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Correlation of preceding columns: The 15 States with the greatest percentage of children employed (column I) include:

Thirteen of those with the greatest percentage of illiteracy (column II).

Thirteen of those with the lowest percentage of children 7 to 15 years in school (column III).

Thirteen of those with the lowest relative amount of attendance (column IV). Twelve of those with the shortest avearge length of school term (column V).

Thirteen of those with the lowest per capita expenditure for education (column VI).

EDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS AMONG CHILDREN OF 81 WHITE FAMILIES PICKING

STRAWBERRIES IN WHITE COUNTY, ARK., AND IN McCRACKEN County, Ky., IN THE SPRING OF 1939

In these 81 families there were 173 children of school age, i. e., 7 to 15 years' inclusive. The following facts were found with regard to these children of school age.

1. Thirty-six percent had not attended school a single day in the calendar year previous to the study.

II. For those who had attended school, the average number of weeks attended was 17.2—a matter of 86 school days. In other words, their attendance averaged only slightly over 4 months.

III. There were 88 children, 12 to 15 years, inclusive. Normally children of these ages should be in grades VI or VIỈ to X or XI. Of these 88 children, however, 35 percent had completed only the first or second grade in school or had not completed any grade, and 50 percent had completed only the third grade or less.

IV. The median grade achieved by the parents of these children was 4.1, i. e., half of the parents had not gone that far in school and half had gone further. Unless some of the children who have apparently left school for good return to school, the children in many of these families will have had less education than did their parents.

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REPORT ON EDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS AMONG CHILDREN OF MIGRANTS IN

BERRIEN COUNTY, Mich., IN THE SUMMER OF 1940 I. School attendance: School attendance figures were secured for 46 children of school age (7 to 15 years, inclusive) in 17 families: 18 children had not attended at all last year. This included 12 children under 14 years of whom 4 had never been to school, 3 had been out for 2 years or more and 5 had been out of school for over 1 year. Of the 28 children who had attended school during the previous year, 18, well over half, had attended for less than 6 months and 7 of them for less than 4 months.

II. Age-grade figures: Age-grade data were secured for 34 children of school age (7 to 15 years, inclusive). Of these children, 17 were 13, 14, and 15 years and should normally be in the seventh grade or over. Ten of them, however, had completed only the sixth grade or less. Typical are the ages of eight children who had completed only the second grade—8, 9, 11, 11, 11, 12, 14, and 15 years.

III. Grade completion of older children: Among 22 children over 16 in these families, all but 3 of whom had apparently stopped school for good, the grade achievement was as follows: 2 mentally deficient, i had never gone to school, 1 had completed the first grade, 1 had completed the second grade, 1 had completed the third grade, 5 had completed the fourth grade, 6 had completed the fifth grade, 3 had completed the sixth grade, 1 had completed the seventh grade, 1 had completed, the ninth grade.

EDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS AMONG CHILDREN OF 68 MIGRATORY FAMILIES IN

CALIFORNIA

I. School attendance: Of the 151 children of school age (between 6 and 16 years) in the 68 families interviewed, data on school attendance were secured for 116. These families were visited between October 3 and 26. Thirty-six--31 percent--of the children had not yet enrolled in school. For 47 children, for whom complete data were secured, the average length of time already missed was 22.2 days-over 1 school month. Many of these children said they knew they were going to miss more schooling.

II. Age-grade achievement: Age-grade data were secured for 103 children: 37—36 percent--were retarded; 62—60 percent, were normal for their grade; 4–4 percent-were accelerated.

III. Intelligence of migratory children: The school authorities of Kern and Tulare Counties, realizing that they have had to adapt California's high standards of education to children from States with lower standards, have made surveys to determine the exact needs of migratory children and the possibility of meeting them.

(1) KERN COUNTY

Kern County, finding that more than 8,500 new children had entered its rural elementary schools in 1936–37 and 6,500 had left during the same period, made an intensive study of four rural schools with 1,406 children of whom nearly half were migrants. It found that migratory children in the various grades were uniformly older than the regular children, the age difference varying from 4 months to 21 months. The latter was the difference in the fifth grade where the median age for the regular children was 10 years 8 months and for migratory children 12 years 5 months.

In reading achievement tests the migratory children were below the regular children in every grade, with the lag increasing in the higher grades. Intelligence tests gave a slightly lower rating to the migrants but not by so large a margin as to be especially significant.

The net conclusion from the tests was that migratory children, whether because of poor facilities in the States of their origin, their continued migration or personal deficiencies are educationally handicapped and present many problems in social and academic adjustment which the schools must devise methods of meeting.

(2) TULARE COUNTY

A survey conducted in April 1938 in 88 rural schools of Tulare County, measured 1,065 children in the fifth grade, of whom approximately half were from California and half from other States.

Results of intelligence and achievement tests were similar to those in the Kern County study. A study of grade distribution of 10-year-old pupils showed of that of those born in California, 31.39 percent were retarded, 55.61 percent were of normal grades for their age, and 13 percent were accelerated. Those born outside of California were retarded in 50.46 percent of the cases, normally placed in 44.95 percent, and accelerated in 4.59 percent.

REPORT ON EDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS AMONG CHILDREN OF MIGRANTS IN

HOP-PICKING DISTRICTS OF OREGON AND WASHINGTON IN FALL OF 1938 I. School attendance:

(a) Reports on school attendance were secured for 145 children 6 to 15 years, inclusive, in Yakima Valley, Wash. At the time of the visit, schools had been in session for from 4 to 14 days, 18 children had enrolled in school, 127 children had not yet enrolled, 32 of the children admitted that they expected to miss considerably more of their schooling.

(b) In Oregon, visits were made before the schools opened and attendance records could not be secured. Individual reports included 4 children in one family, not yet much retarded in school, said they expected to miss 2 months before starting and would probably be "put back”; 1 child of 15 years reported she had not "been in school for years.' In one family a 16-year-old child missed 4 months last year and was not promoted, 3 younger children had lost 2 months each and were already 2 and 3 years retarded, respectively. A boy of 13 years in the third grade, who seemed mentally very alert, had had only 44 days' schooling the year before and 45 days the year before that. He expected to miss a considerable amount of time this year unless "some good fortune" came their way.

II. Age-grade figures:

Of 147 children 6 to 15 years, inclusive, for whom age-grade data were secured in Washington and Oregon, 51 (35 percent) were retarded (7 of them by more than 2 years), 92 (65 percent) were in normal grades, 4 (less than 1 percent) were accelerated one grade.

EDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS AMONG CHILDREN OF 251 FAMILIES From Phila· DELPHIA Who WORKED ON SOUTHERN NEW JERSEY FARMS IN THE SUMMER OF 1938

I. Although, in the 251 families studied, 597 children 7 to 15 years, inclusive (i. e.,

of school age), went to New Jersey with their parents, 52 of these families had left Philadelphia before the end of April and 113 had left during the month of May; 113 did not return until after September 15 and of these 87 did not return until after October 1.

II. Philadelphia school records were secured for 656 children in these families (including a few outside of the compulsory attendance age); 588 (89.6 percent) missed some time in the spring, fall, or both, because their families migrated to New Jersey. The average amount of time lost was 39 days (i. e., 1 day less than 2 school months); 115 children lost 60 school days (3 months) or more because of migration.

III. Excluding children in ungraded and vocational classes, age-grade records were secured for 606 children. Retardation among these children, compared with the entire school population in Philadelphia, was as follows:

.

School popMigratory

ulation as children

a whole

Retarded Normal Accelerated.

Percent

42.4
51.8
2.8

Percent

19.8 68.3 11.9

Although retardation among migratory children is somewhat lower than in 1930 when the New Jersey Migratory Commission published its report, the rate of reduction has not kept pace with reduction in retardation for the general school population. Retardation among migrants is still considerably more than twice that for the general school population. The broken attendance of these migrant children in the spring and fall defeats all efforts made in their behalf.

The CHAIRMAN. Thank you, Mr. Dinwiddie. Congressman Wilson, please.

STATEMENT OF HON. EARL WILSON, CONGRESSMAN FROM THE

STATE OF INDIANA

Mr. Wilson. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, this report is based on a survey conducted by a committee of school men, headed by Dr. W. W. Wright of Indiana University, in regard to the school needs at Charlestown, Ind., where at present is located the Indiana Ordnance Works. This plant will employ about 9,500 workmen, exclusive of Du Pont and Army administrative personnel. Of these workmen, 1,000 will be taken from the immediate township. Along with these 1,000 workers, there will be approximately 9,000 additional people in population. The population of the township at present is 6,700; living in 725 houses, plus a large number of trailers.

The committee might be interested in knowing how we arrived at the figure of 9,000 additional people and the 1,000 workers that are to be employed in the production of powder. From an index which has been established by the last census, I find that for each worker there is a family of about 3.8 or 4 people. In the case of new factories such as this, it is found that there is also an influx of people who are in business, rendering other services to these workers, which makes the total figure of 9,000 which I have given.

It is anticipated, from the most reliable statistics available on parents and pupils of school age in population. There will also be a minimum of 100 children of preschool age, which will probably have to be taken care of, or at least should be taken care of in nursery schools since the mothers are likely to be employed in the Goodyear bag loading plant.

Further remarks on the last statement might clarify it somewhat. Due to the inadequate housing facilities in that area, it will be necessary to employ as many people from those who reside in that community as possible, otherwise our housing needs there will increase tremendously. Since the Goodyear bag-loading plant, known as the Hoosier Ordnance Works, which is starting to build there, is going to work women largely, it will be a matter of economy, of course, to take women from those homes that are located in the immediate vicinity, and that will necessitate the care of their children.

There are 924 children of school age in population now, even though many have been left behind because of inadequate housing. It is known that many families living in trailers have left their children with folks back home.

The present building program anticipates the use of all the present school facilities, which facilities can accommodate a maximum of about 400 pupils. The survey recommends and anticipates the use of the present school buildings for the lower grades. It may be well to bear in mind that this minimum number of pupils of school age is based on the latest census showing community population. The figure is significant as a minimum, since these workers must be between the ages of 27 and 42; this means that the workers are all of the age whereby the family may be growing in size. Therefore, the number of pupils may actually be greater than our minimum and probably will be. The minimum number of children in this survey, of course, was based upon statistics, and those statistics cover workers of all ages.

The Charlestown township trustee and advisory board have expressed their willingness to go the limit of the law to cooperate in financing this school. They also expect (within a period of 2 or 3 years), to assume all the operating expense. The operating cost for the school year of 1941-42 will be about $102,000. The State and local governments can meet about $70,000 of this obligation.

It so happens in Indiana that each school corporation gets State aid to the extent of $700 per teaching unit. That means $700 for each grade school unit of 35 pupils and for each high school unit of 25 pupils, in average daily attendance. The local tax base plus State aid will raise about $70,000 of this $102,000 necessary to run the school, had they the school plant to accommodate these people. That leaves a need of about $32,000 from the Federal Government for operating expense the first year. As the property and income of these workers is added to the tax base, the help needed from the Federal Government for operating expense will decrease, and the Federal aid for the school year of 1942-43 will probably be about $20,000. For the year 1943–44 it will probably be about $10,000, after which time they expect to be able to assume the full operating load.

The big problem, of course, is in regard to capital outlay, which includes buildings and equipment. In Indiana we have a law allowing

. us to bond the school corporation for 2 percent; also the civil corporation for an additional 2 percent for school purposes. Since they have the same tax base, it gives us a bond limit of 4 percent on that base.

The minimum estimate to satisfy school needs and give minimum cooperation with public health and recreation is (when township part is taken out) about $991,000. This includes plant site, buildings, and equipment.

The maximum to guarantee full cooperation would be considerably more, since our schools are now anticipating taking on the load of training for national defense, and added equipment which will be necessary for taking care of this training would add some $500,000 to the amount needed, which would make about $1,491,000 to take care of the complete school needs of that community, guaranteeing full cooperation to the Federal Government in providing these educational facilities.

The Goodyear bag loading plant, known as the Hoosier Ordnance Works, is just in process of being built. This, it is believed, will increase the Jeffersonville High School enrollment by about 200 pupils. They are already entirely full and running extra hours in the day, in fact they are running the noon hour and then one extra period at the end of the day in order to take care of the influx of high-school pupils. This means that they are probably disobeying the recommendation of the State department of education in pupil-teacher ratio. We have an established ratio in Indiana, which means that each ieacher can handle only so many pupils per day. In my opinion, they are going beyond that limit right now. Of course, in the Charlestown area, one-half or two-thirds of the pupils are not in school at all, regardless of the fact that we have compulsory education laws in Indiana.

This approximated increase in Jeffersonville is due to the extra houses being built in and about the city. The building needs of Jeffersonville will be about $200,000. Fortunately, they have the needed grounds in which to place the necessary buildings. Also they believe they can carry any added operating expense.

That completes my prepared statement, and I would be glad to answer, or attempt to answer, any questions that the committee might wish to ask in regard to this project and the school needs.

The CHAIRMAN. Senator La Follette?
Senator LA FOLLETTE. No questions.
The CHAIRMAN. Senator Ball?

Senator Ball. I would like to get those figures down. In the school district what is the normal population?

Mr. Wilson. The normal school population is about 400.
Senator Ball. And it is up now to over 900?

Mr. Wilson. Well, they have more than 900 pupils there now. However, they are not taking care of them in the schools. They anticipate, of course, about 1,300 or more when these people who are living in trailers, and have left their children behind, become located in homes.

Senator BALL. Are they building regular, permanent school buildings? Do they plan on doing that? Mr. Wilson. That is the plan. Senator Ball. It is?

Mr. Wilson. It is the plan to do that, to build a school building. In fact, they will just have to do it.

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