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little expenditure of money other than teachers' salaries. In fact, many of the high school graduates have had so little practical training that they are completely lost for a few years after graduation if they are not permitted to enter college.

The time has come when the Tennessee high schools must be broadened in scope if the youth are to receive adequate training for the scientific age in which they are to live. The majority of the rural high schools, as well as many of the larger urban high schools, are short on vocational and commercial training. For that reason we are in dire need of additional funds to be used in erecting and equipping vocational high schools, or for adding these courses to already existing plants. This deficiency in the high-school training program has been shown very clearly since the inauguration of the national defense program as a great number of the highest paid workers and technicians are bring brought in from other parts of the country. This need not have been the case if Tennessee had been able to provide the funds necessary for trade schools during the past decade or more.

Another great problem facing the high-school program of Tennessee at the present time is the losing of many of the best qualified and experienced of its teaching personnel. This is brought about in many instances by the fact that the State has a very limited amount of funds for high-school assistance. The major part of the burden is therefore left to the individual county, city, or independent district, and a shortage of funds results in low salaries for teachers. Then, in many cases, the teachers are forced to take a discount of as high as 10 to 15 percent before receiving actual cash for their work. Since the average annual salary for men teachers in Tennessee is $1,148.49, and some teaching for as little as $898 per year, it is very easy to understand why they are leaving the teaching profession by the dozens to accept employment in the various fields of industry. Likewise, the average annual salary of women in the high schools of Tennessee is $885.15, with some receiving as little as $600 per year. Therefore, the great problem of today is more money for our high-school program to enable it to go forward and prepare the youth for active participation in our national life, or go along without aid, use inefficient teachers, offer a poor program, and train boys and girls to become charges of the State and Nation rather than active worth-while citizens.


The State of Tennessee, along with many other areas of the United States. now has a great many defense activities in operation or under construction. This, of necessity, has brought a large number of workers with their families to the location of these projects. For months the State department of education has been receiving urgent requests for additional teachers in these congested areas since the local authorities could not handle the large number of additional children with the quotas of teachers previously allotted by the department. Every effort was made to assist these areas, but practically every dollar of available school money had already been allocated before this emergency became known.

In addition to the requests for teachers came the requests for additional building facilities, but there are no funds available for buildings in the school funds of the State at the present time. In order to assist officials in making the best of their facilities, representatives from the Department of Education were sent to the various areas affected and assisted in providing additional classroom space. This was done in many instances at the expense of cloak room space, libraries, gymnasiums, and cafeterias.

During the month of December a survey was begun, at the request of the United States Commissioner of Education, Dr. John W. Studebaker, to determine the needs for additional school facilities caused by activities of the National Defense Program. This survey was conducted by a member of the staff of the Department of Education who visited each of the areas thus affected and held conferences with project managers, school officials, real estate officials, and other interested groups.

As soon as the study of an area was completed, the findings were submitted to the United States Office of Education at Washington, together with a letter of explanation which attempted to show why the amount asked for in each case was justified.

At the present time these surveys have been completed in the nine areas in which defense activities are in operation. A study of the table accompanying this report will show the estimates submitted for each phase of the program. Some of the items may appear to be rather large, but this includes all school units affected by the plant, some of which may be 20 to 25 miles away, due to the fact that employees in large numbers are living in these localities.

If the Federal Government does not provide aid in the immediate future many children will be deprived of training during the next school year because the local school units do not have the funds with which to erect buildings, and have no way to secure the money within a year or more. Many of the school units thus affected are already bonded to capacity and cannot possibly furnish the facilities needed during this period of national emergency. The workers are trying to do their part and the Government cannot afford to allow innocent children to grow up without the advantage of educational facilities which should, and can, be provided. Table IX.This table shows the amount of money needed for buildings, equipment,

operation, and teachers' salaries in areas affected by national defense activities in Tennessee

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The inequality of salaries between white and colored teachers in Tennessee is not as great as a person outside the State might think. The fact that 84 of the 95 counties of Tennessee qualify under the laws of the State to share in State equalizing funds means that the colored teachers in these counties receive salaries based on training and experience the same as the white teachers. The same is true in 32 cities and independent districts of the State.

Before a county, city, or independent district can participate in equalizing funds the officials in charge must agree to operate all schools for an 8 months' term, collect a definite amount of elementary school money, and pay the teachers at least a salary equal to that adopted by the State board of education as a basic salary.

The school officials in the counties, cities, and special districts not sharing in State equalizing funds have the privilege of paying the salaries which their funds will permit. Therefore, some salaries are above the State salary schedule and some are below the schedule. The schools in some of these units are in session for a full term of 9 months while some are in session for only 5 months.

The salaries paid colored teachers in the nonequalizing units vary from salaries paid white teachers in each case, but the difference is relatively small in most instances.

The most serious problem facing Tennessee in connection with the colored schools is the large sum of money required to modernize many of its more than 1,000 buildings. Of this number only 15 percent are considered to be on a par with the white schools of the State. In other words, more than $2,000,000 would be required in the immediate future for construction and repair of school buildings and equipment.

The annual amounts of additional money required for teachers' salaries in Tennessee to equalize the white and colored employees is shown in the following table.






$160, 719. 92

$251, 062. 16

High school

$411, 782. 08
214, 731.00


626, 513. 08

Since we all realize that our Senators and Representatives in Congress want to express the wishes of their people at home, every effort will be made in Tennessee to notify our delegation that we favor passage of Senate bill 1313, known as the Educational Finance Act of 1941. This will be done by having the leaders in political, labor, business, professional, and civic organizations in Tennessee contact our Senators and Representatives at once.

The time has come when public education must have Federal aid or fail to function properly in the defense of democracy.

The CHAIRMAN. Mr. Frank L. Groves, executive secretary, Alabama Education Association.

Dr. Dawson. He had to leave, too, Senator.

The CHAIRMAN. If he has a statement it will be inserted in the record.

(The statement submitted by Mr. Frank L. Groves, executive secretary, Alabama Education Association, is as follows:)



I am setting forth below the Federal aid needed by the State of Alabama for the following purposes covered by Senate bill 1313:

(a) Reduction of educational inequalities in elementary and secondary schools; (b) increase of salaries for Negro teachers made necessary through recent Federal court decisions; (c) educational facilities and additional teachers in defense areas, both military and industrial; (d) educational facilities for children of migratory workers; (e) educational facilities for children of Federal employees residing on Government property and reservations. I. REDUCTION OF EDUCATIONAL INEQUALITIES IN ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY

SCHOOLS Numerous studies have shown conclusively that Alabama ranks near the bottom of taxpaying ability and near the top in educational load in proportion to adult population. There are several different methods by which it is possible to calculate the funds needed by the State of Alabama in order to equalize educational opportunities in Alabama with those provided in the Nation at large. I am calculating the additional funds needed on five bases as follows: (a) Additional funds needed in order to raise the current expense expenditures for public education in Alabama for both the white and Negro races up to the national average, (b) the additional funds needed in order to increase the present school term of Alabama to 9 months on the present expenditure level without equalizing educational facilities between the two races, (c) the additional capital outlay funds needed in order to provide as good school buildings and equipment as the national average for both the white and Negro races, (d) additional school buildings needed on the basis of present expenditure practices without equalizing building facilities between the two races. The estimates set forth below are based upon the number of children at present enrolled in the public schools of Alabama. Nothing is included for potential increases in enrollment, which are certain to come, especially in the secondary schools.

A. Additional funds needed annually in order to raise the current expenditures for public education in Alabama for both the white and Negro races up to the national average. 1. White..

$15, 492, 894 2. Negro

14, 144, 280 3. Total..--

29, 637, 174 B. Additional funds needed annually in order to increase the current expenditures for both the white and Negro races up to $60 per pupil.


Paul R. Mort 1 suggests Federal aid to the States on the basis of $60 per pupil foundation program. 1. White -

$6, 448, 742 2. Negro.

9, 393, 028

3. Total.-

15, 841, 770 C. Additional current expense funds needed in order to increase the present school term of Alabama to 9 months on the present expenditure level without equalizing educational facilities between the two races.

The average school term of Alabama is only 154 days and the average expenditure per pupil per day in average daily attendance is 22 cents. If the school term for the 580,000 school children in average daily attendance were increased from 154 to 180 days, current expenditures would be increased $3,317,600 annually. Attention is called to the fact that this procedure will not equalize facilities between the two races.

D. Additional capital outlay funds needed in order to provide as good school buildings and equipment as the national average for both the white and Negro


1. White 2. Negro

$61, 923, 589 58, 633, 890

3. Total..

120, 557, 479 Assuming that this investinent for buildings would be spread over a period of 25 years by means of the issuance of long-term securities, it would require an annual debt service of approximately $6,600,000 in order to pay principal and interest.

E. Additional school buildings needed on the basis of present expenditure practices without equalizing building facilities between the two races.

The present practice in Alabama is to construct school buildings as cheaply as possible. In the rural areas, most of the buildings are of frame or brick veneer construction without central heat. Assuming that the cheapest type of construction possible is employed, it would require the following amount of additional expenditures in order to provide housing badly needed at the present time. 1. White.

$14, 500, 000 2. Negro.

12, 000, 000 3. Total..

26, 500, 000 Assuming that these buildings are financed by the issuance of long-term securities maturing over a period of 25 years, it would require an annual debt service of approximately $1,400,000.



If Negro teachers were paid salaries comparable to those for white teachers with the same training and experience in Alabama on the basis of the State salary schedule, the average Negro teacher's salary would be 87 percent of the average white teacher's salary because Negro teachers have somewhat lower training than the white teachers. It would require $1,832,056 additional current expense funds annually in order to pay the Negro teachers now employed salaries comparable with the salaries now being paid white teachers with the same training and experi

Furthermore, the Negro teachers carry considerably heavier teaching loads than the white teachers. It would require 1,600 additional Negro teachers in order to equalize class load, and this would cost an additional $1,136,000 annually, assuming that these additional teachers were paid the same salaries as white teachers with similar training. Therefore, it would require a total of $2,968,056 annually of additional current expense funds in order to pay Negro teachers salaries comparable with the salaries now being paid white teachers in Alabama with the same training and experience and in order to operate Negro schools for the same average term as white schools.


1 Mort, Paul R., Federal Support for Public Education.



Following is a list of additional educational facilities and teachers needed for pupils in certain defense areas in Alabama not on Government reservations. This does not include estimates for the Birmingham City area, the Childersburg area, and the proposed air training field at Dothan, because of lack of available data at the present time.

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IV. EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES FOR CHILDREN OF MIGRATORY WORKERS Data are not available for making estimates but a considerable sum is needed.



Below is a statement of additional educational facilities and teachers needed by pupils living on Government reservations in certain areas in Alabama.

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The CHAIRMAN. Mr. Jule B. Warren, executive secretary, North Carolina Education Association.

Mr. WARREN. Mr. Phillips, the president of the association, will make that statement.

The CHAIRMAN. Mr. Phillips, please.



The CHAIRMAN. State your name and position for the record, please.

Mr. PHILLIPS. K. G. Phillips, president, North Carolina Education Association, Winston-Salem.

We in North Carolina, as you people probably know, really believe in giving everybody an equal chance. I think our State is one of the two States in the Union that has gone down the line with the Statesupported 8 months' school. In 1933 the State took over the support of all the public schools for 8 months, and since that time we have increased our appropriation from about $16,000,000 to $30,000,000 per year.

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