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important in the light of the demonstrated ruralness of most of the Negro school population in the Southern States.
Figure V showing illiteracy percentages for the Negro and for all classes of the population indicates another criterion for the progress of Negro education. Beginning with an overwhelming percentage of illiterates, the Negro race has decreased the proportion until in 1930 the Negro percentage is only 12 percent greater than that of all classes.
3. SECONDARY EDUCATION High-school enrollment of a people is not only influenced by their economic status, but also by their social and intellectual development and their general cultural level. Enrollment of Negro pupils in high schools is perhaps one of the best criteria by which to measure the general progress of the race since emancipation. The popularization of secondary education among them has been a subject of favorable comment by everyone who has studied the question.
Figure VI shows the increase in high-school enrollment since 1917–18. In table 4 are shown the trends in high-school enrollment for white and colored pupils since 1892. The rate of increase for white was greater than that for TABLE 4.—Enrollments of colored and white pupils in secondary schools and
percentage of increase in enrollment by specified periods, 1892–1930 1
35, 731 63, 405 98, 705 132, 329 167, 515 Percent increase each
enrollment is of preceding enrollment..
107.4 50.5 118.6 29.3 77.4 55. 6. 34.0 26.5 White:
Enrollment.. 235, 509 510, 856 902, 425 1, 829, 524 2, 193, 6762, 950, 498 3,642, 368 4,080, 984 5, 044, 664 Percent increase each
enrollment is of pre-
1 Source: U. S. Department of the Interior, Office of Education. Bulletin, 1932, No. 17. Secondary Education for Negroes.
? Percent of increase from 1920 to 1930 is colored, 506.2; white, 175.7.
Table 5.—Negro high school enrollment, numbers of graduates, and percentages
graduates are of high-school enrollment, 1930 (statistical schools)
9.1 5.9 8.3 5. 1 6.4 7.3 10.6 8.8 7.0 5.2 8.7 10.7 9.9 9.8 10.6 10.1 8. 5 7.3
105, 406 1, 285, 669
9, 105 147. 820
Source: Secondary Education for Negroes.
colored during the first two periods from 1892 to 1910; but beginning with 1920 and for each biennial period thereafter, the rate of increase of colored enrollment was far in excess of that for whites. Particular attention is directed to the rapid increase for Negroes since 1920. It is of particular significance to note that the percentage of increase of the enrollment of Negro pupils in 1930 over 1920 was 506.2 as compared with 175.7 for white pupils over the same period. This disproportion of increase in high-school enrollment between the two races may be a reflection of the improvement of Negro high-school facilities since 1920.
FIGURE VI.-Percentage of total Negro school enrollment in high school, 1917-18 to 1931-32.
4. NEGROES CONTINUING EDUCATION
The numbers and percentages of high-school graduates in 1929 who were reported as continuing their education in 1930 are given in table 6. In the fourth column will be seen the number of boys and girls combined who are continuing their education in college or some other institution and the percentage this number is of the 1929 graduates for each State. The small percentage for Alabama is probably an error. It is believed that many principals in that State failed to answer this particular question. The other columns in the table analyze the total situation found in column 4. It becomes obvious that the power to stimulate Negro high-school graduates to continue their education is very pronounced and that the highly selected group which are graduated from high school easily become convinced to go further in educational lines.
TABLE 6.-Number and percentage of Negro high-school graduates of 1929, by sex,
who were continuing their education in 1930 in 17 Southern States and the District of Columbia
Women North Carolina:
Women South Carolina:
4. 6 19. 1
Eighty-three institutions of higher learning for Negroes reported in 1931–32 to the Office of Education. These institutions had a total enrollment in the regular session of 30,499 students. Of this number, 7,285, or 23.9 percent, were classified as preparatory. Men constituted 13,685, or 44.8 percent, of the total enrollment. Sixty of the 83 institutions were 4-year colleges. Sixty percent of the students in 4-year colleges were in private 4-year colleges of which there were 39; in the 18 publicly controlled institutions, 39.9 percent of the total 4-year college enrollment was found.
5. EXPENDITURES FOR HIGHER EDUCATION
In order to get some sort of comparison of the expenditures for higher education in Negro and in white colleges, it was necessary to take for comparison colleges which had a certain common denominator. For instance, there would be no point in choosing even the largest 10 Negro colleges and the largest white colleges and attempting to compare their endowments, receipts, and expenditures. The nearest identical type of college maintained separately for Negroes and whites is
FIGURE VII.-Percentage increase in collegiate enrollment of Negro men and women biennially from 1919-20
to 1931-32 over 1917-18.
the land-grant college, established out of Federal funds even before the Civil War as a result of the Morrill Act. Each year the Federal Government allots to each land-grant college $50,000.
To ascertain how much is spent and received each year for the Negro and the white land-grant colleges, the 17 Negro colleges which exist are compared with the white land-grant colleges which exist in the same States, in table 7. The figures listed for “educational and eneral receints' include student fees income TABLE 7.—Receipts and expenditures for each student of college grade in 17 Negro
land-grant colleges and 17 white land-grant colleges in the same States, 1932–33
White. North Carolina:
Source: Computed from data in Statistics of Higher Education, 1933–34.
from endowment, receipts from public sources for current expenses, private gifts and grants, sales and services, and other receipts for educational purposes. These figures do not include auxiliary enterprises and activities, noneducational receipts, extension of physical plant, or increase of permanent funds. Likewise, the expenditures which are listed include administration and general control, resident instruction and nonbudgeted research, organized research, libraries, extension, and operation and maintenance of physical plant. Not included in the expenditures are auxiliary enterprises, noneducational expenditures, and capital outlays.
Unfortunately, the comparison is not very favorable. Both the receipts and the expenditures for the white land-grant colleges are almost double those of the Negro, even though the Office of Education defines the aim of the land-grant college “to serve equally the people in every part of the State in which it is located."