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States with a greater concentration of Negroes than 1 in 4. There are 5 States in which 1 person in 3 is a Negro and 1 State where every other person is a Negro.

However, that these proportions, too, are changing becomes evident from figure X, showing the net changes in Negro population as a result of migration. The white population traditionally migrates toward the West, but the Negroes have preferred the advice of John Brown to that of Horace Greeley. The heavily

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Carter Goodrich. Migration and
Economic Opportunity.

Source:
FIGURE X.-Regional Negro migration--Net change in Negro population, 1920–30.
Numbers in thousands; no number indicated
if net change is less than one thousand.

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populated Negro areas of the South are all shown to have lost in the movement of Negro population the northern industrial States have definitely gained. This migration has been going on ever since before the Civil War. It represents a definite and constant population flow. One who is contemplating a long-term policy, such as Federal aid to education, might well consider this phenomenon in answering arguments on the basis of State control.

Expenditures for Negro and white schools, 1931-32

Cost per pupil in dollars

1
40

60

20

80

100

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State

Negro

White

Md. •

57.81

83.50

Okla.

46.01

56.08

N. C.

18.08

41.12

Fla..

17.33

48.71

La...

12.86

62.21

12.69

32.50

Ala..

10.72

40.90

9.50

41.02

S. C.

8.08

53.81

Total

15.41

49.30

Source: Bloso, David T., and caliver, Ambrose. Statistics of the Education of Negroes 1929-30 and 193132 U. S. Dept. of the Interior, office of Education, Bulletin, 1935, No. 13. Wash ington, D. C.: Govermont Printing office, 1936. p. 16. Comment in text of bulletin: "Because of the fact that many of tho States maintaining, separate schools for the colored and white races do not segregate the financial statistics by race, considerable difficulty is experienced in obtaining facts relating to the expenditures for schools for Negroes."

Table 12.-Differences in cost of education for rural white pupils and all Negro pupils

(Based on annual reports of State superintendents of education!

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No information available in any form on differential expenditures for the States of Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, Texas, West Virginia, and Georgia.

· This figure is an approximation based upon the fact that 83 percent of the white school-age population in Arkansas is rural and that the per pupil expenditure for both urban and rural was $28. Salaries consti. tute about 75 percent of the current expense; rural salaries are only 60 percent as great as urban.

• The figure for all white school children was $10.72. The figure $35 is an approximation based upon the fact that 50 percent of the white school-age population in Florida is rural.

3 Not ascertainable.

4 This figure is also an approximation, based upon the fact that the expenditure per urban and rural pupil (white) in the State is $55.78. But 63 percent of the white school-age population is rural.

5 The Maryland figures were reported on the basis of the average number belonging and for elementary and secondary schools separately. The figures have been combined and adjusted for average daily attendance.

6 Computed by dividing the current expense for county white schools by average daily attendance of county white schools, and current expense for all Negro schools by average daily attendance of all Negro schools.

7 This figure is an approximation based upon the fact that current expenses per every white school child was $42.25; but 79 percent of the white school-age population is rural.

* The State superintendent reported current expense per capita enrolled. Number adjusted for average attendance.

9. RELATIVE ECONOMIC ABILITY OF THE SOUTHERN STATES TO SUPPORT EDUCATION

In table 13 an effort has been made to show the ability of the Southern States relative to the rest of the Nation and relative to each other to support education. The measures of ability to support which were used are the State wealth per pupil enrolled in 1933–34 (these are the latest wealth figures available), the income per pupil enrolled in public elementary and secondary schools in 1935 (these are the latest income figures available); and tax resources which might be

Table 13.- Ability of the Southern States to support education

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53, 141
44, 587
13, 779

29, 100
24, 100
93, 600

Alabama
Arkansas
Delaware.
District of Columbia
Florida..
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana.
Maryland
Mississippi.
Missouri
North Carolina
Oklahoma
South Carolina
Tennessee.
Texas
Virginia
West Virginia
United States Average

3, 620.06
4, 456. 69
10, 764. 34
14, 084, 58
5, 075. 17
4, 012. 46
4, 603. 79
5, 818, 11
10, 694. 40

2. 818. 57 10, 908. 05 4,037. 33 4, 973. 79 3, 897. 15 5, 113. 50 5, 880. 54 6, 604. 16 8, 490. 45 9, 355. 31

791. 65

787. 64 3, 275. 40 5, 751. 09 1, 474. 99 1, 026, 00 1, 085. 81 1, 365. 99 2, 646. 25

562. 46
2, 043. 47

970. 99
987. 76

864. 17
1, 002. 73
1, 406. 24
1, 358. 02
1, 128. 52
2, 087. 49

54, 410 72, 175 65, 501 61, 188 82, 581 37, 444 192, 588 83, 542 77, 848 41, 182 79, 220 205, 073 93, 195 92, 614 132, 104

42, 900 35, 000 42, 100 30, 800 70, 300 20, 000 127, 000 51, 600 57, 400 18,000 51, 300 139, 600 52, 300 50, 100 101, 637

Sources: Columns 2, 4, 5 from National Education Association, Research Division. Financing Public Education. Research Bulletin 15: -; January 1937.

Column 3: Income figures from National Industrial Conference Board; school-enrollment figures from Office of Education, unpublished data.

realized if all States should adopt a uniform system of taxation, according to two measures, that of Chism and that of Newcomer. (Since all of the six factors used to determine the latter are not identical with both authors, both of their estimates are used.)

In table 14 the States are ranked according to their position among all 48 States of the Union and the District of Columbia (except for tax resources where the 14.-Standing of the S hern States in relation to all the States on ability to

support education

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District of Columbia is not included). It is evident that the Southern States fall in the fourth quartile rather consistently. Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, and Missouri are higher than the others, but it is significant to note that these are the very States which Odum insists cannot be called southern, even though the Bureau of Census so classifies them, on account of the difference in industrial and cultural life. For the “real” Southern States, there is an obvious need for outside aid.

If the Southern States are separated from the rest of the 48 States and are ranked among themselves for ability to support education on all four factors used (table 15), it is possible to decide which of the Southern States, although

TABLE 15.-Standing of the Southern States in relation to each other in ability to

support education

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Number of times in fourth quar

tile

Standing of the Southern States. in Relation to All States on Ability to Support Education

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Four factors estimated:

(1) Rank of state on wealth per pupil enrolled, 1933-34.
(2) Rank of state on income per pupil enrolled, 1935-36.
(3) Rank of state on tax resources from uniform system (Chiam), 1931-32.
(4) Rank of state on tax resources from unifom system (Newcomer), 1930.

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