if he takes sugar into his system, he will have diabetes; that, if he drinks milk, he will get tuberculosis; that, if he drinks soup, he will get Bright's Disease; that vegetables will weaken his system; that, if he smokes, he will get paralysis or cancer of the tongue; that, if he drinks wine, he will have the gout; if he drinks whiskey, he will have the jimmies, and that tea and coffee will make him a nerv. ous wreck. The advertising campaign, present. ing all these products in an attractive manner, as clean, pure, and wholesome, will reassure the public and create a great demand for the products that are advertised.
As to the sixth point, the national food law
is going to create advertising because it is going to destroy the business in cheap, adul. terated, fraudulent brands that do not comply with the national food law. The legitimate, standard, staple products, that will take the place of the adulterated, fraudulent, private brands on the grocer's shelves, will be the products for which the greatest demand has been created by advertising Advertising will acquaint the consumer with the frauds. Advertising will tell the housewife what foods comply with the national law. Advertising will tell the housewife what foods it is safe for her to serve on her table. Advertising will make it necessary for the dealer in private brands to have those private brands equal to the legitimate, standard, staple products, or it will put him out of business. The only weapon of defense the private brand man will have will be advertising, and he will have to have his private brands comply with the national food law to use that defense. In the competition created by the new conditions, the manufacturers of food products, who gain the ascendancy in trade, will be the manufacturers who do the most effective advertising.
As to the seventh point, the national food law is going to create advertising because i is going to bring about a more satisfactory, pleasant, and profitable relation between the manufacturer and the jobber. The jobber will no longer push frauds. All the business the jobber has done in cheap, fraudulent brands, will be replaced by business in legitimate products that conform to the law, and the products that he sells the most of will be the ones for which the greatest demand is created by advertising.
Dr. Whalen spoke on "What the Health Department of Chicago Is Doing in the Interests of Pure Foods." He said that, when he assumed the office of Commissioner of Health, about sixteen months ago, the city had but four inspectors, while now it has fifteen food, four ice, and five restaurant inspectors.
"In 1892, which was the first year of the milk inspection, 10,722 samples of milk and cream were examined. Of the first 500 samples. collected from milk dealers, 373, or 75 per cent, were found dan to be below the requirements of the ordinance. At the same time samples taken at the railroad receiving platforms, on the arrival of trains, showed only 8 per cent below-proving conclusively that the adulteration was done chiefly
his speech, published in the Chicago Tribune of Dec. 15th :
by the city dealers, thus emphasizing the necessity for city inspection.
"Last year, 1905, a total of 25,727 samples were analyzed; 1,492, or 5.8 per cent, were found below grade. Improvement in quality of milk supply109 per cent, due to inspection.”
Dr. Whalen stated that, since the inauguration of milk inspection by the city in 1900, there has been a reduction of more than 60 per cent of child mortality.
Chicago consumes 1,100,000 quarts of milk per day. In 1905 more than 32,000 quarts were condemned and destroyed. In 1900 formalin, used as a preservative in milk, was found to the extent of 15.37 per cent in each 1,000 samples. In 1901 only 8.06 per cent, and the percentage has decreased each year, until in 1905 only 46 per cent was found in each 1,000 samples examined.
In addition to milk and ice inspection the department keeps four dairy inspectors on the road within 100 miles of Chicago, supervising sanitary conditions.
The inspection of meats, poultry, fisi!, fruits, vegetables, canned goods, etc., resulted in condemning and destroying unfit food to the aggregate value of $296,395.00 in 1905.
Many other items were covered in Dr. Whalen's able address, demonstrating that Chicago is looking after the health of her citizens in a thorough manner.
Dr. Bryan, in his address, said that the corps of inspectors of the Illinois Food Commission, was wholly inadequate to the work assigned to the six field men, and yet it has accomplished many reforms. The state appropriation for this important work should be ten times what it is.
The pure food law is declared by Dr. H. W. Wiley, chief of the bureau of chemistry, United States department of agriculture, to be the most unique law on the statute books, in that it gives a criminal a chance to reform before he is taken into court. Dr. Wiley was a guest at the banquet of the Atlas Club in the Auditorium Hotel last night. In his address he declared that Congressman James R. Mann of Chicago deserves more credit than any other person for the passage of the pure food bill.
"We don't know exactly how the law will be carried out,” said Dr. Wiley, "for the reason that we haven't got to that yet. But for nearly twenty years the department in Washington has been working to the end now in sight, and we are pretty sure of our ground. The law gives the secretary of agriculture greater power than ever before was delegated to a cabinet officer. It is wholly within his power to say when a man is violating it and when he is not. Although a criminal statute, it contains a provision which I believe can be found in no other and under it a manufacturer of an impure or fraudulently marked food product may reform and the matter will never reach even the grand jury room.
"I believe this is an excellent provision, because in my experience manufacturers do not wish to violate the law willfully, and the jobbers, who are equally liable, prefer to comply with its provisions. All want to get on the right side of the fence, and since this bill has become a law none of them has evinced any other disposition.
“Under the law the secretary may confe: with experts to learn what is and what is not impure or a violation of the statute, and dur. ing the last six months Secretary Wilson has consulted fully 1,000 such men. In fact, I just came from Louisville, where there were a dozen men in conference over a matter which might be deemed of small moment, but on the other hand might serve as a precedent if not properly handled."
At a recent meeting of the Atlas Club the following officers were elected for the ensuing year: President. J. R. Katherns; vice-president, A. J. Horlick; secretary, W. M. Shirley; treasurer, A. D. White. These, with the following named gentlemen, constitute the board of governors, J. A. Dickson, G. H. E. Hawkins and R. J. Gunning.
Dr. Wiley's Speech Dr. Harvey W. Wiley, the guest of honor, did not speak from notes. The following is from the brief account of
Thomas D. Harman
N HE December issue of Industry,
the official publication of the Merchants' and Manufacturers'
Association, Pittsburg, presents as a frontispiece an exceptionally good engraving of a portrait of Thomas D. Harman. president of the Pittsburg Board of Trade and treasurer and general manager of The National Stockman and Farmer.
While Mr. Harman is still on the sunny side of life (and will be until he is a hundred), he has made an enviable record in publishing and business circles.
He was one of the founders of The National Stockman and Farmer, and to his twenty-five years' work there in every department of the paper, can be attributed the remarkable success of that sterling publication.
Probably there has never been in the agricultural field a better circulation builder than Mr. Harman, especially in building circulation that "sticks” year after year.
In the conduct of this paper he has
managed always to establish a close and cordial relation between the reader and the publisher and editor—the most valuable asset a paper of his class can have.
As president of the Pittsburg Board of Trade, the largest commercial and civic body of the Smoky City, Mr. Harman has been conspicuous in laboring for the city's advancement—and this in a city where it is the usual thing for men to "do things."
No small portion of Mr. Harman's fame rests on his ability as an after dinner speaker, but he is one of the few fortunate men who can tell a good story without detracting from his standing as a level headed business man.
“Mr. Harman has frequently been spoken of for Congressional and Gubernatorial honors, but has steadfastly declined to allow his name to be used in this connection."
A good fellow, a gentleman, and square as they make them, is a fair estimate of Thomas D. Harman.