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wagons and trucks.

The invention and perfection of the locomotive and the electric street car have more than anything else during the past century, fur. thered the progress of industry and civilization, and who can say that the self-propelled vehicle will not during the century we have so lately entered, equally further the progress of the world?-Studebaker Automobile Co.

In speaking of the future of the automobile, W. G. Morley, secretary of the Aerocar Company and one of those who have been identified with the industry from its inception in America, states:-"To a very few the automobile may be a 'fad' today, but on the whole it is a practical machine of indispensable value to this aggressive generation.

"The future will see all parts of the automobile standardized; superfluous trimmings necessitating much extra labor elminiated; more simple constructions, and cars that will require but little more attention than the ordinary carriage. Styles will change but little, enabling manufacturers to safely build in larger quantities, greatly reducing the price.

"As to makers, 'The fittest will survive.' They will all build reliable machines and the public will cease to ask for a to do stunts,' but will buy for service. Smooth, hard roads will be constructed everywhere-farmers will market their crops with automobiles-rural mail and package deliveries will be made, and reckless speeding will seldom occur.

“The automobile sounded the death knell of the bicycle because those of wealth and influ. ence deserted the latter for the former. There was but small chance to own something exclusive in the bicycle while with the automobile there is at present a vast range from $400 upward. This one fact alone would insure its permanency. Yes, the automobile is here to stay and in the near future will play a still more important part in every life.-The Aero. car Co.

son accustomed to an automobile, and the radius of action it gives him, suddenly deprived of it.

There is nothing that humanity objects to so strongly as having its "wings clipped," or its field of action confined to a smaller one than it is accustomed to. Anything and everything that saves time, labor, and brings people and places closer together, and at the same time is economical as compared with other methods of reaching the same ends, is absolutely bound to thrive and continue. The automobile wil prove just as necessary to us in a very few years as the telephone, telegraph or the railroads are today; and next to the railroad, iron and steel business, and possibly shipbuilding, it will be the largest industry in the country.

These are, no doubt, very large ideas, but they will be vindicated within the next five years. We do not realize how rapidly the automobile is becoming a necessity, nor the wonderful possiblities which it has. It is the largest factor in the opening up of our western deserts today. The new gold fields in Nevada are dependent upon the automobile for their present celebrity as well as for their communication with the outside world. Prospectors are using them all over Utah, New Mexico and Arizona; and the uses they can be put to and the resultant good derived from them is as yet only dreamed of.

Everybody knows, in a general way, the amount of good the automobile did during the San Francisco disaster. The writer happened to have a conversation with General runston on this subject, the writer not having been in San Francisco at the time of the earthquake, and realized that he never fully appreciated before, although he had given the subject considerable thought, the vast amount of good that the automobile actually did. It literally saved tens of thousands of lives, for without it the fire-fighting, police, sanitary, military and relief organzations would have been impossible.

We are not able to tell you what was the first automobile advertised, but believe that it was a French machine made abroad.

Trusting the above will prove of some assistance to you in the article you are getting up, we are,-Mitchell Motor Car Co.

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The automobile is here to stay until some superior method of locomotion takes its place. The bicycle "fad” died, as far as the "fad" went, because it required a certain amount of exertion to participate in the pastime.

Imagine yourself residing out at Oak Park and your business requiring your attention every morning at 8 o'clock somewhere in the loop district; and then suppose that you were suddenly deprived of the elevated road and the steam car lines and obliged to resort to the surface cars to reach your place of business. It would be beyond you to put up with a state of affairs of this kind, and yet, your discomfort would be no greater than that of the per

The question has been frequently asked“Has the automobile come to stay?” This, however, is ancient history, for nowadays it is an accepted fact that the automobile is the vehicle of the future. (At least up to the time of the flying machine.)

The credit of building the first automobile made in America, must undoubtedly go to Mr. Elwood Haynes, of Kokomo, Indiana. The recent recognition by the U. S. Government in

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requesting that the original model of the Haynes car be placed on exhibition in the Smithsonian Institute at Washington, D. C., establishes this fact.

In the early history of the automobile it was thought to be merely a curiosity to be toyed with by inventors or mechanics and unfit for the general public. Later, owing to its high price, it was considered a fad for the rich, that would never go into practical service, nor be purchased by people of moderate means. Now, however, it is recognized as one of the most satisfactory and healthful means of enjoyment which has ever been given to the human race. Indeed, the automobile is now looked upon by conservative people in much the same light as a luxurious home. The home serving as a basis and means of indoor family enjoyment, and the automobile as means of outdoor family pleasure.

It is cer tainly just as sensible and legitimate to invest money in the automobile as in the luxuries of home beyond the real needs of the family, since both are purchased for the enjoyment of the family, and while the home has the ad. ditional quality of being a necessity, both are to a degree a means of luxury and enjoyment.

Many people have compared the automobile to the bicycle, but the man who thinks at all, or who has had the experience to judge of the two, will readily appreciate that the comparison is not well made. While one is an exercise, the other is used the same as the family horse, only its capabilities are many times greater, and with intelligent handling very much less expensive, to secure the same results.

To the writer's mind, the automobile is only at the beginning. Automobiles of the present date have about assumed a standard in so far as the general design is concerned. This will give the manufacturer an opportunity to devote his attention to the commercial end of the business. The reader can easily appreciate the vast possibilities in this field that the automobile has to cover.

As to the automobile that was first advertised, the "Haynes" Company are entitled to this honor, as they not only placed an advertisement in the first issue of Horseless Age of 1896, but had printed and brought out the first regular automobile catalogue issued in the U. S. in the same year.--The Haynes Automobile Co., Kokomo, Ind.

demand, for we believe the very spirit of the times calls for speed and vitality, but in the early days the average man drove at the highest speed his car was capable of, in season and out of season, alike on country roads and crowded city streets.

In the form of commercial vehicles for the delivering of goods in the city, we believe the automobile will almost totally displace the horse within the next five years. It occupies less space--a factor that is becoming of greater importance every day in our congested cities-it is more cleanly, infinitely more sanitary and more economical in the sense that one truck will perform the work of three teams with their several drivers.

Mr. Henry Ford was a farmer before he was an automobile builder, and he still works the farm on which he was born, forty-one years ago.

Unlike other men who have made a financial success, farming is not a fad or a pastime with Mr. Ford. He takes quite as much interest in it as he does in his automobile business and it is his boast that the Ford farm, augmented during the last few years by leasing adjoining properties, is not only self sustain. ing but pays handsome dividends.

Not one dollar has ever gone from the automobile business to the farm, but on the contrary the farm supported Mr. Ford during the years when he was conducting expensive experimental work preparatory to building his first practical automobile.

Based the experience indicated above, Mr. Ford asserts that the automobile in the form of a motor tractor will, in the near future, cut a greater figure in farm workplowing, seeding, cultivating, reaping, threshing and finally marketing the produce-than it does today as a pleasure vehicle in the cities.

The only thing that remains to bring to a realization this prophecy, is a broader inter: pretation of the free alcohol bill on the part of those into whose hands the regulation of denaturing alcohol rests.

It is within the power of any farmer today to make his own alcohol at a cost of six to eight cents per gallon but the regulations for denaturing it are so stringent and bound round with red tape that it brings the cost up to thirty-five or forty cents a gallona prohibitive figure.

It is Mr. Ford's earnest hope that a more rational interpretation of the bill will be made in the near future, and from that moment he believes will date the emancipation of the farmer from much of the drudgery which is now associated with his life, and the automo. bile, in forms best suited to the use of the ruralite, will become quite as familiar a figure on country roads as jaded dobbin is today. Ford Motor Co.

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"Is automobiling merely a fad or has the automobile come to stay?". It would seem as if this question had long since been thrashed out on the roads and that it no longer calls for an answer. Perhaps some of the various phases of automobiling will prove to be fads, and we think the high speed craze has already about run its course. This is not to say that high speed automobiles will no longer be in

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The future of the automobile is beyond our present conception. When the writer took up this subject and designed a gasoline automobile in 1891, he did not foresee that the people able to afford horses would autos from preference, but believed the auto would be confined to that class of buyers, who, unable to afford a stable, might buy the auto on installments if nee be, provided the price was not above $400 or $500. Experience with the vehicle showed so clearly its superiority that an entirely different view of the market was reached and I have since been building vehicles to sell for $1,000 or more and to go to people who use it, not because they can better afford it than horses, but because it gives superior service. Of its many superiorities little need be said here. It is faster, safer, more certainly handled, always ready and if of proper design, cheaper to maintain than horses. The auto of the future has not yet been built, but the future will see autos used in a quantity far beyond present horse vehicles. A prominent manufacturer, successful and conservative, recently stated that 100,000 rigs per year of the light runabout type will be needed to supply the market.

I consider this far below what we will see inside of another ten years.

The future auto will be greatly simplified, greatly lightened, largely reduced in size and considerably cheaper. All these things are not only possible, but certain, and the result will be universal use.

The rich man's luxury will be the poor man's friend. The Duryea was the first auto adver. tised regularly in this country. We began exploiting these in the Fall of '95, distributed our printed matter at the Times-Herald contest and took space in newly established automobile papers like the Horseless Age at that time. Duryea vehicles have been on the market longer than any other make, and except. ing sporadic experiments were the first American vehicles.-Duryea Power Co., Reading, Pa.

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to the real possibilities of motor propelled vehicles.

Such rapid progress was made that the prod. uct of the first few years showed radical de. partures from previous years' practices. However, the output of the standard makers has shown but slight changes from the previous year's patterns for the last two or three years, and these changes have been in the nature of slight modifications and not radical departures from former practices.

This is accounted for by the fact that experience has proven certain forms of construction to be most suitable while other practices are not so well adapted to meet necessary requirements.

Practically all of the leading engineers in Europe and America have agreed upon certain fundamental principles as right and best suited to meet necessary requirements (4 cylinder, vertical motors located in front, sliding gear transmission, three speeds forward and verse, and for the most part shaft drive).

The European makers with their experience antedating that of the Americans a great many years, were probably the first to work out the type of car which predominates today, but the American, building on this experience, has reconstructed and simplified the foreign ideas to best meet our less favorable road conditions, and to produce a motor car which does not require an expert to take care of and operate. These results, which have been so successful, have put the industry on a stable and sound basis.

It may be charged that the automobile was at first taken up as a fad and luxury, being of use for pleasure only, but a list of the automobile owners in the various localities, and the everyday use to which the automobile is put, bears overwhelming evidence that the merits of the motor car are recognized and that the more conservative element have been convinced of its real worth and practicability.

The major expense in connection with a well built motor car is the tire expense, and with amply large tires it ought to be possible to get approximately 5,000 miles service from one set of tires. Small and medium sized motor cars, about 25 to 30 H. P., should average 12 to 25 miles consuming a gallon of gasoline and a quart of lubricating oil should be sufficient to cover 125 to 200 miles. Accidents omitted, standard

constructed on approved lines, with designing which provides liberal bearings and well distributed strength of parts, should be subjected to but nominal expense charges in the way of repairs.

To draw an intelligent comparison with the horse, original outlay, cost of operating, and miles recorded must be considered, and it is

If the automobile has come to stay, it is because, considered in competition with other means of transportation, it possesses merits which will bear favorable comparison, first cost, maintenance and depreciation to be considered in connection with results obtained.

The automobile industry and its stability is at times misjudged. The automobile business in America first began to assume form about five years ago, and like all other new industries, it was necessary to possess experi. ence, facilities, and knowledge of essential requirements before progress could commence. Consequently, the product during the early period of development probably failed to fully meet expectations, producing in some quarters an unfavorable and erroneous opinion as

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only fair to consider as well the time consumed in covering a given number of miles.

It ought to be possible to cover 25 to 30 miles a day, at an expense for fuel and oil of $12 to $20 per month, which means 750 to 900 miles per month, or 9,000 to 11,000 per year for twelve times the cost of one month. Add repairs, which should prove a nominal cost per mile, and tire cost, and compare the total cost with the mileage cov. ered, with the total cost and mileage covered of a pair of horses, and the result will indicate the automobile's future.- Premier Motor Mfg. Co., Indianapolis, Ind.

The future of the automobile is assured, although we believe that it will eventually come down on a more solid basis and instead of cars being purchased so largely for pleas. ure and the mere satisfying of desires, the automobile will be purchased more as a real necessity. At present the business is done largely on a basis of personal prejudice, but eventually it will be the “survival of the fittest."

The commercial vehicle will eventually be one of the mainstays of the business, but this branch is at present only in its infancy.

Advancement of the automobile has been marked by liberality in the matter of advertising and we might say by extravagance. In some respects it has very much the earmarks of the bicycle boom.

However, in our opinion, the automobile business will eventually become a solid and substantial business which will be marked by the conservatism that is noticeable in other lines of old established trade.--Nordyke & Marmon Co., Indianapolis, Ind.

find was the Hertel Motor Cycle, as nearly all of the automobiles were called in those days. This

a vehicle that was at that time built in Chicago, but the industry was later moved to Greenfield, Mass., he and a man named Oakman joined forces. With this Hertel they manufactured and placed upon the market a goodly number of cars, after a time went into

bankruptcy. The Winton, also the Haynes-Aperson appear in 1897.

As for our contributing anything toward the symposium, hardly know whether we can, that would be of any interest to your readers.

As was stated to you previously in this communication, we are among the first of the automobile manufacturers. We built the first plant in the United States for the express pur. pose of manufacturing the automobile, which was 1896. One year later we had, and in operation upon the streets, a double opposed gasoline motor placed into the first horseless carriage. We have watched the rapid growth of the industry, the interest that the owners and prospective owners have taken in the cars. There is not a question of doubt as to whether the automobile is a permanent fixture or not. It has gotten that

wonder how ever got along without them. Each year the cars grow more simple and each year people buy more cars than they did the previous year.

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We have upon our books a customer who has purchased three cars and in all owns 19 cars. We also have another customer, there being three in the family who own and drive our cars, who also

Own and control nine others. We could go on like this for some

time. We have a physician who has discontinued the use of horses and has not owned one for three years, having used his automobile wholly since that time, and we suppose that we might mention others the same, although they are not in our mind at the present writing. Many business men who run touring cars, own runabouts to drive to their business and back, showing the sity of the car in that respect.

The com: mercial vehicle is bound to come, as the congestion of the city streets is becoming so great that there has got to be an outlet some way.

This is the only apparent avenue.Grout Brothers Automobile Company, Orange, Mass.

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You asked us if we could furnish you with the name of the first automobile that

was advertised, when and where. As we are one of the oldest manufacturing concerns in thc United States, we believe that we have the first automobile literature published in America. It was called the Motor Cycle Automobile, was published by L. B. McGrath, the editor was Edward E. Gaugh. Their address Monadnock Blk., Chicago. We think we have every copy that they published, which commenced in December, 1896, and finished in October of 1897. The first American car to be advertised we

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Has for three quarters of a century been recognized

as the leading agricultural authority by the world

and the ONLY agricultural NEWSpaper. It circulates largely among the very best class of

rural and suburbar, residents and the wealthy

city owners of fine country places. It goes, not only to the best farmers, breeders and

horticulturists everywhere, but to hundreds of people who really do not care much what any

thing costs, if they think they want it. Not every man who lives on a farm is a good cus

tomer; thc Country Gentleman reaches the very cream.

And as to extent of circulation, it need only be noted

that the Country Gentleman publishes (at full rates) more “Want Ads” than all other agricultural weeklies put together. Do you suppose that would be the case, if any other such paper

really sold a larger number of copies per week? Advertising terms, one insertion, forty cents per line,

$5.60 per inch, with fast increasing discount for

continuance. Please send for samples to the publishers.

LUTHER TUCKER & SON, ALBANY, N. Y.

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