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Table IV shows expenditures. We see that for organized research the Negro land-grant colleges spent 0 percent; for extension services separately organized, 0.5 percent; for libraries, 10.6 percent; for plant operation and maintenance, 17.1 percent; for administrative and general expense, 14.5 percent, and for resident instruction, 11.5 percent.

TABLE IV.- Expenditures, year ending June 30, 1940, for educational and general

purposes (omitting organized activities related to instructional departments)

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3. Obviously we are interested not alone in higher education, although that is vastly important because it is this area of educational preparation from which we may expect our leadership. The fact is that the situation is perhaps just as bad in the lower levels of instruction. The percentage high-school enrollment of the total enrollment in 18 States (which includes the District of Columbia) is 7.7 for Negroes, 19.6 for whites. The percentages range from 2.26 for Negroes and 18.77 for whites in Mississippi to 16.63 and 25.99 in the District of Columbia. These percentages tend to give a rather more optimistic impression than is warranted when one realizes that there is a considerable proportional discrepancy between their bases. In 1930 the percentage of Negro children ages 5 to 20 attending school was 60; the percentage of white children 5 to 20 was 71.5. For the ages 14 to 17 the discrepancy between the percentages is about 10. At ages 14 and 15, 78.1 percent of Negroes and 90.4 percent of whites are attending school; the percentages for years 16 and 17 are 46.3 and 58.9; for 18 and 20, 13.3 and 22.6. In 17 States and the District of Columbia in 1936 the percentages of high-school enrollment by grades to the totals of Negro and white enrollments respectively were: First year, 3.1 and 6.7; second year, 2.1 and 5.3; third year, 1.5 and 4.1, and fourth year, 1.0 and 3.4.

In 16 States "there are available proportionately fewer than onethird as many Negro high school teachers as there are white high school teachers.” Wilkerson finds that“425 counties with very limited secondary school facilities, 4 with none at all, were concentrated chiefly in States with large Negro populations, notably Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, Virginia, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Alabama.” In 17 States and the District of Columbia there are proportionately nearly three times as many white as Negro pupils in high schools. In Mississippi the disparity rises to the alarming proportion of nine white pupils to one Negro pupil. In the United States as a whole for every 100 pupils, age 14 to 17 inclusive, 60 are in high school; in 17 Southern States and the District of Columbia the ratio for white pupils of these ages is 55 whereas for Negro pupils it is 19.

It is my understanding that the problem with reference to elementary schools has already been presented and I have no desire to repeat the testimony here.

Citizens of African descent labor under marked disadvantages. They bear the stigma of previous condition of servitude; they are marked off by anthropological features which make them easily identified as objects of discrimination; they are discriminated against in the areas of employment, extending even to the defense program; and they are substantially isolated in most instances from the main streams of culture. It is, therefore, of manifold importance that the Federal Government leave no stone unturned to see that they are guaranteed equal opportunity to prepare for competition with other citizens in an essentially competitive society.

We believe that this bill is a move in the right direction and heartily endorse it.

The CHAIRMAN. Doctor, I can hardly refrain from making a remark in the presence of the three men who have been testifying, representing the blacks in America. Really and truly, the American Negro doesn't know what real racial, cultural prejudice is like.

I say that as a man who spent much of his lifetime among other peoples, and I know it. We can change probably the whole aspect of many of the phases by changed attitudes toward them.

I have lived among peoples. The one I am thinking about nowI happened to just watch him making a pot, and as soon as I left the doorway he came out with that pot, spit, of course, because there are certain peoples in the world who always spit when they are in close proximity to those whom they hate; and then threw the pot with all his might and main and broke it into hundreds of pieces, because I had looked at it.

With all the sympathy in the world that a man who knows what these are like, can have, and I know I am not preaching to the right people because all of you men have been students who are here and I am not preaching at all, but I do hope that you all realize that the best friends we have for this Federal aid to education bill are the men who represent the South pretty much on our committee; and in our committee we have never heard, in the 3 or 4 years that the bill has been before us, anything but the finest appreciation of the problem and an earnest and honest desire to help in every way possible.

I know you will forgive me for saying that; and thank you for coming.

Dr. Long. Senator, I would like to say that we certainly appreciate your attitude in this matter and we deeply appreciate the attitude of the men from the South who are interested in this program and see our point of view. I hope you will not for a moment think that

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because we have not mentioned them in these hearings we are not grateful for what they do; we appreciate your point of view and we appreciate their point of view. Nevertheless it is frequently very important for the facts to be known in order to stimulate the right attitude, and that is our only purpose.

The CHAIRMAN. Thank you, Doctor.
Mr. W. R. Ogg


FEDERATION, WASHINGTON, D. C. Mr. Ogg. My name is W. R. Ogg. I am in charge of the Was!ıington office of the American Farm Bureau Federation, which is a national organization of farmers supported by membership dues, with State farm bureaus in 39 States and Puerto Rico, representing approximately 1,500,000 farm people in its membership.

The CHAIRMAN. I have been asking each of the witnesses, if they have a statement that they can file, to please do so, since we are trying to get through this afternoon, and that will help us very much.

Mr. Ogg. I am glad you mentioned that, Senator, because I was just going to ask permission to file a statement for President O'Neal who was unable to be here today because of a hearing before the House Committee on Agriculture, on general farm legislation. We have quite a number of witnesses over there today in those hearings and it was impossible for him to get away. But I would, with your consent, like to file later a statement on behalf of President O'Neal and also a statement on behalf of Mrs. Mies, the president of the Associated Women of the American Farm Bureau Federation, which represents more than half a million rural farm women.

The CHAIRMAN. We will be glad to have both statements and we will ask that they be given to us as soon as possible.

Mr. Ogg. Thank you.

With respect to S. 1313, I might explain briefly for your information here today that we are in accord with the general objective and purpose of the bill to equalize educational opportunities between the States. If there is anything further that you can do to strengthen the language in the statement of policy, and the language with respect to the apportionment of money, so that there will be no doubt but that the money will be apportioned on the basis of financial need and the basis of educational need, we urge that this be done, because that is the primary thing to be kept in mind in a program of this sort.

Senator ELLENDER. Have you any specific suggestions you can make in that direction?

Mr. Ogg. Well, I don't know that I have at this time. I think the language is fairly good there but I hope the committee will study that and see if there is anything further that can be done to strengthen it. It does seem to me that it could be strengthened a little more.

Last year there was a formula in the bill but it was rather intricate and involved. If some equitable formula could be devised that could accomplish it, perhaps that would be desirable, but I haven't got anything to suggest at this time.

Senator ELLENDER. Those separate formulas are usually hard to draw, you know?


Mr. Ogg. Yes, but it does seem to me that anything you can do to safeguard further the apportionment of the money, would be highly desirable. It does seem to me that the language is pretty good there but I believe it could be further strengthened.

There is this further general comment. In respect to the apportionment of money, the primary emphasis should be upon the need in the rural areas. Now the defense needs are temporary in relation to the long time needs. The care of migrant children is a very minor problem compared to the total educational problem. The children on Federal reservations are a very, very minor problem in the total picture.

Therefore, those two things should not stand on the same footing as aid to rural areas for the support of elementary and secondary education. The big objective should be to provide funds that will equalize educational opportunity for elementary and secondary education as a permanent policy and program, and anything that this committee can do to assure that that will be given proper treatment and emphasis, I believe will be very constructive.

The CHAIRMAN. I think there is no doubt but what that is our aim, Mr. Ogg, so we will do our best.

Mr. Ogg. Thank you very much.
The CHAIRMAN. Thank you, Mr. Ogg.

(Mr. Ogg subsequently filed the following statements on behalf of Mr. O'Neal and Mrs. Mies:)


AMERICAN FARM BUREAU FEDERATION On behalf of the Associated Women of the American Farm Bureau Federation, representing more than one-half million farm women in 39 States who are members of this organization, I wish to endorse the objectives of S. 1313 to provide Federal grants-in-aid to the States on a basis that will equalize educational opportunity.

The greatest inequalities in educational opportunities exist in the rural areas. This is not because farm people do not want better school facilities, but because of the lack of sufficient tax resources to support adequate educational facilities. The fact is, farm people are making a greater sacrifice to maintain inadequate facilities than the urban areas, which enjoy far superior educational facilities.

In nearly every State the rural areas have to educate proportionately a far greater number of children than the urban areas, according to a study made by the Advisory Committee on Education, appointed by President Roosevelt, to study the educational problem in the United States, from which I quote:

“The farm people not only have a relatively large number of children to support and educate, but they must also carry that load on incomes which average much lower than those of city people. In 1930 the farm population was responsible for the care and education of 31 percent of the Nation's children, but farmers received only 9 percent of the national income. In the Southeastern region, the farm group had the care of approximately 4,250,000 children, age 5 to 17, with only 2 percent of the national income. At the other extreme, the nonfarm population of the Northeast, with approximately 8,500,000 children, age 5 to 17, had 42 percent of the national income-21 times as much income with which to educate only 2 times as many children.”—The Federal Government and Education, page 10.

The people living in the cities have a vital stake in improving the educational facilities in the rural areas, because of the fact that about 30 percent of the young people living on farms eventually move to the cities and towns. During the 10-year period ending in 1930, approximately 60 percent of all the people leaving the farms came from farms south of the Mason and Dixon line. It is vitally important to the welfare of the urban areas that the youth supplied from the farms to the cities receive proper education.

Under our present system of financial support of education a disproportionate share of the burden falls upon farm people. For example, Dr. O. E. Baker of the United States Department of Agriculture, has estimated that “the cost to the

farming people of feeding, clothing, and educating the more than 6,000,000 farm people, mostly youth, who left the farms during the decade before the depression and did not return, at least during that decade, may be estimated at approximately $14,000,000,000.”'

The only way these conditions can be corrected is to provide a system of Federal grants-in-aid to the States and then support our elementary and secondary education on a basis to the extent necessary to equalize educational opportunity.

Rural autonomy should be preserved to the States in formulating and carrying out their educational programs within the States.

In the proposed bill, S. 1313, we insist that every possible safeguard be provided to assure that Federal funds will be allocated to the States on a basis that will most effectively equalize educational opportunity. If an equitable formula to accomplish this cannot be written into the bill, we believe it is highly essential that the proposed Board which is to be set up to determine the basis for allotment of the funds should be given the greatest possible mandate from Congress to apportion the money on a basis that will equalize educational opportunity.

We believe also that primary emphasis should be given in any such legislation to grants-in-aid for the support of elementary and secondary education, as this is the primary task that needs to be done. Inasmuch as the greatest inequalities exist in the rural areas, we believe that agriculture should be properly represented on the proposed Board of Apportionment; and because of the close relationship between the farm home and the education and training of our children and youth, we recommend that a farm woman be included in the membership of this Board.



The gross inequalities of educational opportunity existing at the present time in the United States are shocking and disgraceful. Unless corrected, they constitute a serious menace to the economic program and to the maintenance of democracy. We are being handicapped seriously in the present national-defense program because of the lack of trained workers.

This is a problem of Nation-wide concern. Our Nation is founded upon the fundamental principle of equal opportunity for all. It is a tragic and intolerable situation which denies to millions of our children the opportunity to receive anything more than the minimum meager education and preparation for life merely because they happen to have been born in areas where economic resources are the lowest and the educational load is the greatest; while the children who happen to live in the areas where the educational load is the lightest and the revenues are the largest to enjoy the highest educational advantages.

On the whole, the greatest inequalities of educational opportunity exist in the rural areas. They have a much larger percentage of school children in proportion to the total population and, in general, they have the least financial resources with which to support the educational facilities.

The rural areas are not able to maintain adequate educational facilities out of available tax resources without undue hardship. Even though the facilities now available in rural areas are greatly inferior to those in the urban areas, farm people are making a far greater sacrifice to maintain educational facilities than the urban areas. On this point I wish to quote the following conclusion reached by the Advisory Committee on Education, appointed by President Roosevelt, which made an extensive study of the educational problem:

“Although the amounts actually spent vary a great deal, they do not differ as much as the ability to spend. In other words, the States best able to raise funds are in general making less-than-average effort to support education, while the States least able to raise funds are with few exceptions taxing themselves more heavily and spending more on education in proportion to their resources than more well-to-do States.

"It is to the credit of the States of low taxpaying ability that most of them rank near the top in the effort they make to provide funds for schools. Despite this effort, however, they rank at the bottom in the quality of schooling provided. Although the States having the least ability to support education tend to make the greatest effort in proportion to ability, even with such effort, they are unable to support education at anything like the level attained, with less-than-average effort, by the States more able financially."

A recent study of taxation made by the economics staff of Iowa State College at the request of the American Farm Bureau Federation, shows that agriculture


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