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A, the first letter in the English alphabet, as &c. The sound of a in fall is now met with nouns of the singular number, and also well as in the other alphabets derived from in a large number of English words, especi before plural nouns when few or great many the Greek and Latin and ultimately from ally before l; it forms an intermediate step is interposed. In such phrases as a hundred the Phænician. As an alphabetical charac in pronunciation between the ah-sound in a year, a pound a head, it more clearly reter it represents in English written and father and the o in home. The same sound tains its power as a numeral, and is practiprinted words a number of different vowel is also represented by the combinations au, cally equal to the distributive pronoun each. sounds, of which several at least would, in aw, as in vault, claw, which are only diph See further under An. a more perfect alphabet, be represented by thongs in appearance. There is also a short A, as a prefix, or initial and generally inseparseparate characters. Its principal sounds sound corresponding to this, namely, that able particle, is a relic of both Teutonic and are those heard (1) in far, father; (2) man, heard in what, want, quality. Intermediate Classical particles. 1. As a Teutonic prefix cat; (3) fall, walk; (4) mate, pare. Of these between the ah-sound and the e-sound comes it is of very heterogeneous origin, and in parsounds the first (which we may call the ah the sound of a in man, now one of those ticular cases there is often difficulty in desound) is the oldest and the one that may most commonly represented by this charac termining with certainty to what older parbe said to belong most legitimately to the ter. It is a comparatively modern and pecu ticle or particles it must be referred. It character, being the one also which, ap liarly English modification of the ah-sound, often represents prepositions, especially on, proximately at least, attaches to it in most difficult for foreigners to acquire. In Anglo A. Sax. on, an, as in aback (A. Sax. onbæc, other languages. This is one of those that Saxon this sound, or a sound very similar, and also gebæc), amidst (A. Sax. on middan). are considered to be the three primary and was represented by c, as in glæd=E. glad; asleep ("fell on sleep, Acts xiii. 36), afoot original vowel sounds of the Indo-European bec, E. back. The same character was also (also on foot), aboard (also on board), aloft languages, the others being i and u, pro frequently used to represent our short (on loft in Chaucer), alive (on live in Chaucer), nounced as in chagrin and rule. It is, per e-sound, as in A. Sax. lædde= E. led; A. Sax. asunder (A. Sax. onsundran), &c. This is haps, the simplest and easiest of all the læssa = E. less. It seems often to have repre also the separable prefix a- that is prefixed vowel sounds, being formed by & simple sented a local and especially a southern to verbal nouns, as in a-hunting, a-fishopening of the mouth and utterance of modification of the fuller ah-sound, thus ing. It is doubtful, however, whether the voice, accompanied by a gentle depression father, one of the few words in which the a- in all these words directly represents of the back part of the tongue. It more old ah-sound is still pronounced, was in the the A. Sax. on; it seems rather to represent distinctly vocal than either i or u, these Anglo-Saxon of the south written foder, in the Icel. d, on, upon, which is of course latter having a close affinity with and ten the north fadur, fader. This character etymologically the same word (comp. Icel. dency to merge into the consonantal sounds was hardly used after the beginning of the & baki, aback, á lopti, aloft, á lífi, alive, of y and w, while its vocal character is thirteenth century, being replaced as a rule &c.). Another preposition represented by always unmistakable. It is also regarded either by a with the ah-sound or by e. The it is of (A. Sax. of, af), as in a down (A. Sax. as a stronger and more primitive sound than Q-sound (a in man) thus to some extent of dune), off the down or height, downi and u, which, when we trace the history gave place to the ah-sound, though in wards. In a-days (in now-a-days) and in of words, have in a great many instances modern times it has more than regained a-nights it represents an of with a somebeen found to arise from a weakening of an its footing. There was also a long or ac what different meaning. In afore it reoriginal ah-sound, while a change in the cented æ; it has now commonly become ee, presents at (A. Sax. ætfore) Prefixed to opposite direction is very rare. The other or the same sound. Another very common verbs it represents the A. Sax. particle a, two vowels, e and o, it may be remarked sound of a is what is often called the long or which was often prefixed with an intensive are still later in character than i and u: name sound of the letter, that which it has force, as in arise, awake, arouse, but in many the former comes midway between a and i if namely when before a final consonant with cases it is difficult to discern any distinction we change the position of the vocal organs e mute, as in mare, bare, mate, pale. Here in meaning between the compound and the gradually from that necessary for the ah. the final e serves merely to mark the modi. simple word. The particle ge was simisound to that necessary for i, and in like fication of the sound of the a, which thus larly used, and in abide, abear, the a may manner o comes midway between a and u. resembles in character as in sound the Ger represent either. The initial syllable in Many English words exemplify the change man a modified (å or ä). Strictly speaking aright, aware, &c., appears to be of the of an original ah-sound to some other vowel the a of mare, bare, differs from that of same doubtful origin. In ago, aby, the a sound, as for instance, is, do, mother, brother, mate, pale, the former being a pure vowel, represents the old A. Sax. particle à in kin, thin, &c., in all which the root-vowel while the latter, according to what is con another sense, namely, that of away, back. was originally a. The ah-sound (with which sidered the correct pronunciation, is not a In ashamed, afeared, it represents an old may be ranked the slightly different vocal true vowel, but diphthongal in character, intensive of. Eng. among represents the sound in fast, grant, &c.) now occurs in few a slight i being heard after the a or ra A. Sax. amang, onmang, ongemang, gemang; English words, in far fewer certainly than ther e sound. These are the chief varieties along represents andlang, endlong, gelang; in Anglo-Saxon and later, though to what of sound which this letter has to represent. and-here=Goth. anda, back, an- in answer. extent the sound formerly

prevailed is some Less important are the sounds heard in any, 2. As a classical or Romance prefix it rewhat dificult to decide. In Anglo-Saxon many, and the obscure sound heard in presents: (a) L. ad, to; as, ascend, from ad, the letter a represented at least two princi riband, and in the final a of America. and scando, to climb. () L. a or ab, from; pal sounds, a shorter and a longer(the latter Though a very common letter, a occurs as as, avert, from a, and verto, to turn. (c) L. often marked with an accent). The shorter a final only in the words flea, lea, pea, e or ex, out of; as, amend (Fr. amender, was no doubt similar in quality to the a of plea, sea, tea, yea, Formerly (in Anglo from L. emendare, compounded of e or ex, father, though shorter. Many words in Saxon) it was common enough in this posi and menda, a fault). (d) Gr. a, neg. or priv. which this sound occurred might be written tion. Nor is it ever doubled, in which as, amorphous, from a, not, and morphe, indifferently with o; thus monn as well as respect it resembles i and u. — This let shape; anonymous, from a, not, and onoma, mann, hond as well as hand, fram or from, ter often stands in abbreviations, as in a name. &c. The long or accented a (á, a) had no A.D., for anno domini (in the year of our A, in music, the name of the sixth note of the doubt the same sound as a in father, though Lord), A.B., A.M., artium baccalaureus, and model or natural diatonic scale of C; the perhaps it may have also had a sound simi. artium magister, bachelor and master of la of continental musicians. It is the first lar to our a in fall. This & often represents arts.

note in the relative minor scale. It is the an older diphthongal ai seen in Gothic; thus A, indefinite art., the form of an used before note sounded by the open second string of A. Sax. ham, home=Goth. haim, G. heim; consonants and words beginning with a con the violin, and to it as given by a fixed A. Sax. hay, 4 loatsGoth. Olaf. In mo: sonant sound; as, a man, a woman, a year,

toned instrument (say the oboe or organ) dern English it has most commonly passed a union, a eulogy, a oneness. This form all the instruments of the orchestra are into long o-comp. A. Sax. ham, E. home; first appears about the beginning of the tuned. A. Sax. Tar, E. lore; A. Sax, rad, E. road, thirteenth century. It is placed before A. 1. (With short sound.) An old (and also a Fáte, får, fat, fall;

mē, met, hér; pīne, pin; note, not, möve; tūbe, tub, byll; oil, pound; ü, Sc. abune; y, Sc. fey. ch, chain; ch, Sc. loch; 8, go; j, job; , Fr. ton; ng, sing; TH,.then; th, thin; w, wig: wh, whig; zh, azure.--See KEY.

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ABANDON modern vulgar) corruption for he, hare, I, 3. Away; aloof. (Scotch.) &c.; as,

and also in many modern schools for teachO would they stay aback frae courts, A babbled of green fields. Shak.

ing children the elementary operations of

An' please themsels wi' countra sports. Burns. I had not thought my body could a yielded.

arithmetic. It consists of an oblong frame, 4. Naut. pressed aft or against the mast by Beau. & FI. wind or otherwise : said of sails. - To brace

across which are 2. (With long sound.) Scotch or Northern aback, to swing (the yards) round so that the

stretched several English for all. sails may be aback.

wires, each sup. AL 1 A combination of characters applied Brace the foremost yards aback.

plied with ten to a vessel of the highest class in Lloyd's

Falconer.

balls. The balls register of shipping. Iron vessels are classed -Taken aback. (a) Naut. said of a vessel's

on the under wire Al with a numeral prefixed, as 100 A1, 90 A1 sails when caught suddenly by the wind in

represent units; (the numeral denoting that they are built

those on the next respectively according to certain specifica

above it, tens; and tions), and they retain their character so

Doric Capital.

So on to hun. long as on careful survey they are found in

A, The Abacus, dreds, thousands, a fit and efficient condition to carry dry and

&c. The balls at perishable cargoes to and from all parts of

the left end of the engraved abacus reprethe world. Wood and composite vessels are

sent the number 241,759; those at the right classed Al for a term of years (hence such

end are the spare ones.

Called also Abaexpressions as 12 AI, &c.), subject to survey.

cus Pythagoricus. Al in red denotes vessels that have already

3. In arch. (a) been classed Al in black, but are now

table consti. reduced to the second class. The letter A

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tuting the updenotes the first-class character of the hull

per member or for build and seaworthiness; the figure

crowning of 1 that the vessel is well found in rigging,

column and its gear, &c. When fittings and equipment are

capital. In the insufficient the 1 is omitted. There is now

Grecian Doric it

Brig laid aback. no A 2 class. -Æ in black marks the third

Ionic Capital.

has simply the class.—2. Used figuratively as an adjective, such a way that it presses them aft against

A, The Abacus.

form of a flat to denote excellence generally; first-class; the mast. Hence, (b) Fig. suddenly or un

square tile withas, an 41 speaker. (Colloq, or vulgar.] expectedly checked, confounded, or disap

out either chamfer or moulding, but generAam (am). n. [Written also Aum, Awm, pointed: said of a person; as, he was quite

ally it has a more ornamental character, the same word as D. aam, a liquid measure; taken aback when I told him his plot was

and in the richer orders it parts with its G. ahm and ohm, Icel. ama, all from L.L. found out.- Laid aback (naut.), said of sails

original form, the four sides or faces of it ama, a tub, a tierce, from L. hama, Gr. (or a vessel) when they are placed in the

being arched or cut inwards, and having at ame and hamē, a water-bucket, a pail.) A same position as when they are taken aback,

the middle of each a rose or other carved measure of liquids formerly or still to some in order to effect an immediate retreat, or

ornament. (6) Any rectangular slab or extent in use in Holland and various counto give the ship sternway, so as to avoid

piece, as a square marble or porcelain tablet tries of northern Europe, usually containing Abackt (ab'ak), n. some danger discovered before her.

let into a wall, a compartment in a mosaic about 30 gals. more or less.

[See ABACUS. ] An

floor, or the like.

Abacus harmonicus, in Aardvark (ärd'värk), n. [D. aarde, earth, abacus or something resembling one, as a

anc. music, a diagram of the notes with their and varken, a pig.] The ground-hog or flat, square stone, or a square compart

names. - Abacus Pythagoricus. See this earth-pig of South Africa. See ORYCTEROPUS. ment.

word, 2 Aardwolf (ärd'wulf), n. (D. aarde, earth, Abacot, Abocock (ab’a-kot, ab'o-kok), n.

Abaddon (ab-ad'dun), n. [Heb. abad, to be and wolf, a wolf.] The earth-wolf of South (As pointed out by Dr. J. A. H. Murray

lost or destroyed.] 1. The destroyer, or angel Africa See PROTELES. (Athenceum, Feb. 4, 1882), these forms as

of the bottomless pit. Rev. ix. 11-2. The Aaron (a'ron), n. A corruption of Arum, well as others, like abococked, abococket, are

bottomless pit; the depth of hell. Millon. sometimes used as the name of a British really spurious, being corruptions by mis

Abaft (a-bäft), adv. or prep. (Prefix a, on, at, plant, Arum maculatum. See ARUM. spelling and prefixing the article a to older

and bæftan, be-æftan, after, behind-prefix Aaronic, Aaronical (ā-ron’ik, ā-ron'ik-al), bycocket, from 0.Fr. bicoquet, biquoquet,

be, by, and æftan, aft, E. aft, behind. See a. (Heb. aaron, perhaps, says Gesenius, the dim. forms like Sp. bicoquin, bicoquete, all

AFT, AFTER.) Naut. in or at the back or same with háron, a mountaineer, from ha applied to some

hinder part of a ship, or the parts which lie ram, to be high.) Pertaining to Aaron, the kind of peaked

towards the stern: opposed to afore; relaJewish high-priest, or to the priesthood of or pointed cap

tively, denoting further aft, or towards the which he was the head. or hood, proba

stern; as, abaft the main mast.-Abaft the Aaronite (ā'ron-it), n. A descendant of bly with two

beam implies that the relative situation of Aaron, who served as a priest in the sancpoints, the ori.

the object spoken of is in some part of the

horizon contained between a line drawn at tuary or in the temple.

gin of first sylAaron's-beard (ā'ronz-bērd), n. A popular

Table being bi,

Abacot, from great seal right angles to the keel and the point to

of Henry VII. name for Hypericum calycinum, a dwarf L. bis, double.

which the ship's stern is directed. See AFT. evergreen shrub with trailing underground The latter part may be from Fr. coq, a cock.) Abaisance (a-bā'sans), n. (An altered form stems, commonly planted on banks and A kind of capanciently worn by men of rank.

of Obeisance, under the influence of Abase.) rockeries. See the following extract.

Same as Obeisance. Johnson.

Abaiser (a-bā'sėr), n. Aaron's-rod (a'ronz-rod), n. In arch. a rod It is, I think, evident that the abocock or bycocket

A name for ivory with one serpent twined round it: somewas the cap so frequently seen in illuminations of the

black or animal charcoal. Weale; Simmonds. times confounded with caduceus, the rod of

fifteenth century, turned up behind, coming to a peak Abaissé (a-bās-sā). [Fr.] In her. a term

in front, varying and gradually decreasing in height, applied to the fesse or any other bearing Mercury, which has two serpents.

encircled with a crown when worn by regal personAb. A prefix in words of Latin origin, de ages, and similar to if not identical with what is now

when it is depressed, or situated below the noting disjunction, separation, or depar

called the knight's chapeau.

Planché.

centre of the shield. ture, as abduct, abjure. Before c and t it Abactor (ab-ak'tėr), n. (L., from abigo,

Abaist, t pp. (See ABASA.] Abashed; discongenerally becomes abs, as abscond, abstain, abactum, to drive away-ab, from, away,

certed; amazed. Chaucer. before v and m, a, as avert, amentia.

Abalienate (ab-ālyen-āt), v.t. pret. & pp. It and ago, actum, to drive.) In law, one that is a Latin preposition, and etymologically feloniously drives away or steals a herd or

abalienated; ppr. abalienating. {L. abalthe same as the Skr, apa, Gr. apo, G. ab, numbers of cattle at once, in distinction

ieno, abalienatum, prep. ab, and alienus, Goth. Sw. and Dan. af, E. of, of from one who steals a single beast or two.

foreign. See ALIENATE, ALIENE.) 1. To

transfer the title of from one to another: Ab (ab), n. [Of Syriac origin.) The eleventh Abaculus (ab-ak'ü-lus), n. [L., dim. of month of the Jewish civil year, and the fifth abacus.) A small tile of glass, marble, or

to make over to another, as goods; a term of the ecclesiastical year, answering to a other substance, of various colours, used in

of the civil law. -2. + To estrange or wholly part of July and a part of August. In the making patterns in mosaic pavement

withdraw. Abalienate their minds.' Abp. Syriac calendar Ab is the last summer Abacus (ab'a-kus), n. (L. abacus, and abar, Abalienated + (ab-ālyen-át-ed), a.

Sandys.

In old month.

an abacus, a gaming-board, a sideboard, &c.; Abaca (ab'a-ka), n. The Philippine name of Gr. abax, a square tablet, a slab or board

med.: (a) decayed or deranged, as the senses.

(6) Benumbed or mortified. the plant Musa textilis, which yields the for reckoning on. Origin doubtful; derived Manilla-hemp from which ropes, mats, and by some from Phæn. abak, sand strewn on a

Abalienation (ab-älyen-a''shon), n. The act fine fabrics are prepared. surface for writing, because the ancients

of transferring or making over the title to Abaciscus (ab-a-sis'kus), n. [Dim. of abacus.] used tables covered with sand on which to

property to another; transfer; estrangement. In arch. (a) the square compartment of a make figures and diagrams; by others de

A ballata (a bal-lat'a). (It.) In music, in mosaic pavement or one of the tessera used rived from the names of the first letters of

the manner of a song or ballad. Also, the

chorus at the end of a verse. Wilson. in making such pavements. (b) A small the Greek alphabet. 1 1. A tray strewn with square tablet or bracket used for support. dust or sand anciently used for calculating. Abandt (a-band'), v.t. 1. To abandon (which

see). The kingdom to aband.' Spenser.ing a vase or other ornamental object. (c) An

2. To exile; to expel. abacus. (Rare.)

'Tis better far the enemies to stand Abacist (ab'a-sist), n. One who 11808 an

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Quite from thy borders. Mir. for Mags. abacus in casting accounts; a calculator.

Abandon (a-ban'dun), v. t. (Fr. abandonner, Aback (a-bak'), adu. (Prefix a, and back;

to forsake, to abandon, from prep. a, and A. Sax. onbæc, also gebac, at, on, or towards

O. Fr. bandon, O.E. bandown, bandoune, the back. See BACK.) 1 Towards the back

command, jurisdiction, from L L bandum, or rear; backward.

Abacus for Calculations.

bannum, edict. proclamation, from the They drew abacke, as halt with shame confound.

Teut. stem ban, seen in E. ban, banns of Spauser. 2 A contrivance for calculation, usod, with marriage. To abandon then is either to put 2. On or at the back; behind; from behind. some variations of structure, by the Greeks to proclamation, to denounce or proscribe, His gallic

being set upon both before and and Romans, at lenst in later timon, and still or to give into the bandon or power of abacke.

Korolles. used by the Chinese, who call it shwanpan, another. See BAN, BANNS, BANNER, BAS

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ABANDON

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ABATIS

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ISH.] 1. To detach or withdraw one's self donment of the action is equivalent to the SYN. To confuse, confound, disconcert, from: (a) to desert; to forsake utterly; as, English discontinuance, nolle prosequi, or shame, daunt, overawe.

The act of to abandon his home; to abandon duty. nonsuit, according to the stage the action Abashment (a-bash'ment), no (6) To give up and forsake, as desperate or has reached.

abashing, or state of being abashed; confulost; as, to abandon a hopeless enterprise Abandum (a-band'um), n. [See ABANDON.) sion from shame; consternation; fear. or a sinking ship. (c) To resign; forego; re In old law, anything forfeited or confiscated. Which manner of abashment became her not ill. nounce; to relinquish all concern in; as, to Abanet (ab'a-net), n. Same as Abnet.

Skelton.

That challenge did too peremptory seeme abandon the cares of empire. (d) To sur: Abanga (ab-ang'ga), n. The fruit of a species

And fild his senses with abaskment great. Spenser.
render; to give up to alien control; to yield of palm in the island of St. Thomas, West
up without restraint; as, he abandoned the Indies, said to have medicinal properties. Abassi, Abassis (a-bas'si, a-bas'sis), n. See

ABAS, 2.
city to the conqueror. -2. To outlaw; to Abannation, Abannition (ab-an-na'shon,
banish; to drive out or away.

ab-an-ni'shon), n. [L.L. abannitio, aban Abastardizet (a-bas'térd-īz), v.t. To bas-
Being all this time abandoned from your bed. Skak.
nitionis-L. @b, from, annus, a year, and

tardize; to render illegitimate or base. itio, a going away.) A banishment for one

Being ourselves
3. To reject or renounce.
or two years for manslaughter.

Corrupted and abastardised thus. Daniel Blessed shall ye be when men shall hate you and Abaptiston (a-bap-tis'tun), n. [L. L. abap, Abatable (a-băt'a-bl), a. Capable of being abandon your name as evil.

Luke vi. 22 (Rheims N, T.). tiston-Gr. a, priv., and baptizo, to dip.] abated; as, an abatable writ or nuisance. 4. In com. to relinquish to the underwriters In surg. a name given to the old trepan, the Abate (a-bát), v.t. pret. & pp. abated; ppr. all claim to, as ship or goods insured, as a crown of which was made conical to prevent abating. (Fr. abattre, to beat down, from preliminary towards recovering for a total it from penetrating the cranium too sud batere, a form of L. batuo, batuere, to beat. loss.--7o abandon one's self, to yield one's denly.

See BEAT, BATE. ) 1.7 To beat down; to self up without attempt at control or self- Abaret (a-bár), 0.t. [A. Sax. abarian. See pull or batter down. restraint; as, to abandon one's self to grief. BARE.) To make bare; to uncover.

The king of Scots, . . sore abated the walls (of -Forsake, Desert, Abandon. See under Abarticulation (ab-är-tik'ü-la''shon), n. [L. the castle of Norham).

Hall, FORSAKE. -SYN. To desert, forsake, resign, ab, from, and articulus, a joint.) In anat. 2. To deduct. forego,surrender,quit, relinquish,renounce, a term used sometimes as an equivalent to

Nine thousand parishes, abating the odd hundreds. leave. diarthrosis, or a movable articulation; some

Fuller. Abandon (a-ban'dun), 1. [In first meaning times to synarthrosis, or an immovable ar 3. To lessen; to diminish; to remit; to mo- • borrowed directly from the French in moticulation.

derate; as, to abate zeal; to abate a demand; dern times.] 1. Heartiness, the result of Abas (a-bas), no [Per. and Ar. Abbas, the to abate a tax; to abate pride; to abate enthusiasm, unchecked by calculation of ancestor of the Abasi Caliphs.] 1. A Persian courage.-4.To deject; to depress. risks or consequences; dash; the frank, un coin, worth about 10d., occasionally called

For misery doth bravest minds abate. Spenser. restrained demeanour of an impulsive tem Abbajeer.-2. An eastern weight for pearls

5. In law, (a) to cause to fail; to annul; to perament; as, the Inniskillings charged with equal to 2} grains troy, being one-eighth characteristic abandon; I was charmed with

frustrate by judicial sentence; as, to abate less than a carat. Written also Abassi,

& writ: by the English law, a legacy to a the abandon of her manners. (In this sense Abassis.

charity is abated by a deficiency of assets. the French pronunciation (ab-an-don) is fre- Abase (a-bās), v. t. pret. & pp. abased; ppr.

(6) To bring entirely down or put an end to; quently retained.] – 2.One who or that abasing. (Fr. abaisser, to make low-a, to,

as, to abate a nuisance.-6. To deprive; to
which is abandoned.
and baisser, to lower, from L.L. bassus, low.

curtail.
A friar, an abandon of the world. Sir E. Sandys.
See BASE.] 1. To lower or depress; to throw

She hath abated me of half my train. Shak. 3. The act of giving up or relinquishing;

or cast down: said of material objects.
abandonment.
[Rare.)

7. In metal. to reduce, as a metal, to a lower

His spear he 'gan abase. Spenser.
These heavy exactions have occasioned an aban.

temper
don of all mines but what are of the richer sort.

And will she yet abase her eyes on me. Shak. Abate (a-bát), v.i. 1. To decrease or become Lord Kames. 2. To cast down or reduce lower, as in rank,

less in strength or violence; as, pain abates; Abandoned (a-ban'dund), p. and a. 1. De

a storm abates.--2. To be defeated or come estimation, office, and the like; to depress; serted; utterly forsaken; left to destruction; to humble; to degrade.-Abase, Debase, De

to naught; to fail; as, a writ abates; by the as, an abandoned ship.--2. Given up, as to

civil law a legacy to a charity does not grade. Abase, to humble, to make of less vice, especially to the indulgence of vicious esteem, to bring lower in state, or cause one

abate by deficiency of assets. appetites or passions; shamelessly and reck

to feel lower; debase, to lower morally or It was still open to dispute whether it might not lessly wicked; profligate.

abate by dissolution.

Hallam. in quality, to make unworthy or less worthy Where our abandoned youth she sees,

of esteem, to mingle more or less of base 3. In law, to enter into a freehold after the Shipwrecked in luxury and lost in ease. Prior.

ness with; degrade, lit. to bring down a death of the last occupant, and before the --Profligate, Reprobate, Abandoned. Pro

step, to lower one's rank: often used as an heir or devisee takes possession.--4. In the Migate is applied to one who throws away Official term, but also used of lowering a manege, to perform well a downward momeans and character in pursuit of vice, man morally; as, intemperance degrades its tion. A horse is said to abate, or take and conveys the idea of depravity mani victims; a degrading employment.

down his curvets, when, working upon fested outwardly in conduct; reprobate is Those that walk in pride he is able to abast. curvets, he puts both his hind legs to the ised with regard to one who has become

Dan. iv. 37. ground at once, and observes the same insensible to reproof, who steels himself It is a kind of taking of God's name in vain to exactness in all the times.- SYN. To subagainst what is good, and even glories in

debase religion with such frivolous disputes.

Hooker.

side, decrease, intermit, decline, diminishi, his wickedness; abandoned is applied to one O miserable man! to what fall degradad. Milton.

lessen. who has recklessly cast himself loose from

Abatet (a-bāt'), n. Abatement or decrease. all moral restraint, and given himself up to SYN. To depress, humble, humiliate, de.

Sir T. Browne. the gratification of his vicious appetites.

grade, bring low, debase.

In
Abased, Abaissed (a-bāst), p. and a.

Abate (a-bä'tā), n. [It.) An abbot or abbé.
Next age will see

An old abate neck and mild,
A race more profligate than we, Roscommon.
her. turned downwards, as the points of the

My friend and teacher when a child. Longfellow.
And even as they did not like to retain God in their

wings of eagles. Also, same as Abaissé.
Abasement (a-bās'ment), p. The act of

Abatement (a-bat'ment), n.
knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate rnind.

1. The act of Rom. i. 28. abasing, humbling, or bringing low; a state

abating, or the state of being abated; dimi. To be negligent of what any one thinks of you, of depression, degradation, or humiliation.

nution, decrease, reduction, or mitigation; does not only show you arrogant but abandoned. Abash (a-bash'), v.t. (Formerly written

as, abatement of grief or pain. - 2. The 7. Hughes. SYN. Forsaken, deserted, destitute, forlorn, abaish, abaysch, &c., from O.Fr. esbahir, to

amount, quantity, or sum by which anything profligate, corrupt, vicious, depraved, reproastound, abash, ppr. esbahissant, from bair,

is abated; that by which anything is rebate, wicked, heinous, criminal, vile, odious, baer, to gape; Mod. Fr. s'ébahir, to be aston

duced; deduction; decrease.-3. In her. a

mark annexed to coat armour in order to detestable.

ished; probably from bah! exclamation of Abandonee (a-ban'dun-é', n.

denote some dishonourable act of the party In law, one

astonishment. French verbs in ir, which
to whom anything is abandoned.
form the ppr. in issant, take ish in becoming

bearing the coat of arms. Nine such marks Abandoner (a-ban'dun-ér), n.

are mentioned by heralds, but no instance English, as abolish, from abolir; ravish,

One who
abandons
from ravir; polish, from polir; &c. The

of their actual use is on record. The baston
Abandonment (a-ban'dun-ment), n. 1. The
verb abase would no doubt have some effect

or baton, a mark of illegitimacy, is of the act of abandoning or state of being abanon the form of this word. The D. bazen,

nature of an abatement. doned; absolute relinquishment; total de

verbazent, to astonish, if connected, with Throwing down the stars (the nobles and senators) sertion. -2. In marine insurance, the relinabash, would point to a different origin.

to the ground; putting dishopourable abatements into the fairest coats of arms.

Dr. Spencer. quishing to underwriters of all the property

Comp. abeyance, bash, bashful, bay.) To
saved from loss by shipwreck, capture, or
confuse or confound, as by exciting sud-

4. In law, (a) removal, as of a nuisance.
other peril stated in the policy, in order
denly a consciousness of guilt, error, in-

(6) Defeat or overthrow, as of a writ. (c) The that the insured may be entitled to indemferiority, &c.; to destroy the self-posses

act of intruding upon a freehold vacant by nification for a total loss.-3. In the cussion of; to make ashamed or dispirited ; to

the death of its former owner, and not yet toms, the giviog up of an article by the imput to confusion. — Abash, Confuse, Con

taken up by the lawful heirs. -- Plea of porter to avoid payment of the duty.--4. In found. Abash is a stronger word than con

abatement, a defence by which a defendant law, (a) the relinquishment to a claim or fuse, but not so strong as confound. We are

shows cause to the court why he should not privilege. (6) The voluntary leaving of a abashed in the presence of superiors or when

be impleaded or sued, or, if impleaded or person to whom one is bound by any partidetected in vice or misconduct. When we

sued, not in the manner and form adopted cular relationship, as a wife, husband, or are confused the faculties get more or less

by the plaintiff, and prays that the action chllá; desertion. - Abandonment of railbeyond our control, the speech falters, and

or suit may abate or cease.-SYN. Decrease, rodys, the giving up any scheme for making the thoughts lose their coherence. When we

decline, mitigation, reduction, subsidence,
a railway and the dissolution of the com-
are confounded the reason is overpowered,

diminution, discount, deduction.
pany, by consent of three-fifths of the stock,
a condition produced by the force of argu-

Abater (a-bāt'ér), n. One who or that which and warrant of the Board of Trade.-- Aban

abates.
ment, testimony, or detection,
donment of an action, in Scots law, the
Abashed the devil stood and felt how awful goodness

Abatial (ab-ā'shi-al), a. Same as Abbatical. act by which the pursuer abandons the

is.

Abatist (ab'a-tis), n. [L.L.-a, from, and cause. If this is done the pursuer must pay

batus, a measure) In the middle ages, an costs, but may bring a new action. Satan stood awhile as mute, confounded what to say,

Confused and sadly she at length replies. Pope.

officer of the stables who had the care of Aban.

Milion. measuring out the provender; an avenor.

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ABATIS

ABDALAVI

Book.

a part of it,

Abatis. See ABATTIS.

themselves as men of letters. The name is Abbreviate (ab-bré'vi-át), v.i. To practise Abat-jour (a-ba-jör), n. [Fr., from abattre also applied to persons holding a similar or use abbreviation. (see ABATE), and jour, day, light.) A sky semi-clerical position in other Roman Ca It is one thing to abbreviate by contracting, light or sloping aperture made in the tholic countries. - Abbés commendataires another by cutting off.

Bacon, wall of an apartment for the admission of were such abbés as held abbeys in commen Abbreviate (ab-brē' vi-āt), n. An abridg. light.

dam—that is, with the right of administerAbator (a-bāt'ér), n. One who or that which

ment.-Abbreviate of adjudication, in Scots ing their revenues or a part of them. See abates; specifically, in law, (a) a person who

law, an abstract of adjudication. See ABBOT.

ADJUDICATION. without right enters into a freehold on the Abbess (abbes), 1. (Fr. abbesse, L.L. abbadeath of the last possessor, before the heir tissa, fem. of abbot (which see).) A female

Abbreviate (ab-brē'vi-át), a. In bot. abbre

viated: applied to an organ or part of an or devisee. (b) An agent or cause by which superior or governess of a nunnery or conan abatement is procured. vent of nuns.

organ shorter than a contiguous one.

An abbess in the Roman Abattis, Abatis (ab-a-tē or ab'a-tis), n.

Abbreviation (ab-brē'vi-ā"shon), n. 1. The Catholic Church possesses, in general, the [Fr. abatis, abattis, from abattre, to beat

act of abbreviating, shortening, or con. same dignity and authority as an abbot, down. See ABATE.) In fort. a collection of except that she cannot exercise the spiritual

tracting, or the state of being abbreviated.

2. That which is abbreviated, as a short term felled trees, from which the smaller functions appertaining to the priesthood. branches have been cut off, and which are

or title used for a longer one; a syllable, See ABBOT. laid side by side, with the branched ends Abbey. (ab'bē), n. (Fr. abbaye, from L.L.

generally the initial syllable, used for the turned towards assailants, and the branches abbatia, an abbey. See ABBĚ.) 1. A mon

whole word; a letter, or a series of letters,

standing for a word or words; as, esq. for often sharpened and interlaced, the butt astery or convent; a society of persons of esquire; F.R.S. for Fellow of the Royal ends being secured by pickets, or imbedded either sex, secluded from the world, and

Society; A.D. for Anno Domini. in the earth, the whole thus forming an devoted to religion and celibacy. The males obstruction to the progress of the enemy, are called monks, and governed by an abbot;

This book, as graver authors say, was called the females are called nuns, and governed

Liber Domus Dei, and, by abbreviation, Domesday and keeping them longer under the de

Sir W. Temple. fenders' fire. An abattis is usually placed by an abbess. Abbeys differ in nothing from 3. In math. a reduction of fractions to the in front of the ditch in field fortifications. priories, except that the latter are governed lowest terms.-4. In music, a sloping line or See FORTIFICATION. by priors instead of abbots.-2. In Scotland,

lines placed below a Abattised (ab'a-tist), a. Provided with an the sanctuary afforded by the abbey of Holy

Written. Played.

note or through its abattis. rood Palace, as having been a royal resi.

stem to indicate that Abattoir (a-bat-war), n. (Fr., from abattre, dence.-3. A house adjoining a monastery

it is to be divided to beat or knock down. See ABATE.) A or convent for the residence of the superior.

into a correspondpublic slaughter-house.

4. A church attached to a monastery or conAbatude (ab'a-tūd), n. [From abate.] Any. vent; as, Melrose Abbey. – 5. In the early

ing number of short notes. Thus, a minim thing diminished. Bailey. times of the French monarchy, a name

carrying one line is played as four quavers,

or carrying two lines as eight quavers. Abature (ab'a-tūr), n. (From abate.) The given to a duchy or county, the duke or

The same line-mark, standing alone, inmark or track of a beast of the chase on count of which was, though really a secular dicates a repetition of the preceding group the grass ; foiling. person, made an abbot in commendam, in

of potes. — Abbreviation, Contraction. An Abat-vent (ab-ä-van), n. {Fr., from abattre, consequence of an abbey having been con abbreviation of a word, as distinguished to lower, and vent, the wind.] The sloping ferred on him by the crown. See ABBOT. - from contraction, is strictly roof of a tower; a pent-house: so named 6. A mansion, formerly used as an abbey,

generally the first syllable, taken for the because the slope neutralizes the force of now converted to private use; as, Newstead

whole, with no indication of the remainthe wind.

Abbey, the residence of Lord Byron. Abat-voix (ab-ä-vwa), n. (Fr., from abbatre, Abbey-land (ab'bē-land), n.

ing portion; as, Gen. for Genesis; math. for An estate in

mathematics; Will. for William; while a to lower, and voix, the voice.] The sound land annexed to an abbey.

contraction properly is made by the elisiou ing-board over a pulpit or rostrum: so named Abbey-lubber (ab'bē-lub'er), n. (Abbey

of certain letters or syllables from the body because it prevents the speaker's voice from and lubber.] An old term of contempt for of the word, but in such a manner as to indirising and being lost or indistinct.

an idle, well-fed, lazy loiterer, who might cate the whole word; as, Recd. payt. for Abawe, t v.t. (. Fr. esbahir, to abash. See work, but would not, preferring to depend Received payment; contd. for contracted or ABASH.] To abash; to dazzle; to astonish. on the charity of religious houses: frequently continued; Wm. for William. In common I was abawed for masveile. Chaucer,

applied to the monks themselves in con usage, however, this distinction is not always

tempt. "This is no huge, over-grown, abbey attended to. Abb (ab), n. [A. Sax. ab or ob, the woof.) lubber. Dryden. 1. Yarn for the warp in weaving.–2. The

Abbreviator (ab-brē'vi-ā-tér), n. [In first Abbot (ab'but), 11. [Formerly abbat, sense from the verb; in second from L.L. name given in sorting wool according to its

L.L. abbas, abbatis. See ABBA.] 1. Lit. abbreviator, one of the officials mentioned fineness to two qualities of wool, called re father; a title originally given to any aged under 2.] 1. One who abbreviates, abridges, spectively coarse abb and fine abb. monk, but afterwards limited to the head or reduces to a smaller

compass; specifically, Abba (ab'ba), n. [Syr, and Chal. abba, faor superior of a monastery, which from him

one who abridges what has been written by ther. The root is in the Heb. ab, a father,

was called an abbey. As the influence of another. which appears in Abraham.) A title (equi

'Neither the archbishop nor his the religious orders became greater from valent to Father') now or formerly applied,

abbreviator.' Sir W. Hamilton.-2. One of a their being the depositaries of learning, and especially in the Eastern church, to monks, as their wealth and territorial possessions

college of seventy-two persons in the chansuperiors of monks, and other ecclesiastics.

cery of the Roman Catholic pontiff, whose increased, the power and dignity of the business is to draw up the pope's briefs, and In the Syriac, Coptic, and Ethiopic Churches

abbots were aggrandized proportionally. it is given to the bishops, who in turn be

reduce the petitions, when granted, to a Many of them asserted independence of the suitable form for bulls. stow it, by way of distinction, on the bishop bishops, assumed the mitre and crozier, Abbreviatory (ab-brë'vi-a-to-ri), a. Abbre. or patriarch of Alexandria.

exercised the episcopal functions in their Abbacinate (ab-ba'sin-át), v.t. [It. abbacin

viating or tending to abbreviate; shortening; own domains, became peers of the realm, contracting. are, to abbacinate-ad, to, and bacino, a and rivalled the prelates in rank and pomp? | Abbreviaturet (ab-brē'vi-a - tūr), ?. 1. A basin.) To deprive of sight by applying a In the reign of Henry VIII. twenty-six letter or character used for shortening; au red-hot copper basin close to the eyes : a

mitred abbots sat in the House of Lords. abbreviation. mode of punishment employed in the middle Abbots are of two kinds, regular, or those

The hand of Providence writes often by abbreages.

who actually discharge the duties of the Abbacination (ab-ba'sin-ā"shon), The

viatures, hieroglyphics, or short characters. office, and commendatory. The latter title

Sir T. Browne, act or process of blinding a person by was formerly given to persons to whom

2. An abridgment; a compendium. placing a red-hot copper basin close to the

abbeys were intrusted as tutors or trustees, This is an excellent abbreviature of the whole eyes. or in commendam, and who applied the duty of a Christian.

ger. Taylor. Abbacy (ab'ba-si), n. (L. L. abbatia, an abbey, whole or part of the revenues to their own Abbroach, + Abbrocht (ab - broch'), v.i

; from 1. abbas, abbatis, an abbot. See AB

uses. Great secular lords frequently received BOT.) The dignity, rights, and privileges of

[L.L. abrocamentum, buying wholesale and this appointment. Thus Hugo Capet, the selling by retail, from same root as E. broke, an abbot.

founder of the Capetian dynasty, was Abbot broker.) To forestall the market or monopAccording to Felinus, an abbacy is the dignity of St. Denis. Such abbots were by canon olize goods. itself, since an abbot is a term or word of dignity. law bound to have received the tonsure, Abbroachment, t Abbrochmentt (ab. and not of office.

Ayliffe.

and to enter orders on attaining canonical broch'ment), n. The act of forestalling the Abbajeer (ab'ba-jēr), n. See ABBAS, 1. age, but the obligation was easily evaded. - market or monopolizing goods. See under Abbandonamente (ab-ban'don-ä-ment"ä), 2. A title formerly given to the chief magis FORESTALL. adv. [It.) In music, with self-abandonment; trate of some communities or states, as in Abb-wool (ab'wựl), n.

1. Wool for the abb so as to make the time subservient to the Genoa. - Abbot of Misrule, in England, or warp of a web.-2. A variety of wool of a expression

Abbot of Unreason, in Scotland, the per certain fineness. See ABB. Abbat (ab'bat), n. Same as Abbot.

sonage who took the principal part in the A, b, c. 1. The first three letters of the Abbatical, Abbatial (ab-batik-al, ab-ba'. Christmas revels of the populace before the alphabet, used generally for the whole; as, shi-al), a. Belonging to an abbey. Reformation.

the child is learning bis A, B, C.--2. A little Abbé (ab-bā), n. [Fr., an abbot, from Syr. and Abbotship (ab'but-ship), n. The state or book for teaching the elements of reading. Chal. abba, father. See ABBA.] In France, office of an abbot.

Called also an A, b, c book. an abbot; but more generally, and especially Abbreviate (ab-brē'vi-át), v.t. pret. & pp. Abd (abd), n. [Ar., a slave, servant) A before the French revolution, a title given abbreviated; ppr. abbreviating. (L. abbre. common prefix in Arabic names of persona; to all those Frenchmen who devoted them vio, abbreviatum, to shorten-ab, from, and as, Abdallah, servant of God; Abd-el. selves to divinity, or who had at least pursued brevis, short. See BRIEF, and ABRIDGE Kader, servant of the mighty God; Abd-ula course of study in a theological seminary, (which is really the same word). ] 1. To Latif, servant of the gracious God; &c. in the hope that the king would confer on make briefer: to shorten; to abridge; to Abdal (ab'dal), n. [Ar. Abdallah, a servant them a real abbey, that is, a certain part of make shorter by contraction or omission of of God.} A dervish; one of a class of Persian the revenues of a monastery. The abbés a part; to reduce to a smaller compass; as, religious devotees. were numerous. Some acted as private to abbreviate a writing or word. – 2. In Abdalavi, Abdelavi (ab-dal-a'vi, ab-del-a'. tutors in families, others were professors of math. to reduce to the lowest terms, as vi), n. The native name of the hairy the university, and a great many employed fractions.

cucumber of Egypt (Cucumis Chate).

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VI

ABDERIAN

5

A BEIGH

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Abderlan (ab-dē'ri-an), a. (From Abdera, On its outer surface it is divided into certain Abduction (ab-duk’shon), n. (L. L. abductio,

in Thrace, the birthplace of Democritus defined portions called regions. The term abductionis, a leading or drawing away. See called the Laughing Philosopher, whence is also sometimes applied to the belly of the ABDUCE.] 1. The act of abducing or abductthe application of the term.) Pertaining to lower animals. See Abdominal Regions ing, or state of being abduced or abducted. Abdera or its inhabitants; resembling or under ABDOMINAL. -2. In entom. the pos 2. In physiol, the action by which muscles recalling in some way the philosopher terior of the three parts of the perfect in withdraw a limb or other part from the axis Democritus of Abdera ; hence, a term ap sect, united to the thorax by a slender of the body, as when certain muscles sepaplied to incessant or continued laughter; connecting portion, and containing the rate the arm from the side or the thumb given to laughter.

greater portion of the digestive apparatus. from the rest of the fingers.-3. In surg. a Abderite (ab'der-it), n. (L. abderita, Gr. It is divided into rings or segments, on the term formerly applied to a fracture in which abdëritès.) An inhabitant of Abdera, a sides of which are small spiracles, or stig the bone near a joint is so divided that the maritime town in Thrace, and sometimes mata, for respiration.

extremities recede from each other.-4. In a term equivalent to a stupid person, the Abdominal (ab-dom'in-al), a. 1. Pertaining logic, a kind of syllogism, called by the inhabitants of this city being anciently pro to the abdomen or belly.- Abdominal re Greeks apagoge, in which the major is evi. verbial for their stupidity.--The Abderite, gions, certain regions into which the abdo dent, but the minor is not so clear as not to Democritus of Abdera, often called the men in men is arbitrarily divided. AD require further proof, as in this syllogism: Laughing Philosopher, one of the most imaginary line (aa) is drawn transversely All whom God absolves are free from sin : celebrated philosophers among the ancient from the cartilage of the seventh rib on one God absolves all who are in Christ; thereGreeks.

side to the corresponding point of the fore all who are in Christ are free from sin." Abdest (ab'dest), 1. [Per. abdast-ab, water, opposite side, and another transverse line This mode of reasoning is called abduction, and dast, hand.) Purification or ablution (66) between the anterior superior spines of because it withdraws us from the conclubefore prayer: a Mohammedan rite.

the ilia. The part above the upper line is sion to the proof of a proposition concealed Abdevenham (ab-dev'n-ham), n. In astrol. called the epigas

or not expressed. Fleming, Vocab. of Philos. the head of the twelfth house in a scheme tric region, that be

5. In law, the fraudulent or unlawful leadof the heavens. tween the upper

ing away of a person, more especially the Abdicant(ab'di-kant), 2. One who abdicates. and lower lines the

taking and carrying away of a child, a ward, Abdicant (ab'di-kant), a. [See ABDICATE. ] umbilical region,

a wife, &c., either by fraud, persuasion, or Abdicating; renouncing. and that beneath

open violence. The term is most commonly Monks abdicant of their orders.

5
Whitlock.
the lower line the

applied to the taking away of females. The
Abdicate (ab'di-kāt), v.t. pret. & pp. abdi-
hypogastric region.

term 'is also applied to the using of force These regions are

to prevent a voter from voting in an elec-
cated: ppr. abdicating. [L. abdico, abdica-
Bometimes subdi.

tion.
tum, to give up a right or claim-ab, indi-
vided by two verti-

Abductor (ab-duk'ter), n. One who or that cating separation, and dico, dicare, to de cal lines (cc), one

which abducts; specifically, in anat. a clare publicly, to consecrate, to set apart, being drawn on

muscle which moves certain parts from the of same root as dicere, to say.] 1. To give each side, from the

axis of the body; as, the abductor oculi, a up, renounce, abandon, lay down, or with

the

cartilage of draw from, as a right or claim, office, duties,

muscle which pulls the eye outward: opseventh rib to the

ei, maths

nerasto

In cons

is not alone

diren mentioned es abridge

posed to adductor, dignity, authority, and the like, especially anterior superior

Abeam (a-bēm'), adv. (Prefix a, on, and in a voluntary, public, or formal manner. spine of the ilium.

beam.) Naut. on the beam, that is, at right The father will disinherit or abdicale that power The central porhe hath rather than suffer it to be forced to a willing

Abdominal Regions.

angles to the keel of a ship; thus guns are injustice. tion of the epi

said to be pointed abeam when they are Burton. The cross-bearers abdicated their service. Gibbon,

gastric region (1) retains the name of epi pointed in a line at right angles to the ship's

gastric; the lateral portions (4, 4) are keel.
He (Charles 11.) was utterly without ambition. He
detested business, and would sooner have abdicated

called the right and left hypochondriac re Abear (a-bár'), v.t. (A. Sax. aberan, to bear, his crown than have undergone the trouble of really

gions; the middle part of the umbilical re to carry, to suffer, from prefix a, and beran, directing the administration.

Macaulay. gion (2) is still called umbilical, while the to carry.) 1.1 To bear; to behave: with reHeros and Lazarus, the Gallic bishops, were departs to the right and left (5, 5) are called

flexive pronoun. nounced ... as vagabond, turbulent, and intriguing lumbar; the hypogastric region is denomi. Thus did the gentle knight himself abear. Spenser. prelates, who had either abdicated or abandoned

nated pubic in its central portion (3), and is their sees, and travelled about sowing strife and

2. To suffer or tolerate. [ Provincial or calumny wherever they went.

divided on each side (6, 6) into an iliac and
Milman.

vulgar.)
inguinal region. The latter, however, be-
2. To cast away; to take leave of; as, to

Gin I mun doy I mun doy, for I couldn abear to longs in strictness to the thigh. Posteriorly

see it. abdicate one's mental faculties. (Rare or

Tennyson (Northern Farmer). there are two regions recognized on either obsolete.)--3. In civil law, to disclaim and side of the backbone -- the upper, corre

Abearance (a-bār'ans), n. [From abear expel from a family, as a child; to disinherit sponding to the hypochondriac, being called

(which see).) Behaviour; demeanour. during lifetime; said of a father. the inferior dorsal; the lower, the lumbar.

The other species of recognizances with sureties

is for the good abearance or good behaviour. The father will disinherit or abdicate his child, Abdominal ring, an oblong tendinous

Blackstone. quite cashier him.

Burton.

ring in both groins, through which pass the | Abecedarian (abe-se-dá"ri-an), . (A word 4.1 To put away or expel; to banish; to re spermatic cord in men, and the round liga formed from the first four letters of the nounce the authority of; to dethrone; to ments of the uterus in women. Called also

alphabet.] 1. One who teaches the letters degrade.

Inguinal Ring.-2. In ich. having ventral of the alphabet, or a learner of the letters. Scaliger would needs turn down Homer, and ab. fins posterior to the pectoral; as, an ab 2. A follower of Stork, an Anabaptist, in the dicate him after the possession of three thousand dominal fish.

sixteenth century, so called because he reyears. Dryden. Abdominal (ab-dom'in-al), n. One of a

jected all worldly knowledge, even the learnSYN. To give up, quit, vacate, relinquish, group of malacopterygian fishes, with the

ing of the alphabet. forsake, abandon, resign, renounce, desert. ventral fins posterior to the pectorals, in- Abecedarian, Abecedary (ābē-sé-da"ri-an, Abdicate (ab'di-kāt), v.i. To renounce or cluding many fresh-water fishes, and others a-be-sē dā-ri), a. Pertaining to or formed give up something; to abandon some claim; which periodically leave the sea to spawn by the letters of the alphabet. - Abecedarian to relinquish a right, power, or trust. in fresh water. Many species are edible.

psalms, hymns, &c., psalms, hymns, &c., in He cannot abdicate for his children, otherwise than

The salmon, parr, mullet, Aying-fish, herring, which (as in the 119th psalm), distinct por. by his own consent in form to a bill froin the two and carp belong to this order.

tions have the verses begin with successive houses.

Swift. Abdominales, Abdominalia (ab-dom-i-na' letters of the alphabet.
Abdication (ab-di-kā'shon), 11. The act of lez, ab-dom-i-nālli-a), n. pl. A group of Abeche,t v.t. (O. Fr. abecher; Fr. abéquer,
abdicating; the abandonment of an office, malacopterygian Aishes. See ABDOMINAL, 1. abecquer, to feed with the beak, to feed an
power or authority, right or trust; a casting Abdominoscopy (ab-dom'in-os”ko-pi), n. infant-a, and bec, the beak.] To feed, as a
off : renunciation: generally applied to give (L. abdomen, and Gr. skopeo, to view or parent bird feeds its young.
ing up the kingly office.
examine.] In med. examination of the ab-

Yet should I somedel ben abeched,
The consequences drawn from these facts (were)
domen with a view to detect disease.

And for the time well refreshed. Gower.
that they amounted to an abdication of the govern | Abdominous (ab-dom'in-us), a. 1. Of or Abed (a-bed'), adv. [Prefix a, on, and bed. ]
ment, which abdication did not only affect the person
of the king himself, but also of all his heirs, and ren-
pertaining to the abdomen. -2. Having a

1. On or in bed.
dered the throne absolutely and completely vacant.
large belly; pot-bellied. (Rare.)

Not to be abed after midnight is to be up betimes.
Blackstone.

Shak, Abdicative (ab'di-kāt-iv), a.

Gorgonius sits abdominous and wan,

Causing or Like a fat squab upon a Chinese fan. Cowper. 2. To bed.
implying abdication. Bailey. [Rare.]

Her mother dream'd before she was deliver'd
Abdicator (ab di-kåt'ér), n.
One who abdi- Abduce (ab-düs'), v. t. pret. & pp. abduced;

That she was brought abed of a buzzard.
cates.
ppr. abducing. (L. abduco, to lead away--

Beax. & FI. Abditive (ab'di-tív), a. (L. abdo, abditum,

ab, and duco, to lead, to draw. See DUKE.) Abee (a-bē). [Scotch.) Used in the same to hide-ab, away, and do, to give.) Having To draw or conduct away; to withdraw or

sense as be. - To let abee, to let alone; to let the power or quality of hiding. (Rare.) draw to a different part.

be. Let abee is used as a noun in the sense Abditory (ab'di-to-ri), n. [L. abditorium, If we abduce the eye into either corner, the object of forbearance or connivance.- Let abee for from abdo. See ABDITIVE.) A place for

will not duplicate.

Sir T. Browne.

let abee, one act of forbearance meeting hiding or preserving goods, plate, or money; Abducent (ab-dús'ent), a. (L. abducens, ab another; mutual forbearance. a chest in which relics were kept.

ducentis, ppr. of abduco, to abduce.) Draw. I am for let abee for let abee. Abdomen (ab-domen or ab'do-men), ?. L.,

Sir IV. Scott. probably from abdo, to conceal, on type of ing away; pulling back; specifically, in anat.

--Let abee (adv.), far less; not to mention; acumen from acuo, and foramen from foro.) applied to those muscles which pull back

as, he couldna sit let abee stand. 1. That part of the human body which lies

certain parts of the body from the mesial
between the thorax and the pelvis. It is lined
line, in contradistinction to the adducent Abegge, t v.t. (See ABY. ] To suffer for, or

atone for; to aby.
muscles or adductors.
with a membrane called the peritoneum, and Abduct (ab-dukt'), v. t.

There dorste no wight hond upon him legge,

1. Same as Abduce. contains the stomach, liver, spleen, pancreas,

That he ne swore he shuld anon abegge, Chaucer, kidneys, bladder, and intestines. It is separ2. To take away surreptitiously and by force.

Abeigh (a-bēch'), adv. (O. Fr. abbay, abbois, ated from the breast internally by the diaThe thing is self-evident, that his majesty has been

Fr. abois, the bark of a dog; tenir en abbay, phragm, and externally by the lower ribs.

abducted or spirited away, 'enleve,' by some person
or persons unknown.

Carlyle. to hold at bay, from baer, baïr, to gape. See

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