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We feel that we have approached this subject in an intelligent manner; in fact that this is the only method which can be employed which will bring the 900,000 teachers and school administrators of this country actively into this fight for Federal aid for education and we must have their moral and political support to win.
We believe that the teachers and administrators in the States which will receive Federal aid, if and when such legislation is passed, should support this work financially just as the farmers support the American Farm Bureau Federation, the Grange, and the Farmers Union-and as the farmers supported the National Drainage, Levee and Irrigation Association which secured relief for them-laborers the C. I. O. and the A. F. of L.; ex-service men the American Legion; business organizations the United States Chamber of Commerce and the National Association of Manufacturers, and so forth.
We have no apology to make for asking the teachers for financial support, as we propose to carry on a national educational campaign to break down the many barriers that have existed and still exist against Federal aid to education. Teachers and school administrators of the South and Middle West who will receive the greatest direct benefit should contribute financial support for a national campaign to this end just as countless southern Democrats contribute to the Democratic National Committee for campaigns in other sections of the country to carry doubtful States. The Democrats of Arkansas contributed a net of $147,000 in 1936 and $96,000 in 1940 to help finance the campaign of the Democratic National Committee in other States. Other Southern States did likewise.
Commissioners of education and officers of State educational associations cannot afford to take the attitude, because their State delegations have declared their willingness to support Federal aid to education, that they have contributed their share in this all-important fight. This is merely a first step as there are not enough southern Senators and Congressmen to pass such a proposed bill. So it behooves the leaders working for the advancement of education in Southern and Middle Western States to assist in raising from $500,000 to $1,000,000 annually to carry on this educational campaign in a most aggressive manner, that we may attain our goal of Federal appropriations for the schools.
It will require approximately $200,000 to write three individual letters to the 900,000 teachers and school administrators of this country and that is only the beginning of our work. We could spend from $500,000 to $1,000,000 annually for the next 3 years to educate the business interests of the East and North which must bear the major part of this Federal taxation. Also we should place the 8,250 extension workers, 3,000 county agents, at least 5,000 editors of daily and weekly newspapers, and 2,500 ministers on our mailing list as a great force to assist us in winning public support for this measure.
I think our method is the democratic way of approaching our goal. We have been frank about our purposes and admitted that we are a legislative agency doing what is termed lobbying work but doing it in a dignified, intelligent way.
I would like at this point to insert a table showing in part the amount of money which was spent last year throughout the United States to educate the people to many causes and things:
Table showing in part some of the large sums spent through various channels for
advertising and propaganda, the modern accepted method for reaching people and
creating a desire or appetite, good or bad, for various causes, products, and things 1940, total spent... $1, 660, 000, 000 | Liggett & Meyers To
$8, 926, 148 Newspapers 545, 000, 000 Chrysler Motors
7, 453, 014 Direct mail
300, 000, 000 Colgate-Palmolive Co. 6, 262, 501 Radio. 200, 000, 000 Sterling Products -
6, 203, 022 Magazines.160, 000, 000 Ford Motor Co..
6, 172, 684 General Motors 15, 514, 000 Standard Brands
5, 073, 363 Procter & Gamble Co. 13, 755, 854 Campbell Soup.
4, 484, 389 R. J. Reynolds To
3, 810, 733 bacco Co. 9, 296, 470 | General Mills
3, 646, 493 It takes money to educate public opinion thereby promoting the cause of Federal aid for education just as it requires these many millions spent through various advertising channels to promote the sale of various articles and things sponsored by different businesses. We feel that our agency working in behalf of school teachers and administrators and our boys and girls is justified in adopting up-to-date business methods to bring about the passage of urgently needed Federal legislation. Ours is an educational program and it takes money to win the support of the people of the country.
A nation whose people annually spend an approximate $4,000,000,000 on liquor; $1,600,000,000 on tobacco; $1,200,000,000 to see motion pictures, and some $2,000,000,000 on soft drinks, chewing gum, and candy should not hesitate to spend $3,000,000,000 or $4,000,000,000 to educate its boys and girls instead of the approximate $2,200,000,000 spent last year on elementary and secondary schools throughout the country.
If for any reason Congress should fail to pass, or the President to approve, a bill for Federal aid to education during the present session, we propose to carry on an aggressive fight for this legislation during the next 3 years regardless of the National Education Association or any other agency.
Personally I would like the moral support of the National Education Association as there is a place for us both. It would be my policy at all times to give praise for the constructive services the National Education Association has rendered in “elevating the character and advancing the interests of the profession of teaching and promoting the cause of popular education in the United States," also in their advocacy-in necessarily limited fashion-of Federal aid for education. We would encourage all school teachers and administratorsand that means all of the 900,000 we propose to have on our direct mailing list-not only to give moral support but also to become members of this national association which is rendering a distinct service to the school forces. The executive committee of the National Education Association needs us and we would benefit through their encouragement and moral support in our efforts to carry on an aggrrssive fight for Federal aid for education.
We hold that a democracy which fails to maintain the ideals and responsibilities, voiced by the founders of this Nation, by refusing equal opportunities to any part of its citizens or their children, is gravely endangered in these testing times.
For many years now research statistics have been broadcast which reveal beyond question that millions of our children are being denied the educational opportunities which should be their birthright.
Our penal institutions and our relief rolls are crowded with young people and older men and women who are illiterates. In many instances these unfortunates have been drawn into industrial centers and manufacturing States or those with tourist attractions, from States which today are financially unable to afford all their children adequate schooling.
It is true that the greatest need for Federal appropriations exists in Southern, Southeastern and some of the Middle Western States. But our Northern, Eastern, and far Western States have been heavily penalized by the Nation's failure to assist their sister States in their dire need. They in turn must pay heavy secondary costs of caring for the illiterates, the degenerates and the ineffectuals who, denied proper schooling and training, have turned to crime or given up the battle to maintain self respect and earn their own livelihood.
The problem has become most acute in rural districts of the South and Middle West. There underpaid and in many instances ill prepared teachers are trying to ground children in elementary educational fundamentals. If they fail to give them adequate training for good living they are scarcely to be blamed. Neither can the blame be put upon the education departments of these States which, with the least per capita wealth and taxable incomes, have the largest number of children to be schooled in proportion to the adult population. In many instances these States have made the most heroic efforts to make up for financial shortages with superior planning but the fact remains that they never can hope to attain in any measure the high educational standards of many of our States without direct Federal assistance.
The responsibility for rendering this assistance rests squarely upon the Federal Government and our delegated representatives who voice the demands and needs of our people in enacting Federal statutes The necessities of 900,000 school teachers and administrators and the countless millions of children with whose training they are charged should not and cannot be ignored. The very life of our democarcy demands that we feed its roots by nourishing and developing the intelligence of its future citizens; and that we return adequate compensation to the teachers and other school forces upon whom this task devolves.
Personally I would urge the greatest possible simplification of Federal legislation to this end. I believe that the Federal Aid to Education Act should be an expression of fundamental conviction and policy that only by Federal appropriations can we give all our children equal educational opportunities and all our teachers the adequate training and compensation to which they are justly entitled.
Secondly, I believe that it should be expressly stipulated that the major portion of these Federal appropriations should be set aside to eliminate the great inequalities now existing in salaries paid our teachers in different sections of the country, especially in rural districts throughout the Southern States.
To accomplish this the percentage of Federal funds needed should be diverted to equalize the present disparity between the salaries paid white and Negro teachers. The thirteenth amendment freed our negro slaves and the fourteenth granted them the franchise. Under this fourteenth amendment it is unconstitutional and has so been declared under three recent decisions of the Nation's Supreme Court for any State to maintain a discriminatory wage scale for its teachers because of race or creed, or to deny any child educational opportunities for these reasons. The South, bled white by the Civil War, has been left too long to cope single-handed with the problem of educating the majority of the Negroes. They have found it impossible through local taxation to raise enough money for a well-balanced school program for both white and Negro children. It behooves the North and the East with their long established businesses and national concentration of wealth to lend a helping hand in solving these problems. Only in this way can the many inequalities now existing in our school systems be eliminated. We do not disparage the North and East for taking our cotton, minerals, bauxite, oil, timber, and other raw products and converting them into the finished products which yield such great profits. But we do insist that wealth must be taxed at its sources that fair return may be made to the many who have contributed so largely to the prosperity of the few.
Thirdly, I believe that a fair proportion of Federal funds for the Nation's schools should be set aside for adequate school buildings and other school facilities where they are most needed.
And, fourthly, that from 2 to 3 percent of the total proposed appropriations should be directed to the various State departments of education for administrative purposes in those States qualified by their needs to receive Federal school aid.
I think it would be advisable to eliminate that part of subhead C under section 7 of this proposed bill regarding the appointment and tenure of the personnel of State education departments. In my opinion this condition imposed upon commissioners of education and superintendents of public instruction opens the door for criticism from some who have opposed Federal aid to education on the grounds it might invite Federal control. No method could be devised to enforce the intent of this provision in States which do not have civil service. Those States operating under civil service do not need it. It is a matter of record that the character of the personnel of our State education departments is very high, frequently above the average of other State departments. Also as a rule the turn-over is very small in the personnel of State education departments operating under noncivil service. I therefore would omit entirely the last phrase of section 7 which reads: "If the appointment and tenure of the personnel of such departments (other than members of boards within the State, elected officials therein, and the chief State school officer) is upon the basis of merit and efficiency and without regard to political considerations."
I do not believe that specific provision need be made for the children of migratory workers as the committee charged with the allotment of appropriations under this or any other Federal aid to education bill will have authority to deal with these needs.
I would eliminate any provision for appropriations to cities to meet temporary inconveniences or overcrowding brought about by our national-defense program. Today there are approximately only two or three hundred localities with defense projects of any magnitude. Most of these are in States and cities with adequate taxable property and income to maintain a well-balanced school program for these additional children of defense workers. In fact the President might decline to approve Federal aid for education legislation which included such provision. States such as California, Pennsylvania, and New York where many of these defense projects are located, have enough taxable income and property to maintain their school systems without Federal assistance. I understand the President is opposed to the policy of assisting such States.
I regret to disagree with Gov. Paul McNutt, Dr. Floyd W. Reeves, Dr. Howard Dawson, and other outstanding educators on this point, but it seems to me that it would be better in this instance to concur with the House bill already introduced which proposes appropriations to provide for these defense projects. Should the President fail to approve this bill (if passed during this session of Congress) because of this one provision, the main essentials of the Federal aid to education bill would not be affected.
At this time I believe we should concentrate in the simplest possible terms on giving relief and assistance to underpaid school teachers, to the construction of permanent school bulidings, and a 2 to 3 percent of the total appropriations to the various State education departments qualified to receive Federal aid, thus working toward a high and equitable national standard of training and compensation for all teachers and school administrators and our goal of equal educational opportunities for all the boys and girls of our country.
The foregoing is a statement of my own personal opinion and not that of the advisory committee or the active management of the Federal Education Legislative Agency, Inc.
The CHAIRMAN. Thank you, Mr. Scott.
There are two or three persons who merely wish to file statements for the record, who are probably waiting and want to leave. I have a note that Ralph D. Hetzel, Jr., wishes to file a statement for the C. I. 0.-is that true?
Mr. HETZEL. Yes.
STATEMENT OF RALPH D. HETZEL, JR., REPRESENTING CONGRESS
OF INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONS
Mr. HETZEL. I have here a statement from Philip Murray, the president of the C. I. O., in support of this bill, and I simply want to say, in introducing it, that you have heard expert testimony and therefore we don't seek to add to it. We simply seek to add what I think is the genuine expression of some four and a half million working people and their families, that this aid to the education of their children is essential and imperative at this time.
I will submit this statement of Mr. Murray.